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Radovan Karadžić ( , ; born ) is a former Bosnian Serb politician. He is currently on trial in the United Nations Detention Unit of Scheveningen accused of war crimes committed against Bosnian Muslims, Bosnian Croats, and other non-Serbs during the Siege of Sarajevomarker. He is also accused of the Srebrenica genocide.

Educated as a psychiatrist, he co-founded the Serbian Democratic Party in Bosnia and Herzegovina and was the first President of Republika Srpska from 1992 to 1996.

He was a fugitive from 1996 until July 2008 after having been indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslaviamarker (ICTY). The indictment concluded there were reasonable grounds for believing he committed war crimes including genocide, against Bosnian Muslim and Bosnian Croat civilians during the Bosnian War (1992–1995). While a fugitive he worked at a private clinic in Belgrademarker specialising in alternative medicine and psychology under the alias Dr. Dragan David Dabić ( ) under the company name of “Human Quantum Energy”. His nephew, Dragan Karadžić, has claimed in an interview to the Corriere della Sera that Radovan Karadžić attended football matches of Serie A and that he visited Venicemarker under the false identity of Petar Glumac.

He was arrested in Belgrade on 21 July, 2008 and brought before Belgrademarker’s War Crimes Court a few days later. He was extradited to the Netherlands, and is currently in The Haguemarker, in the custody of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslaviamarker. His charismatic personality was recognized by reporters in the court.

Early life

Radovan Karadžić was born in Petnjicamarker near Šavnikmarker, SR Montenegro, SFR Yugoslaviamarker (SFRY) to a family hailing from the Drobnjaci Serb Clan. His father, Vuko had been a member of the Chetniks — the army of the Kingdom of Yugoslaviamarker's government in exile during World War II. His father was imprisoned by the post-war Communist regime for much of his son's childhood. Karadžić moved to Sarajevomarker, Yugoslavia in 1960 to pursue his studies in psychiatry at the Sarajevo University School of Medicine. He studied neurotic disorders and depression at Næstvedmarker Hospital in Denmark in 1970, and during 1974 and 1975 he spent a year pursuing further medical training at Columbia University in New York. After his return to Yugoslavia, he worked in the Koševo Hospital. He also became a poet and fell under the influence of the Serbianmarker writer Dobrica Ćosić, who encouraged him to go into politics. Karadžić flirted with Bosnia's Green Party. During his spell as an ecologist, he declared that "Bolshevism is bad, but nationalism is even worse."

Financial crimes

Soon after graduation, Karadžić started working in a treatment centre at the psychiatric clinic of the main Sarajevo hospital, Koševo. According to testimony, he often supplemented his income by issuing fake medical and psychological evaluations to healthcare workers who wanted early retirement or to criminals who tried to avoid punishment by pleading insanity. In 1983, Karadžić started working at a hospital in the Belgrademarker suburb of Voždovacmarker. With his partner Momčilo Krajišnik, then manager of a mining enterprise Energoinvest, he managed to get a loan from an agricultural-development fund and they used it to build themselves houses in Palemarker, a Serb-populated village above Sarajevo turned into a ski resort by the Communist establishment.

On 1 November 1984 the two were arrested for fraud and spent 11 months in detention before their friend Nikola Koljević managed to bail them out. For lack of evidence, Karadžić was released and his trial was brought to a halt. The trial was revived and on 26 September 1985 Karadžić was sentenced to three years in prison for embezzlement and fraud. As he had already spent over a year in detention, Karadžić never had to serve this sentence.

Political life

Following encouragement from Dobrica Ćosić, later the first president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslaviamarker, and Jovan Rašković, the Croatian Serb leader, he co-founded the Serbian Democratic Party ( ) in Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker in 1989. This aimed at gathering the Republic's Bosnian Serb community and joining Croatian Serbs in leading them in staying part of Yugoslavia in the event of secession by those two republics from the federation.

