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Flinders Street Station today


The Melbourne rail network is operated by Metro Trains Melbourne under franchise from the Government of Victoria. The network is based on a commuter rail model centred on the Melbourne Central Business Districtmarker (CBD) and Flinders Street Stationmarker, rather than a rapid transit model, with a focus on services at peak periods. Melbourne's suburban railway network consists of 16 electrified lines, the central City Loop subway, and 200 stations, with a total length of 372 km of electrified lines. The suburban network operates between 5.00 am and midnight. The network is primarily at ground level, with a number of level crossings, and tracks shared with freight trains and V/Line regional services.

In the 2006-2007 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 201.2 million passenger trips, the highest in its history.

History

Melbournemarker's first railway line opened in 1854, when only 20 years earlier Melbourne itself did not exist. The network was extended with lines being built to the suburbs, reaching a peak by the 1900s. Electrification of the system commenced from 1919, with electric multiple unit operation commencing at the same time.

In 1839 the Government Surveyor Robert Hoddle provided for a railway linking Melbournemarker and Hobsons Bay.

On 7 September 1851 a public meeting called for a railway linking Melbourne to Port Melbournemarker (then called Sandridge) which led to the establishment on 20 January 1853 of the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company. On 8 February 1853 the Government also approved the establishment of the Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company and the Melbourne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Company.

In 1855 the Government conducted enquiries and carried out surveys into country railways. On 1 April 1856, the Railway Department was established as part of the Board of Land and Works with George Christian Darbyshire being appointed Engineer in Chief. On 23 May of that year the Melbourne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Company was taken over by the Government.

The first train

Work began on laying the first railway in Victoria on March 1853, the line stretching 4 km. from the Melbourne (or City) Terminus (on the site of modern day Flinders Street Stationmarker) to Sandridge (now Port Melbournemarker). As with many of Australia's early railways, it was owned and operated by a private company - the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company, which was formed in 1853.

Trains were ordered from Robert Stephenson and Company of the United Kingdommarker. The first train was locally built by Robertson, Martin and Smith, however, owing to delays in shipping. Australia's first steam locomotive was built in ten weeks and cost £2,700. Forming the first steam train to travel in Australia, it made its maiden voyage on 12 September 1854.

The opening of the line occurred during the period of the Victorian gold rush - a time when both Melbourne and Victoria undertook massive capital works, each with its own gala opening. The inaugural journey on the Sandridge line was no exception. According to the Argus newspaper's report of the next day: "Long before the hour appointed ... a great crowd assembled round the station at the Melbourne terminus, lining the whole of Flinders Street". Lieutenant-Governor Sir Charles Hotham and Lady Hotham were aboard the train - which consisted of two first class carriages and one second class - and were presented with satin copies of the railway's timetable and bylaws.

The trip took 10 minutes, none of the later stations along the line having been built yet. On arriving at Station Pier (onto which the tracks extended), it was hailed with gun-salutes by the warships HMS Electra and HMS Fantome.

By March 1855, the four engines ordered from the UK were all in service, with trains running every half-hour. They were named Melbourne, Sandridge, Victoria, and Yarra (after the Yarra Rivermarker over which the line crossed).

Early privateers



Melbourne's second railway line opened 13 May 1857, when the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company opened their 4.5 km line from the Melbourne (or City) Terminus (on the site of modern day Flinders Street Stationmarker) to St Kildamarker. This line was later extended by the St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company, which opened a line from St Kilda to Brighton in 1857.

Country lines were also built in 1857, with the Geelong and Melbourne Railway Company opening a line from Geelongmarker to Newportmarker. In 1859 the Williamstown railway line opened, connecting Williamstown and Geelong to Spencer Street Stationmarker.

More country lines followed in 1859 when Victorian Railways opened a line from the Williamstown line at Footscray, to Sunbury, taking over from the Melbourne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Company that was established in 1853 to build a railway to Echucamarker, but failed to make any progress.

The first line to Melbourne's south-eastern suburbs was opened in 1859 by the Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company, which ran from Princes Bridge railway station to Punt Roadmarker (Richmond), South Yarra, and Prahran. This line was extended to Windsormarker in 1860, connecting with the St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company line from St Kilda. The new line replaced the indirect St Kilda and Windsor line to the city, which was closed in 1867.

