The Full Wiki

Reichstag building: Map


Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:

The Reichstag building in Berlinmarker was constructed to house the Reichstag, parliament of the German Empiremarker. It was opened in 1894 and housed the Reichstag until 1933, when it was severely damaged in a fire supposedly set by Dutchmarker communist Marinus van der Lubbe. During the Nazi era members of the Reichstag continued to assemble as a group in the Kroll Opera Housemarker. After the Second World War the Reichstag building fell into disuse as the parliament of the German Democratic Republicmarker met in the Palace of the Republicmarker in East Berlin and the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germanymarker met in the Bundeshaus in Bonnmarker.

The building was made safe against the elements and partially refurbished in the 1960s, but no attempt at full restoration was made until after the reunification of Germany in 1990, when it underwent reconstruction led by internationally renowned architect Norman Foster. After its completion in 1999, it became the meeting place of the modern German parliament, the Bundestagmarker.

The Reichstag as a parliament dates back to the Holy Roman Empire and ceased to act as a true parliament in the years of the Nazi regime (1933–1945). In today's usage, the German term Reichstag or Reichstagsgebäude (Reichstag building) refers to the building, while the term Bundestag refers to the institution.

History of the building

The Reichstag building (1900)
Construction of the building began well after 1871. Previously, the parliament had assembled in several other buildings in Leipziger Straße in Berlin; but these were generally considered too small; so in 1872 an architectural contest with 103 participating architects was carried out to erect an all-new building. Work did not start until ten years later though, owing to various problems with purchasing property for the new building and arguments between Wilhelm I, Otto von Bismarck, and the members of the Reichstag about how the construction should be performed.

In 1882, another architectural contest was held, with 189 architects participating. This time the winner, the Frankfurtmarker architect Paul Wallot, would actually have his plan executed. On 9 June 1884, the foundation stone was finally laid by Wilhelm I. Before construction was completed in 1894, Wilhelm I died (in 1888, the Year of Three Emperors). His successor, Wilhelm II, objected to parliament as an institution to a much greater extent. The original building was most acclaimed for the construction of an original cupola of steel and glass, an engineering masterpiece of the time.

In 1916 the iconic words "Dem Deutschen Volke" ("To the German people") were carved above the main façade of the building, much to the displeasure of Wilhelm II who had tried to block the adding of the inscription for its democratic significance. After World War I had ended and Wilhelm had abdicated, during the revolutionary days of 1918, Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the institution of a republic from one of the balconies of the Reichstag building on 9 November. The building continued to be the seat of the parliament of the Weimar Republicmarker (1919–1933), which was still called the Reichstag.
Reichstag after the allied bombing of Berlin

Third Reich

The building caught fire on 27 February 1933, under circumstances still not entirely clear (see Reichstag fire). This proved to be a valuable excuse for the Nazis to suspend most rights provided for by the 1919 constitution in the Reichstag Fire Decree in an effort to weed out the communists and increase state security throughout Germany.

The 12 years of National Socialist rule, the Reichstag building was not used for parliamentary sessions. Instead, the few times where the Reichstag convened at all, it did so in the Krollopermarker building, a former opera house opposite the Reichstag building. This applies as well to the session of 23 March 1933, in which the Reichstag disposed of its powers in favour of the Nazi government in the Enabling Act, another step in the so-called Gleichschaltung, the legal steps through which the Nazis seized power. The building (which was unusable after the fire anyway) was instead used for propaganda presentations and, during World War II, for military purposes. It was also considered to be turned into a Flak Tower, because of its general similarity, but was found to be structurally unsuitable.

It is believed that the building would have had a future in Nazi Germany had war not intervened or had Germany emerged victorious. The building was set to be restored and incorporated into Adolf Hitler's plans for Welthauptstadt Germania but would have been dwarfed by the enormous new buildings planned for the city by Hitler and Albert Speer such as the Volkshallemarker which would have stood next to it.

The building, having never been fully repaired since the fire, was further damaged by air raids. During the Battle of Berlin in 1945, it became one of the central targets for the Red Army, most probably for its symbolic significance. Today, visitors to the building can still see Soviet graffiti on smoky walls inside as well as on some of the roof, which was preserved during the reconstructions after reunification (see below).

Cold War

When the Cold War emerged, the building was physically within West Berlin, but only a few metres from the border of East Berlin, which ran around the back of the building and in 1961 was closed by the Berlin Wallmarker. During the Berlin blockade, an enormous number of West Berliners assembled before the building on 9 September 1948, and Mayor Ernst Reuter held a famous speech that ended with the call, Ihr Völker der Welt, schaut auf diese Stadt! (Peoples of the world, look upon this city!)