A separate Serb Assembly was founded on 24 October 1991, in order to exclusively represent the Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The leading Serb political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina, led by Radovan Karadžić, organized the creation of "Serb autonomous provinces" (SAOs) within Bosnia and the establishment of an assembly to represent them. In November 1991, the Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of staying in a federal state with Serbia and Montenegro, as part of Yugoslavia. On 9 January 1992, the Bosnian Serb Assembly proclaimed the Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Република српског народа Босне и Херцеговине / Republika srpskog naroda Bosne i Hercegovine). On 28 February 1992, the constitution of the Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted and declared that the state's territory included Serb autonomous regions, municipalities, and other Serbian ethnic entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it was declared to be a part of the federal Yugoslav state.

On 29 February and 1 March 1992 a referendum on the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina from Yugoslavia was held. Many Serbs boycotted the referendum while Bosniaks and Croats and pro-secession Serbs turned out, and 64% of eligible voters voted 98% in favor of independence.

President of Republika Srpska

On 6 April 1992, Bosnia was recognized by the UN as an independent state. Karadžić declared the independent Serbian Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, renamed Republika Srpska a few months later. Karadžić was voted President of this Bosnian Serb administration in Palemarker on about 13 May 1992 after the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslaviamarker. At the time he assumed this position, his de jure powers, as described in the constitution of the Bosnian Serb administration, included commanding the army of the Bosnian Serb administration in times of war and peace, and having the authority to appoint, promote and discharge officers of the army.

Karadžić made three trips to the UN in New York in February and March 1993 for negotiations on the future of Bosnia. He also went to Moscow in 1994 for meetings with Russian officials on the Bosnian situation.

On Friday, 4 August 1995, with a massive Croatian military force poised to attack the Serb-held Krajina region in central Croatia, Karadžić announced he was removing General Ratko Mladić from his commandant post and assuming personal command of the VRS himself. Karadžić blamed Mladić for the loss of two key Serb towns in western Bosnia that had recently fallen to the Croats, and he used the loss of the towns as the excuse to announce his surprise command structure changes. General Mladić was demoted to an "adviser." Mladić refused to go quietly, claiming the support of both the Bosnian Serb military as well as the people. Karadžić countered by attempting to pull political rank as well as denouncing Mladić as a "madman," but Mladić's obvious popular support forced Karadžić to rescind his order on 11 August.

War crimes charges

Karadžić is accused by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) of personal and command responsibility for numerous war crimes committed against non-Serbs, in his roles as Supreme Commander of the Bosnian Serb armed forces and President of the National Security Council of the Republika Srpska. He is accused by the same authority of being responsible for the deaths of more than 7500 Muslims. Under his direction and command, Bosnian Serb forces initiated the Siege of Sarajevomarker. Tens of thousands of non-Serbs were killed, hundreds of thousands were driven from their homes and thousands more were imprisoned in concentration camps where many died. He is accused by the ICTY of ordering the Srebrenica massacre in 1995, directing Bosnian Serb forces to "create an unbearable situation of total insecurity with no hope of further survival of life" in the UN safe area. In addition, he is accused by the ICTY of ordering that United Nations personnel be taken hostage in May-June 1995.

He was jointly indicted by the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslaviamarker in 1995, along with General Ratko Mladić. The indictment charges Karadžić on the basis of his individual criminal responsibility (Article 7(1) of the Statute) and superior criminal responsibility (Article 7(3) of the Statute) with:
  • Five counts of crimes against humanity (Article 5 of the Statute - extermination, murder, persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds, persecutions, inhumane acts (forcible transfer));
  • Three counts of violations of the laws of war (Article 3 of the Statute - murder, unlawfully inflicting terror upon civilians, taking hostages);
  • One count of grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions (Article 2 of the Statute - willful killing).
  • Unlawful transfer of civilians because of religious or national identity.


The United States government offered a $5 million reward for his and Ratko Mladić's arrests.

Fugitive

Radovan Karadžić in January, 2008, appearing at a medical conference in Belgrade under the alias Dr. Dragan David Dabić, bearded and with his hair in a pony tail.
Authorities missed arresting Karadžić in 1995, when he was an invitee of the United Nations. During his visit to the United Nations in 1993, he was handed a service of process for a civil claim under the Alien Tort Act. The Courts ruled that Karadžić was properly served and the trial was allowed to proceed in United States District Court.