Another suburban line was built by the Melbourne and Essendon Railway Company in 1860, with their line running from North Melbournemarker to Essendonmarker, with a branch line from Newmarketmarker to Flemington Racecourse opening in 1861. On the eastern side of town, the Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company opened a branch line from Richmond to Burnleymarker and Hawthorn in 1861.

By this point, the railways of Melbourne was a disjointed group of city centric lines, with various companies operating from three separate city terminals - Princes Bridge, Flinders Streetmarker, and Spencer Streetmarker stations.

Some of the smaller companies were encountered financial problems. The St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company and Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company were absorbed by the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Company in 1865, forming the Melbourne and Hobsons Bay United Railway Company. The Melbourne and Essendon Railway Company was taken over by the Victorian Government in 1867. The Melbourne and Hobsons Bay United Railway Company was not taken over by the Victorian Government until 1878.

The terminals themselves were linked in 1879, when track was built along the southern side of Flinders Street at street level to connect with Spencer Street Stationmarker, although this was only used for freight traffic at night. It was not until 1889 that the two track Flinders Street Viaduct was built between the two city terminus stations.

Outwards expansion also continued, with major trunk lines being opened into rural Victoria. Victorian Railways extended their line to Broadmeadowsmarker in 1872 as part of the line to Seymourmarker and Alburymarker-Wodongamarker. In 1879 the Gippsland line was opened from South Yarra to Caulfield, Pakenham and Bairnsdalemarker.

Land boom lines



The 1870s and 1880s were a time of great growth and prosperity in Melbourne. Land speculation companies were formed, to buy up outer suburban land cheaply, and to agitate for suburban railways to be built or extended to serve these land holdings and increase land values. By 1880 the "Land Boom" was in full swing in Victoria, with the passing of the Railway Construction Act 1884, later known as the Octopus Act for the 66 lines across the state that were authorised in it.

New suburban railways were opened, the Frankston line begun with the opening of a line from Caulfield to Mordialloc in 1881, reaching the terminus in 1882. A second new suburban railway line was opened from Spencer Street Station to Coburg in 1884, and extended to Somertonmarker in 1889, meeting the main line from Spencer Street to Wodonga. Land developers opened a private railway from Newport to Altonamarker in 1888, but it was closed in 1890, due to lack of demand.

The line from Hawthorn was extended, to Camberwellmarker in 1882, Lilydalemarker in 1883, and Healesville in 1889. In addition, a branch line (now known as the Belgrave line) was opened from Ringwoodmarker to Upper Ferntree Gullymarker in 1889. A short branch two station was also opened from Hawthorn to Kew in 1887. The Brighton Beach line was also extended to Sandringham in 1887.

In 1888, railways came to the north eastern suburbs with the opening of the Inner Circle line from Spencer Street Stationmarker via Royal Park station to what is now Victoria Park station, and then on to Heidelberg. A branch was also opened off the Inner Circle in Fitzroy Northmarker, to Epping and Whittlesea in 1888 and 1889. Trains between Spencer Street and Heidelberg reversed at Victoria Park until a link was opened between Victoria Park and Princes Bridge in 1901.

The Outer Circle line opened in 1890, linking Oakleigh (on the Gippsland line) to Riversdalemarker (with a branch to Camberwell on the Lilydale line) and Fairfieldmarker (on the Heidelberg line). Originally envisigaed to link the Gippsland line with Spencer Street Stationmarker in the 1870s, this reason disappeared with the building of a direct link via South Yarra before the line had even opened. The line saw little traffic as it traversed empty paddocks, and with no though traffic, the Outer Circle was closed in sections between 1893 and 1897. The Camberwell to Ashburtonmarker stretch of the Outer Circle re-opened as the Ashburton line in 1899, and in 1900, part of the northern section of the Outer Circle reopened as a shuttle service between East Camberwellmarker and Deepdene station. This line closed in 1927.

At the same time as the Outer Circle, a railway was opened from Burnley to Darlingmarker and a junction with the Outer Circle at Waverley Road (near the modern East Malvernmarker). A stub of the future Glen Waverley line, it was cut back to Darling in 1895.