After the war, the building was essentially a ruin. In addition, there was no real use for it, since the capital of West Germanymarker had been established in Bonnmarker in 1949. Still, in 1956, after some debate, it was decided that the Reichstag should not be torn down, but be restored instead. Unfortunately, the cupola of the original building, which had also been heavily damaged in the war, was demolished. Another architectural contest was held, and the winner, Paul Baumgarten, reconstructed the building from 1961–1964.

The artistic and practical value of his work was the subject of much debate after German reunification. Under the provisions set forth for Berlin by the Allies in the 1971 Four Power Agreement on Berlin, the Bundestagmarker, the parliament of West Germanymarker of that time, was not allowed to assemble formally in West Berlin (even though East Germanymarker was in violation of this provision since it had declared East Berlin its capital). Until 1990, the building was thus used only for occasional representative meetings, and one-off events such as a free concert given by the British Rock Band Barclay James Harvest on the 30th August 1980. It was also used for a widely lauded permanent exhibition about German history called Fragen an die deutsche Geschichte (Questions on German history).


The official German reunification ceremony on 3 October 1990, was held at the Reichstag building, including Chancellor Helmut Kohl, President Richard von Weizsäcker, former Chancellor Willy Brandt and many others. The event included huge firework displays, and was fondly remembered by many. One day later, the parliament of the united Germany would assemble in an act of symbolism in the Reichstag building.

However, at that time, the role of Berlinmarker had not yet been decided upon. Only after a fierce debate, considered by many one of the most memorable sessions of parliament, did the Bundestag conclude, on 20 June 1991, with quite a slim majority in favour of both government and parliament returning to Berlin from Bonnmarker.

In 1992, Norman Foster won yet another architectural contest for the reconstruction of the building. His winning concept looked very different from what was later executed. Notably, the original design did not include a cupola.

Before reconstruction began, the Reichstag was wrapped by the American artists Christo and his wife Jeanne-Claude in 1995, attracting millions of visitors. The project was financed by the artists through the sale of preparatory drawings and collages, as well as early works of the 1950s and 1960s.

During the reconstruction, the building was first almost completely gutted, taking out everything except the outer walls, including all changes made by Baumgarten in the 1960s. Although not undisputed for its lack of respect for the building's original design and furniture , the reconstruction, completed in April 1999, is widely regarded as a success. The Reichstag is one of the most visited attractions in Berlin, not least because of the huge glass dome that was erected on the roof as a gesture to the original 1894 cupola, giving an impressive view over the city, especially at night.

Reichstag dome

The Reichstag dome is the iconic large glass dome at the very top of the building. The dome has a 360-degree view of the surrounding Berlin cityscape. The main hall of the parliament below can also be seen from the cupola, and natural light from above radiates down to the parliament floor. A large sun shield tracks the movement of the sun electronically and blocks direct sunlight which might bedazzle those below. Construction work was finished in 1999 and the seat of parliament was transferred to the Bundestag in April of that year. The dome is open to anyone without prior registration, although the waiting queues can be very long, especially in summertime (August, in particular).


  1. Barclay James Harvest Biography


Image:Reichstag.jpg|A sketch of the Reichstag at the time of its opening in 1894Image:Reichstag und Siegessäule um 1900.jpg|Postcard from 1900Image:Mass demonstration in front of the Reichstag against the Treaty of Versailles.jpg|Demonstration against the Treaty of VersaillesImage:Bundesarchiv Bild 102-03034, Berlin, Verfassungsfeier vor dem Reichstag.jpg|Celebration of the ConstitutionImage:Reichstag members 1933 memorial.jpeg|Memorial to the 96 Reichstag members of the opposition parties killed by the NazisImage:Graffiti inside the ruins of the German Reichstag building.jpg|Graffiti inside the ruins of the ReichstagImage:Reichstag after the allied bombing of Berlin.jpg|Reichstag in 1945Image:Reichstag coupole.jpg|Inside the cupolaImage:Reichtagbau001.jpg|Building site ReichstagImage:Reichstag Dome 8.JPG|On top of the Reichstag building, 2006Image:Reichstagsgebauedebeinacht.jpg|Reichstag building at night, 2002Image:Reichstag01a.jpg|One of the great windows located in one of the 4 corner-risalites, April 2002Image:Berlin-reichstag.jpg|The Reichstag building, June 2003Image:The_Reichstag.TIF.jpg|Panorama of the Reichstag Building, July 2006

Image:Germany berlin reichstag-spiral.jpg|Spiral walkway up to top of dome at ReichstagImage:Germany berlin reichstag-1.jpg|Reichstag dome at nightImage:Reichstag Berlin P10100333.JPG|Reichstag in winterImage:Reichstag Plenarsaal des Bundestags.jpg|Plenary Chamber of the BundestagmarkerImage:Blick in den Bundestag Berlin.jpgImage:Reichstag Facade.JPG|Dem Deutschen Volke (To the German People)

See also

External links

Embed code:

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address