Some sources allege that he received protection from the United States as a consequence of the Dayton Agreement. Holbrooke however has repeatedly denied that such a deal was ever made.

His supporters say he is no more guilty than any other war-time political leader. His ability to evade capture for over a decade made him a local hero among the Bosnian Serbs, despite an alleged deal with Richard Holbrooke. During his time as fugitive he was helped by several people, including former CIA operative Bosko Radonjich and in 2001, hundreds of supporters demonstrated in support of Karadžić in his home town. In March 2003, his mother Jovanka publicly urged him to surrender. British officials conceded military action was unlikely to be successful in bringing Karadžić and other suspects to trial, and that putting political pressure on Balkan governments would be more likely to succeed.

In May 2004 the UN learned that: "the brother of a war crimes suspect allegedly in the process of providing information on Radovan Karadzic and his network to the ICTY, was mistakenly killed in a raid by the Republika Srpska police." and added that "It is being argued that the informer was targeted in order to silence him before he was able to say more."

In 2005, Bosnian Serb leaders called on Karadžić to surrender, stating that Bosnia and Serbia could not move ahead economically or politically while he remained at large. After a failed raid earlier in May, on 7 July 2005 NATOmarker troops arrested Karadžić's son, Aleksandar (Saša) Karadžić but released him after 10 days. On 28 July, Karadžić's wife, Ljiljana Zelen Karadžić, made a call for him to surrender after, in her words, "enormous pressure" had been put onto her.

The BBC reported that Radovan Karadžić had been sighted in 2005 near Fočamarker: "38 km (24 miles) down the road, on the edge of the Sutjeska national park, Radovan Karadžić has just got out of a red Mercedes" and asserted that "Western intelligence agencies knew roughly where they were, but that there was no political will in London or Washington to risk the lives of British, or US agents, in a bid to seize" him and Mladić.

On 10 January 2008, the BBC reported that the passports of his closest relatives had been seized. On 21 February 2008, at the time Kosovomarker declared independence, portraits of Radovan Karadžić were on display during Belgrademarker’s "Kosovo is Serbia protest".

Karadžić gave lectures in front of hundreds of people on alternative medicine. He even had his own website, where he offered his assistance in the treatment of sexual problems and disorders by using what he called Human Quantum Energy. He also used the site for the sale of metallic bullet-shaped amulets. He advertised himself as one of the most prominent experts in the field of alternative medicine, bioenergy, and macrobiotic diet. Karadžić had been masquerading as an expert in "human quantum energy" using the fake name "D.D. David" printed on his business card. The initials apparently stood for Dragan David Dabić, the name officials said he went by.

Capture evasion in Austria

There have been reports that Radovan Karadžić evaded capture in May 2007 in Viennamarker, Austria where he lived under the name Petar Glumac posing as a Croatian seller of herbal solutions and ointments. Austrian police talked to him during the raid regarding an unrelated homicide case in the area where Karadžić lived but failed to recognize his real identity. He had a Croatian passport under the name Petar Glumac and claimed to be in Vienna for training. The police did not ask any further questions nor demanded to fingerprint him as he appeared calm and readily answered questions. Nevertheless, this claim has come into doubt ever since a man named Petar Glumac, an alternative medical practitioner from Novo Selo, Serbia, claims to have been the person the police talked with in Vienna. Glumac bears a striking resemblance to Karadžić's identity as Dragan Dabić. On the other hand his nephew, Dragan Karadžić, has claimed in an interview to the Corriere della Sera that Radovan Karadžić attended football matches of Serie A and that he visited Venicemarker under the false identity of Petar Glumac.