The land boom railway building hit a peak with the construction of the Rosstown Railway between Elsternwick and Oakleigh. Built by William Murry Ross, the line was planned from the 1870s to serve a sugar beet mill near Caufield. Construction commenced in 1883, followed by rebuilding in 1888. Ross's debt grew, and he attempted to sell the line many times without success. The line never opened to traffic and was later dismantled.

The stock market crash of 1891 lead to an extended period of economic depression, and put an end to railway construction until the next decade.



By the 1900s, the driving force for new railway lines was the farmers in what is now Melbourne's outer suburbs. In the Dandenong Rangesmarker a narrow gauge 762 mm line was opened from Upper Ferntree Gully to Belgravemarker and Gembrook in 1900 to serve the local farming and timber community. In the Yarra Valley a branch was opened from Lilydale to Yarra Junctionmarker and Warburtonmarker in 1901.

On the other side of the valley, the Heidelberg line was extended to Elthammarker in 1902 and Hurstbridgemarker in 1912. The freight only Mont Park line was also opened in 1911, branching from Macleod. Finally on the Mornington Peninsula, a branch was built from Bittern to Red Hill in 1921.

Electrification



Planning for electrification was started by Victorian Railways chairman Thomas James Tait, who engaged Englishmarker engineer Charles Hesterman Merz to deliver a report on the electrification of the Melbourne suburban network. His first report in 1908 recommended a three stage plan over 2 years, covering 200 route km. of existing lines and almost 500 suburban carriages (approximately 80 trains). The report was considered by the Government and the Railway Commissioners, and Merz was engaged to deliver a second report based on their feedback.

Delivered in 1912, this second report recommended an expanded system of electrification to 240 route km. of existing lines (463 track km.), and almost 800 suburban carriages (approximately 130 trains). The works were approved by the State Government in December 1912. It was envisaged that the first electric trains would be running by 1915, and the project was completed by 1917; World War I restrictions prevented electrical equipment being imported from the United Kingdommarker, so progress fell behind.

Rolling stock construction continued, with a number of older suburban carriages converted for electric use as the Swing Door trains, while the first of the Tait trains were introduced as steam hauled carriages. Track expansion was also carried out, with four tracks being provided between South Yarra and Caulfield, as well as grade separation from roads.

The first trials did not occur until October 1918 on the Flemington Racecourse linemarker. Driver training continued on this line until the night of Sunday 18 May 1919, when the first electric train ran between Sandringham and Essendon, simulating revenue services. Electric services were inaugurated on May 28, 1919 with the first train running to Essendon, then to Sandringham. Full services started the next day.

The Burnley - Darling line, the Fawkner line, the re-opened branch to Altona, and the Williamstown line followed in 1920.

The line to Broadmeadows, the Whittlesea line to Reservoir, the Bendigo line to St. Albans, and the inner sections of the Hurstbridge line were electrified in 1921.

The Gippsland line to Dandenong and Frankston line were electrified in 1922, as was the inner sections of the Ringwood line due to regrading works.

1923 was the completion of the original electrification scheme, but over the next three years a number of short extensions were carried out. The Ashburton line was electrified in 1924, final works on the Lilydale line were completed in 1925, as was electrification on the line to Upper Ferntree Gullymarker. Electrification on the outer ends of the Hurstbridge line were completed by 1926, the Whittlesea line to Thomastown was electrified in 1929, and the Burnley - Darling line was extended to Glen Waverleymarker in 1930 to become the Glen Waverley line.

Post war rebuilding



Railways experienced increased patronage into the 1940s, but railway improvements recommended in the Ashworth Improvement Plan were delayed until after World War II. It was not until 1950 that the Victorian Railways were able to put their Operation Phoenix rebuilding plan into action. The delivery of the Harris trains, the first steel suburban trains on the network, enabled the retirement of the oldest of the Swing Door trains.

Railway lines were extended during this period to encompass Melbourne's growing suburban footprint. The Ashburton line was extended along the old Outer Circle track formation to Alamein stationmarker in 1948. The Fawkner line to Upfield and the Reservoir line to Lalor were both electrified in 1959, the Epping line reaching its current terminus in 1964. A great deal of track amplification was also undertaken, with a number of single line sections eliminated.

