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Referendums in the United Kingdom: Map


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Referendums (or referenda) are only occasionally held by the government of the United Kingdommarker. Nine referendums have been held so far (excluding referendums held under the Local Government Act 1972 - see below), the first in 1973; only one of these covered the whole UK. There are at least two planned for the future. Although few referendums have been held at national or regional level, there have been numerous referendums at local level to determine whether there is support for a directly-elected mayor.

Status of referendums

Referendums have traditionally been rare in the UK. Major referendums have always been on constitutionally related issues. Before Tony Blair's Labour government came to power in 1997, only four such referendums had been held.

There are two types of referendum that have been held in the UK, pre-legislative (held before proposed legislation is passed) and post-legislative (held after legislation is passed). Referendums are not legally binding, so legally the government can ignore the results; for example, even if the result of a pre-legislative referendum were a majority of ‘No' for a proposed law, Parliamentmarker could pass it anyway.

Legally, Parliament at any point in future could reverse legislation approved by referendum because the concept of parliamentary sovereignty means no Parliament can prevent a future Parliament from amending/repealing legislation. However, it is unlikely many governments would attempt to reverse legislation approved by referendum as it would probably be controversial and potentially damaging to its popularity.

Finally, under the Local Government Act 1972, there is a little-known provision under which non-binding local referendums on any issue can be called by small groups of voters. Six local voters may call a meeting, and if ten voters or a third of the meeting (whichever is smaller) agree, the council must carry out a referendum in 14–25 days. The referendum is merely advisory, but if there is a substantial majority and the results are well-publicised, it may be influential.

Planned referendums

Since 1997, the Labour government has held five referendums on devolution, four of which received a yes majority. One concerning the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was cancelled, given the French and Dutch rejections of the treaty. Another, on whether the UK should adopt the euro, depends on the government's being willing to recommend it.

The Labour manifesto for the 1997 general election stated 'We are committed to a referendum on the voting system for the House of Commonsmarker.' Despite the research carried out by the Jenkins Commission in 1998 suggesting an AV+ system for Westminster elections, the 2001 manifesto did not make such a promise, and it is unlikely such a referendum will be held in the foreseeable future.

Since the Government of Wales Act 2006 became law, there can be referendums in Walesmarker asking the people whether the National Assembly for Wales should be given greater law making powers. The Welsh Labour Party - Plaid Cymru Coalition Government in the Welsh Assembly have promised such a referendum before 2011.

The Scottish National Party (SNP) government in Scotlandmarker plans to hold a referendum on Scottish independence prior to the next Scottish general election in May 2011. As stated in its 2007 manifesto, in its third year as the Scottish Government it intends to bring the Referendum Bill before Parliament in January 2010, in order to lead to a referendum to be held in November 2010. It is not however expected to pass due the SNP's status as a minority government, and due to the opposition to the Bill from the 3 unionist opposition parties in the Scottish Parliamentmarker.


Until 2000, there was no body to regulate referendums. In 2000, the government set out a framework for the running of future referendums when the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 or PPERA was passed, giving the Electoral Commission responsibility for running referendums.

List of major referendums

There are some potential referendums:

Additionally, the Government of Wales Act 2006 can invoke further referendums in Wales on increasing the powers of the National Assembly of Wales. Per the coalition agreement "One Wales" between Welsh Labour Party and Plaid Cymru, this will be done before the end of the current term, i.e. by 2011.

Alex Salmond, the leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP), stated prior to the Scottish parliamentary election in May 2007 that a referendum on Scottish independence would be a condition for his party joining a ruling coalition in the Scottish Parliamentmarker.

The Liberal Democrats who are opposed to Scottish independence and such a referendum refused to go into coalition with the SNP after the May 2007 elections. This led to the SNP's running a minority administration and any referendum bill placed before the Parliament will likely fail as pro-UK parties have a majority of members in the Scottish Parliament.

List of minor (local) referendums

Thirty-five local referendums have taken place in local authorities to establish whether there is support for directly-elected mayors. Twelve received a "Yes" majority and twenty-three a "No" majority. The highest turnout was 64% in Berwick-upon-Tweedmarker and the lowest was 10% in Ealingmarker. On average, the turnout was similar to that of local elections.

The majority of those were held between June 2001 and May 2002—a further eight have been held since.

In 2008 a reorganisation of Stoke-on-Trent's system of local government required a further referendum; this abolished the post of Mayor.

Campaigns are now under way in three of the eleven local authorities with elected mayors (Doncaster, Hartlepool and Lewisham) to hold referendums to abolish the posts.

"Yes" majority shown in green, "No" majority shown in red.