Arrest and trial

The arrest of Radovan Karadžić took place on 21 July 2008 in Belgrademarker. He was hiding posing as the doctor of alternative medicine mostly in Belgrademarker but also in Viennamarker, Austria. The reward money for his arrest was allegedly never claimed, however it is rumored that Karadzic was arrested by locals who came to find out his identity and simply claimed the cash. This would explain how the Serbian government claims that its police (MUP) had nothing to do with the arrest. Karadžić was transferred into the ICTY custody in the Hague on 30 July. Karadzic appeared before Judge Alphons Orie on 31 July, in the tribunal, which has sentenced 56 accused since 1993. During the first hearing Radovan Karadžić expressed a fear for his life by saying: "If Holbrooke wants my death and regrets there is no death sentence at this court, I want to know if his arm is long enough to reach me here." and stated that the deal he made with Richard Holbrooke is the reason why it took 13 years for him to appear in front of the ICTY. He also made similar accusations against the former US Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright. Muhamed Sacirbey, Bosnian foreign minister at the time, claimed the existence of the Karadžić-Holbrooke deal that was made in July 1996.

He claimed there is a conspiracy against him and refused to enter a plea, therefore the court entered a plea of not guilty on his behalf to all 11 charges. He called the tribunal, chaired by Scottish judge Iain Bonomy, a “court of NATO” disguised as a court of the international community. On October 13, the BBC reported that Karadžić's plea to be granted immunity from his charges was denied. However, the start of his trial was moved to October 26 so he could prepare a defense.

The trial of former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic was suspended after 15 minutes after he carried out his threat to boycott the start of the hearing. Judge O-Gon Kwon said that in the absence of Karadzic, who was defending himself, or any lawyer representing him, he was suspending the case until Tuesday afternoon, when the prosecution would begin its opening statement.

On 5 November 2009, the court forcibly imposed a lawyer on him, and postponed his trial until 1 March 2010.

Poetry

Radovan Karadžić has published poetry. Several of his books of poems were published while he was in hiding.
  • 1990: Crna bajka (Svjetlost, Sarajevo)
  • 1992: Rat u Bosni: kako je počelo
  • 1994: Ima čuda, nema čuda
  • 2001: Od Ludog koplja do Crne bajke (Dobrica knjiga, Novi Sad)
  • 2004: Čudesna hronika noći (IGAM, Belgrade)
  • 2005: Pod levu sisu veka (Književna zajednica "Veljko Vidaković", Niš)


Quotes

"You want to take Bosnia and Herzegovina down the same highway to hell and suffering that Sloveniamarker and Croatiamarker are travelling. Do not think that you will not lead Bosnia and Herzegovina into hell, and do not think that you will not perhaps lead the Muslim people into annihilation, because the Muslims cannot defend themselves if there is war - How will you prevent everyone from being killed in Bosnia and Herzegovina?"
—Radovan Karadžić speaking at the Bosnian parliament, on the night of 14-15 October 1991, in a charged atmosphere in a debate whether to declare the republic "sovereign", which would mean that republic's laws would take precedence over Yugoslav ones.


Awards and medals

  • Literary award Jovan Dučić for poetry, 1969
  • Literary award Michail Sholokhov in 1994, by the Union of Russian Writers.
  • Ordain of the Republika Srpska, 1994


See also



References

  1. Mio zio Karadzic in Italia: allo stadio per tifare Inter
  2. See also:
  3. Kadić v. Karadžić, 70 F.3d 232 (2d Cir. 1995)
  4. http://www.unhcr.ba/publications/B&HRET0105.pdf
  5. See also:
  6. Photos at and
  7. See also: and
  8. gmanews.tv/story, Karadzic being held in same jail as Milosevic was
  9. bloomberg.com, Karadzic to Face Hague War Crimes Tribunal Tomorrow
  10. Karadzic appears at U.N. court
  11. Holbrooke promised no ICTY trial: Karadzic
  12. US wants me dead: Karadzic
  13. Karadzic-Holbrooke deal confirmed
  14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7587623.stm
  15. cctv.com/english, UN tribunal enters plea for Karadzic
  16. www.nytimes.com, Karadzic Declines to Plead at War Crimes Court
  17. Karadzic immunity appeal rejected
  18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/8344851.stm
  19. See also:


External links





Poetry and alternative medicinehttp://www.karadzic-odbrana.com/


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