The Upper Ferntree Gully to Belgrave section of the Gembrook narrow gauge line was converted to broad gauge and electrified in 1962. The remainder of the line was closed in 1954, but has been progressively reopened by the Puffing Billy Railway. The Pakenham line was electrified in 1954 as part of the works being carried out on the Gippsland line, but suburban services to Pakenham did not start until 1975.

During this rebuilding, a number of little used lines were closed on the edges of Melbourne. The Bittern to Red Hill line closed in 1953, the line between Epping and Whittlesea closed in 1959, and the Lilydale to Warburtonmarker line closed in 1964. The final stages of the rebuilding stretched into the 1970s, with track amplification carried out to Footscray, and Box Hillmarker, and the first deliveries of the stainless steel Hitachi trains.Detailed planning for the Doncaster line also commenced in this period, and by 1972 the route was decided upon. Despite rising costs, the state governments of the period continued to make assurances that the line would be built, but by 1984 land for the line had been sold.

Modernisation

The 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan called for rail lines to Doncaster and Rowville, but the money was instead spent on road projects.


By the late 1970s, the state of Melbourne's railway network was very run down. The last major investment on the suburban tracks had taken place fifty years earlier with the completion of Glen Waverley line in 1930 and extensions of all suburban services on existing non-electrified lines during the 1950s. Sixty year old Tait trains were still in operation, and inner city congestion at Flinders Streetmarker led to peak hour delays.

The Lonie Report, delivered in 1980, called for financial rationalisation and the closure of the Port Melbourne, St. Kilda, Altona, Williamstown, Alamein and Sandringham lines, and their replacement with buses. These recommendations and cuts were not enacted. However, many uneconomic branch lines were closed throughout the rest of the state. The line between Lilydale and Healesville was closed in 1980, now used by the Yarra Valley Tourist Railway. The branch from Baxter to Mornington was closed in 1981, but the line south of Moorooducmarker is now operated by the Mornington Railway as a tourist route.

In the 1980s, the government authority overseeing Victorian Railways became VicRail and was restructured along corporate lines. The Metrol train control centre was opened in 1980 to coordinate trains throughout the network. Public transport in Melbourne was also reorganised, with the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) formed in 1983 to coordinate all train, tram and bus services in the city. Between 1981 and 1985 the underground City Loop line was opened around central Melbournemarker to improve the capacity of Flinders and Spencer Street stations to handle suburban trains and to offer a better choice of stations to users.

In 1983 the Werribee line was electrified, followed two years later by an extension of the Altona line to Laverton. The Port Melbourne and St Kilda lines were converted to standard gauge light rail in 1987, to accommodate tram routes 111 (now route 109) and 96.

Privatisation



The early 1990s saw further changes, with the MTA reborn as the Public Transport Corporation, trading as "The Met".

State Governments of both sides of politics begun to push for reform of the railway network, proposing conversion of the Upfield, Williamstown, and Alamein lines to light rail. These proposals failed, with the Upfield line instead receiving a series of upgrades to replace labour intensive manual signalling systems. Federal government funding was made available for the electrification of the Cranbourne line in 1995. Rationalisation of the Jolimont Railyards commenced, allowing the creation of Melbourne Parkmarker and the later Federation Squaremarker.

The Kennett Government also initiated a number of reforms to the operation of the railway system, with guards being abolished from suburban trains and train drivers taking over the task of door operation. Stations were de-manned, and the Metcard ticketing system was introduced to cut the need for staff even further.

The biggest change was privatisation. In 1997 'The Met' was split into two operating units - 'Hillside Trains' and 'Bayside Trains', each to be franchised to a different private operator. In 1999 the process was complete, with Connex Melbourne and M>Train each operating half of the network. By 2004 the parent company of M>Train (National Express) withdrawn from operating public transport in Victoria, and their half of the suburban network was passed to Connex as part of a renegotiated contract.

