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Ramadan or Ramadhan or Ramazan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar.

Ramadan is one of the holy months in the Islamic calendar. Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. The month is spent by Muslims fasting during the daylight hours from dawn to sunset. The name came from the time before the Islamic calendar, when the month of Ramadan fell in the summer. Fasting during this month is often thought figuratively to burn away all sins. Muslims believe that the Qur'an was sent down to the lowest heaven during this month thus being prepared for gradual revelation by angel Gibril (Gabriel) to the Prophet Muhammad. Furthermore, the Prophet Muhammad told his followers that the gates of Heaven would be open all the month and the gates of Hell would be closed . The first day of the next month is spent in celebrations and is observed as the ‘Festival of Breaking Fast’ or `Eid ul-Fitr.

Timing

The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year and contains no intercalation, Ramadan migrates throughout the seasons. The Islamic day starts after sunset. The actual and estimated start and end dates for Ramadan in 2005-2015 were and are as follows:

CE / AD AH First day Last day
2005 1426   4 October   2 November
2006 1427 23 September 22 October
2007 1428 13 September 11 October
2008 1429   1 September 29 September
2009 1430 22 August 19 September
2010 1431 11 August   9 September
2011 1432   1 August 29 August
2012 1433 20 July 18 August
2013 1434   9 July   7 August
2014 1435 28 June 27 July
2015 1436 18 June 16 July
Ramadan dates between 2005 and 2015


Most Muslims insist on the local physical sighting of the moon to mark the beginning of Ramadan, but some insist on using the calculated time of the new moon or the Saudi Arabian declaration to determine the start of the month. Since the new moon is not in the same state at the same time globally, the beginning and ending dates of Ramadan depend on what lunar sightings are received in each respective location. As a result, Ramadan dates vary in different countries, but usually only by a day. This is due to the cycle of the moon. When one country sees the moon, mainly Saudi Arabia, the moon travels the same path all year round and that same moon seen on the East is then seen traveling towards the West. All the countries around the world see the moon within a 24 hour period once spotted by one country in the East.

Each year, Ramadan begins ten days earlier than in the previous year. Astronomical projections that approximate the start of Ramadan are available.

At the end of Ramadan, Eid ul-Fitr is celebrated by Muslims.

Events

  • Ramadan is observed by Muslims during the entire lunar month by the same name. The month of religious observances consists of fasting and extra prayers.
    • 02 Ramadan, the Torah was bestowed on Moses. (As claimed by Shi'a Islam)
    • 10 Ramadan, death of Khadija - first wife of Muhammad
    • 12 Ramadan, the Injeel was bestowed on Jesus. (As claimed by Shi'a Islam)
    • 15 Ramadan, birth of Hasan ibn Ali
    • 17 Ramadan, the Battle of Badrmarker was won by the Muslims.
    • 18 Ramadan, the Psalms were bestowed on David. (As claimed by Shi'a Islam)
    • 19 Ramadan, Ali ibn Abi Talib was struck on the head by a sword.
    • 21 Ramadan, Ali ibn Abi Talib died due to injuries he sustained by a sword.
    • 23 Ramadan, the Qur'an was bestowed on Muhammad. (In accordance with Shi'a Islam; according to Sunni Islam the date is unknown, but is in the last ten days of Ramadan)
    • Laylat al-Qadr is observed during one of the last five odd numbered days of the month. Muslims believe that this night which is also known as The Night of Power is better than a thousand months. This is often interpreted as praying throughout this night is rewarded equally with praying for a thousand months (just over 83 years ie. a lifetime). Many Muslims spend the entire night in prayer. According to Shi'a Islam this night is the 19th or 21st, or 23rd of this month and according to Sunni belief this night is either the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th night. However the true date was intentionally withheld.
  • In Iranmarker, Al-Quds Day is held on the last Friday of Ramadan (since the Iranian Revolution).
  • In the Ottoman Empire, the sultan presented trays of baklava to the Janissaries in a ceremonial procession called the Baklava Alayı.


References

  1. Predicted by the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia
  2. Click on the "Ramadan" tab.


External links




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