Source: Electoral Commission; Ceredigion County Council

Local authority Date Yes Votes Yes Vote % No Votes No Vote % Turnout %
Berwick-upon-Tweedmarker 7 June 2001 3,617 26 10,212 74 64
Cheltenhammarker 28 June 2001 8,083 33 16,602 67 32
Gloucestermarker 28 June 2001 7,731 32 16,317 68 31
Watfordmarker 12 July 2001 7,636 52 7,140 48 25
Doncastermarker 20 September 2001 35,453 65 19,398 35 25
Kirkleesmarker 4 October 2001 10,169 27 27,977 73 13
Sunderlandmarker 11 October 2001 9,375 43 12,209 57 10
Brighton & Hovemarker 18 October 2001 22,724 38 37,214 62 32
Hartlepoolmarker 18 October 2001 10,667 51 10,294 49 34
Lewishammarker 18 October 2001 16,822 51 15,914 49 18
Middlesbroughmarker 18 October 2001 29,067 84 5,422 16 34
North Tyneside 18 October 2001 30,262 58 22,296 42 36
Sedgefieldmarker 18 October 2001 10,628 47 11,869 53 33
Redditch 8 November 2001 7,250 44 9,198 56 28
Durham 20 November 2001 8,327 41 11,974 59 29
Harrowmarker 6 December 2001 17,502 43 23,554 57 26
Plymouthmarker 24 Jan 2002 29,559 41 42,811 59 40
Harlowmarker 24 Jan 2002 5,296 25 15,490 75 25
Newhammarker 31 Jan 2002 27,263 68 12,687 32 26
Southwarkmarker 31 Jan 2002 6,054 31 13,217 69 11
West Devonmarker 31 Jan 2002 3,555 23 12,190 77 42
Shepway 31 Jan 2002 11,357 44 14,438 56 36
Bedfordmarker 21 Feb 2002 11,316 67 5,537 33 16
Hackneymarker 2 May 2002 24,697 59 10,547 41 32
Mansfieldmarker 2 May 2002 8,973 55 7,350 45 21
Newcastle-under-Lymemarker 2 May 2002 12,912 44 16,468 56 31.5
Oxfordmarker 2 May 2002 14,692 44 18,686 56 34
Stoke-on-Trentmarker 2 May 2002 28,601 58 20,578 42 27
Corbymarker 1 October 2002 5,351 46 6,239 54 31
Ealingmarker 12 December 2002 9,454 45 11,655 55 10
Ceredigion 20 May 2004 5,308 27 14,013 73 36
Isle of Wightmarker 5 May 2005 28,786 43.7 37,097 56.3 60.4
Torbaymarker 15 July 2005 18,074 55.2 14,682 44.8 32.1
Crewe and Nantwichmarker 4 May 2006 11,808 38.2 18,768 60.8 35.3
Darlington 27 Sept 2007 7,981 41.6 11,226 58.4 24.7
Stoke-on-Trentmarker 2 May 2002 14,592 41 21,231 59 19.23

Welsh prohibition referendums

The Sunday Closing Act 1881 mandated that all public houses in Wales be closed on Sundays. The Act was extended to Monmouthshiremarker in 1921. Under the terms of the Licensing Act 1961, on the application of 500 local electors, a referendum could be held in each local government area at seven-year intervals on whether that district should be "wet" or "dry" on the Sabbath. Most districts in the border area and the southern industrial area went "wet" in 1961 or 1968, with most others following suit in 1975. In 1982, the last district, Dwyformarker, in western Gwynedd, went "wet" and it was thought that the influence of the Sabbatarian temperance movement had expired and few referendums were called, but surprisingly a further referendum was called in Dwyfor in 1989 and the area went "dry" for another seven years on a 9% turnout. The whole of Wales was "wet" from 1996, and the facility for further referendums was removed by the Sunday Licensing Act 2003.

Edinburgh transport referendum

The City of Edinburgh Council held a postal-ballot referendum in February 2005 over whether voters supported the Council's proposed transport strategy. These plans included a congestion charge which would have required motorists to pay a fee to enter the city at certain times of the day. The result was announced on 22 February 2005 and the people of Edinburgh had rejected the proposals. 74% voted against, 26% voted in favour, and the turnout was 62%.

East Stoke parish poll

In September 2007, villagers in East Stokemarker in Dorsetmarker forced a referendum, under the Local Government Act 1972, on this question: "Do You Want a Referendum on the EU Constitutional Treaty? Yes or No?" Of the 339 people who were eligible to vote, 80 voted: 72 votes for Yes and 8 votes for No. The poll was initiated by a supporter of the Eurosceptic United Kingdom Independence Party. The poll was criticised by the chairman of the parish council as "little more than a publicity stunt."

See also


  4. The "Yes" column was for the option retaining the elected Mayor, the "No" option was for the option removing the position

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