The franchising contracts contained provisions for the new operators to refurbish the Comeng trains, and to replace the older Hitachi trains - Connex chose the Alstom X'Trapolis while M>Train chose Siemens. Since privatisation the Victorian Government has funded expansions to the suburban network - the electrification of the St. Albans line was extended to Watergardens (near the former Sydenham station) in 2002, and the Broadmeadows line was extended to Craigieburnmarker in 2007.

Singaporemarker's SMRT Transit and Hong Kongmarker's MTR Corporation Limited expressed interest in taking control of Melbourne's suburban rail network from Connex in November 2009, when their contract was reviewed.

On June 25, 2009, Connex lost its bid to renew its contract with the Victorian Government. Hong Kong backed and owned MTR Corporation took over the Melbourne train network on 30 November 2009, operating as a locally themed consortium Metro Trains Melbourne.

Recent years

Metropolitan train patronage 2000-2009 based on official state government figures.


During 2005 to 2006 patronage of Melbourne's trains increased over 18 per cent, which caught the Victorian Government by surprise . This increase was partly attributed to increased petrol prices prompting commuters to travel by train rather than by car . As early as 2003 there were union calls to restaff all stations by 2006, primarily for safety reasons. Transport Minister Lynne Kosky said the Government's $10.5 billion 10-year major transport plan announced in May 2006 had significantly underestimated the usage of public transport.

In response to this the State Government undertook to purchase new trains and introduced a new ticketing option where commuters could pay a reduced fare if they completed their journey by 7 am.

In 2006, the Victorian Government announced plans to spend $2 billion on 'the biggest investment in the rail network since the construction of the City Loop 25 years earlier. The initiative is expected to substantially boost the carrying capacity of Melbourne’s rail network. It also contains plans for a third rail line between Caulfieldmarker and Dandenongmarker which is designed to expand the capacity of, and relieve congestion on the Pakenham line.

This was followed by an announcement of the introduction of more than 200 new weekly train services, set to tackle overcrowding on the city's busiest train lines, attributed to a lack of trains and falling reliability. In a period of three years, from 2005-2008, rail patronage grew by 35 per cent.

Future expansion

December 2008, the Brumby Government announced a $14.1 billion plan to augment Melbourne’s rail network. The plan includes:

  • Regional Rail Link, a new railway line at a cost of more than $4 billion, providing new tracks to separate regional trains from Metro trains, which will deliver "extra capacity on the network"
  • A metro rail tunnel, costing more than $4.5 billion, from Dynon to Domain, to "relieve overcrowding on the busy suburban lines from Melbourne’s west"
  • Rolling stock, $2.65 billion for up to 70 new trains, including 32 "new generation" trains which will carry 30 per cent more passengers
  • Rail extensions to Cranbourne East, South Morang and electrification to Sunbury and Melton, more than $2.4 billion
  • Improvements to train operations, at a cost of $200 million
  • Upgrades to metro stations, costing $50 million, and new stations in growth areas at a cost of $220 million
  • A Park & Ride expansion package costing $60 million.


On May 1, 2009 the State Government announced that they had committed $562.3 million in the 2009 State Budget for the extension of the Epping line 3.5 kilometres north to South Morang. Construction will start in 2010 and be completed by 2013.

Operations

Melbourne's suburban electrified railway system comprises 16 interdependent lines all feeding into Flinders Streetmarker station. Some of these lines share track with regional lines, and also carry diesel-hauled passenger and goods trains to locations beyond the suburban network. Melbourne railways are built to Irish broad gauge. (Interstate lines and the tram system (including former railway lines converted to light rail) are standard gauge.)

Power is supplied by catenary-style overhead wiring at 1500 volts DC.

Infrastructure



The Melbourne suburban rail network consists of 16 electrified lines, the central City Loop subway, and 200 stations, with a total length of 372 km of electrified lines. It operates on broad gauge track. The network is primarily at ground level, with a number of level crossings, and shared trackage with freight trains and V/Line regional services. The suburban network uses power catenary-style overhead wiring at 1500 volts DC.

All but a handful of the lines include at least one single-track section, and except for flyovers at North Melbournemarker, Burnleymarker, and Camberwellmarker, all junctions are flat junctions. These restrictions hinder the performance of the system, as delays tend to "knock on" to other services. Two lines have three-track sections (the centre line being signalled for two-way operation and used for up trains in the morning peak period and down trains at other times). Where two or more lines come together in the inner area, there are four or more tracks.

Operationally, the 16 lines are divided into four groups of lines. The Clifton Hill Group comprises the two lines that branch at Clifton Hillmarker station. The Burnley Group comprises the four lines that go through Burnleymarker station. The Caulfield Group comprises the three lines that go through Caulfield station, plus the Sandringham line. The Northern Group comprises the remaining lines, which all go through North Melbournemarker station.

The City Loop consists of four single-track underground lines, one for each group, allowing trains arriving in the city from each group to circle the central business district then head out again to a destination on the same group. Trains generally operate within one of the four groups, although there is some interworking between the Burnley and Clifton Hill groups and between the Caulfield and Northern Groups.

Safeworking



Most lines in Melbourne operate under an automatic block system of safeworking with three-position power signalling. This permits signals to operate automatically with the passage of trains, enforcing the distance between them. At junctions signals are manually controlled from signal boxes, with interlockings used to ensure conflicting paths are not set. The Flemington Racecourse linemarker has two-position automatic signalling, a variant of the three-position system.

The outer end of the Hurstbridge line is operated with token based systems and two-position manual signalling, where access to the line is based upon possession of a token.

Train stops are used to enforce stop indications on signals - should a train pass a signal, the train's brakes will automatically be applied. Trains are also fitted with pilot valves, a form of dead man's switch that applies the brakes should the driver fail to maintain a foot or hand pilot valve in a set position. The "VICERS" vigilance control and event recorder system is also being currently fitted to suburban trains to provide an additional level of safety.

Train control

The main control room for the rail network is Metrol. Located in the Melbourne CBD, it controls signals in the inner suburbs, tracking the location of all trains, as well as the handling the distribution of real time passenger information, and manages disruptions to the timetable. Additional signal boxes are located throughout the network, and in direct communication with Metrol.

Suburban services

Fleet

Image:Refurbished-Hitachi-train-42m.jpg|Hitachi trainImage:Showgrounds-railway-station-melbourne.jpg|Comeng trainImage:XTrapolis Mount Waverley.jpg|X'Trapolis 100 trainImage:SiemensCraigieburnRoxburghPark.JPG|Siemens train


All trains on the Melbourne suburban network are electric and are driver-only operated. Guards on suburban trains were discontinued between 1993 and 1995.

All trains are fitted with power-operated sliding doors which are closed by the driver, but opened by passengers. The doors of newer model X'Trapolis 100 and Siemens trains are opened by a button, but the Hitachi and Comeng trains are opened using handles. Stiff doors, sometimes found on the older Hitachi models, are often difficult to open by hand for some.

Trains also have inter-car doors to enable passengers to change carriages while in transit. All trains except the older Hitachi trains are fitted with air conditioning, closed-circuit cameras, and emergency intercom systems. Trains are fixed into three car units, and may operate alone or in pairs.

There are four types of trains in operation, each type being unable to operate coupled to another train type. The rolling stock currently consists of (numbers are number of 3-carriage units):



The Hitachi trains, the oldest in the fleet, and the Comeng trains can operate throughout the network, but the X'Trapolis trains can only operate on the Burnley and Clifton Hill Groups of lines, and the Siemens trains can only operate on the Caulfield and Northern Groups of lines.

Classification and configuration

Since shortly after the introduction of suburban electric trains in Melbourne, their carriages have been classified as follows. All fleet types have used these classifications, with different fleet types using different number ranges for the carriages.

  • M indicates a motorised carriage, with a driving compartment.
  • T indicates a trailer carriage.
  • D indicated a trailer carriage with a driving compartment. Only Swing-door, Tait, and Hitachi trains had these.
  • G indicated a trailer carriage fitted with both gas and electric lighting, for use on country services. Only Tait trains had these.
  • BT indicated a second class trailer carriage. Prior to the abolition of first class suburban travel in 1958, motorised carriage were generally second class and trailer carriages were generally first class.


An exception to the above classifications was the trial double-deck train, which used T to indicate a trailer carriage with a driving compartment, and M to indicate a motorised carriage without a driving compartment.

Currently, all trains are assembled into a symmetrical M-T-M arrangement. Trains comprise either one or two such units. All peak period services and some off-peak services comprise two units. The few remaining Hitachi trains operate in fixed two-unit sets.

Service patterns

Melbourne uses "clock-face" timetables in off-peak periods, but generally not in peak periods, due to operating near to the capacity of the infrastructure and having to accommodate single-line sections, flat junctions, and regional diesel-hauled trains. Even in off-peak periods, however, frequencies vary according to time of day and day of week, and by line. In some places, services on two lines combine to provide more frequent services on common sections of tracks. Saturday and Sunday services are identical during the day, but differ during the evening on some lines. Sunday morning services however start later than on Saturdays, and run less frequently until around 10am.

Melbourne, along with other Australian railways, uses the British terminology of "up" and "down", with "up" being defined as toward Flinders Street Station.

Burnley Group

All trains run via the City Loop (in one direction depending on time of day and day of week), with the exception of Alamein and Blackburn services. With minor exceptions, Lilydale and Belgrave trains do not stop at East Richmond station, which is served by Glen Waverley trains.

During peak hours express trains operate from the outer ends of the Lilydale and Belgrave lines in the direction of peak travel, utilising the third track from Box Hill and the City Loop. Alamein trains run direct to Flinders Street, in addition to stopping all stations trains from the intermediate terminus of Blackburn.

All off-peak trains run via the City Loop in one direction, with the exception of Alamein services which are shuttles to and from the junction at Camberwell.

Caulfield Group

All trains on the Pakenham, Cranbourne, and Frankston lines operate via the City Loop (in one direction depending on time of day and day of week), with the exception of a small number of peak hour services. Sandringham trains also operate via the underground loop on weekends, but not weekdays.

The Frankston line has a number of peak hour express services in the direction of peak travel, utilising the third track from Moorabbin. The Pakenham and Cranbourne lines have a smaller number of peak expresses, and all Sandringham trains stop at all stations.

Clifton Hill Group

From 9 November 2008, all trains operate via the City Loop (in one clockwise direction from Jolimont station on weekdays and the other direction depending on time of day and day of week). At many times, Hurstbridge line trains operate express between Jolimont and Clifton Hill, with the Epping trains serving the intermediate stations.

Northern Group

All trains operate via the City Loop (in one direction depending on the time of day and day of week), except for the Williamstown services. All off-peak Williamstown services are shuttles to and from the junction at Newport, while in peak they run direct from Flinders Street. Since 9 November 2008, Werribee trains do not run through the Loop during morning and afternoon peaks.

Greater metropolitan lines

Stony Point line services operate as shuttles from Frankston station with advertised connections between trains. Melton and Sunbury services operate from Southern Cross Stationmarker.

Special services

There are no regularly-scheduled services on the Flemington Racecoursemarker line, but services are run to the Racecourse whenever race meetings are held at the racecourse. Services are also operated to the Showgrounds platform during the Royal Melbourne Show every September.

Fares and Tickets

Metcard operated barrier gates


Melbourne's railway network is part of the integrated fare and ticketing system, known as Metcard, which covers all public transport services in Melbourne.

Fares are charged on the basis of zones and are time-based. There are two concentric zones (which was reduced from three on March 4, 2007), with fares applicable to one or two zones. Tickets are valid for two hours, all day and for longer periods, such as weekly and monthly. Within the time periods, tickets can be used on an unlimited number of services and all modes (train, tram, and bus). There is no extra fee for transfers. Various discounts are also available, such as for off-peak travel and buying tickets in bulk.

Tickets are credit-card in size with a magnetic stripe, and must be inserted in a validator before each use. Only the busier stations have ticket-operated barrier gates. At other stations, enforcement is based on honesty with random checks. Tickets are available from machines at all stations and on trams, from station ticket offices at manned stations, from bus drivers, from various retail outlets such as newsagents and convenience stores, and via the Internet. As the tickets have to be validated before use (except when bought on trams, which are sold pre-validated), they may be bought in advance and used when required.

The Metcard ticket system was due to be replaced in 2008 with a new system of smartcard, known as Myki. the Myki system is being gradually implemented.

Passenger information

Image:Pridebox-Melbourne.jpg|PRIDE Talking Box panel at East Camberwellmarker stationImage:2 Line PID Boards Metlink.gif|A diagram of a two-line LEDImage:CRT TV Information Metlink.gif|A diagram of a CRT screen pair


Timetable information is available to passengers at stations through the PRIDE II system, which is an electronic timetable and announcement system, and stands for Passenger Real-time Information Dissemination Equipment. The system consists of:
  • The control system, situated at Metrol.
  • Control stations, at which staff update information, and announcements and CCTV recordings are dealt with for nearby stations.
  • Public address systems at each station on the network. The PRIDE system automatically announces when a train is due soon, delayed, or cancelled; this is done via the rail telephone network.
  • PRIDE "talking boxes" installed on each platform of all stations.
  • Electronic information displays.


Control data comes from two locations: Metrol, and control stations. Next train data and times are automatically updated by the train control systems, with manual overrides also possible.

All stations are provided with "talking boxes" which have two buttons and a small speaker.The green button, when pressed, contacts the PRIDE controller over the rail telephone network, identifying itself by the DTMF tones that correspond to the ID number assigned to the box. The system then reads out times and destinations for the next two services to depart that platform (or, in the case of stations with a single island platform with departures either side, both platforms). The red button when pressed, gives the user two way communication with the closest control station.

More busy stations are provided with electronic LED s, which indicate the destination, time, stopping pattern summary, and minutes to departure for the next train on the platform.

Finally stations on the City Loop, in addition to North Melbournemarker, Richmondmarker, and Box Hillmarker stations, have CRT screen s, although some of these have recently been replaced by widescreen LCD screens. These displays show in detail the destination, scheduled and actual departure time, and all stations the next train stops at. Also shown is the destination and time of the following train, and the system is capable of providing suggested connections and warn of service interruptions.

Regional passenger services

V/Line regional services share tracks with suburban trains from the outskirts of Melbourne to the central regional railway service terminus at Southern Cross Stationmarker. The Pakenham line has the longest shared line section, used by V/Line services to the Latrobe Valley. The Werribee, Sydenham and Craigieburn lines also share tracks. The Regional Rail Link project is intended to separate suburban services from all regional trains except those to the North-East and then Latrobe Valley, a ceremonial start of construction held in August 2009.

Freight services



Melbourne also has an extensive network of railway lines and yards to serve freight traffic. The lines are of two gauges - broad gauge and standard gauge, and are not electrified. In the inner western suburbs of the city, freight trains operate on dedicated lines, but in other areas freight trains share tracks with the suburban Connex and regional V/Line passenger services. The majority of freight terminals are located in the inner suburbs around Port of Melbourne, others are located between the Melbourne CBD and Footscray.

Until the 1980s a number of suburban stations had their own goods yards, with freight trains running over the suburban network, often with the E or L class electric locomotives.

See also



References

  1. [1]
  2. Although horse-drawn 'trains' debuted on a railway between Goolwa and Port Elliot in South Australia on 18 May of that year, Melbourne hosted the first mechanical railway.
  3. Policy: Track Amplifications (Duplication, Triplication etc)
  4. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/private-companies-could-boost-rail-tram-expansion/2007/11/25/1195975867985.html
  5. Swinburne Institute for Social Research: Putting the Public Interest back into Public Transport
  6. http://www.theage.com.au/national/new-train-tram-operators-for-melbourne-20090625-cxgx.html
  7. Gridlock choking life out of city, The Age, May 27, 2007
  8. The public transport policy statement is called Meeting Our Transport Challenges'
  9. Premier’s Department media release on transport policy launch, May 17, 2006
  10. Green light for $1b rail project, Herald Sun. April 8, 2006
  11. State trains running decades late, The Age, October 24, 2005
  12. More trains in railway overhaul, The Age, April 9, 2008
  13. http://www.premier.vic.gov.au/minister-for-public-transport/$14.1-billion-investment-to-move-melbourne-to-a-modern-metro-network.html
  14. $14.1 b investment plan


External links




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