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The Republic of China Army (中華民國陸軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Lùjūn) is the largest branch of the armed forces of the Republic of Chinamarker (Taiwanmarker). An estimated 80% of the ROC Army is located on the main island of Taiwanmarker, while the remainder are stationed on the islands of Kinmenmarker, Matsu and Penghumarker.

As the final line of defense against a possible invasion by the People's Republic of Chinamarker, the primary focus is on defense and counterattack against amphibious assault and urban warfare.

Organization

The ROC Army's current operational strength includes 3 armies, 5 corps. As of 2005, the Army's 35 brigades include 25 infantry brigades, 5 armoured brigades and 3 mechanized infantry brigades. All infantry brigades stood down and transferred to Reserve Command after 2005.

This update reflects the ROCA ORBAT at the conclusion of the Jinjing Restructuring Plan in 2008.

A new type of units called defense team (守備隊) is being introduced. These are formed using remaining elements of de-established brigades under each area defense commands. The strength of a defense team may vary from one or more reinforced battalions, making it roughly equal to a regiment. The team CO is usually a full colonel.

  • Army General Headquarters (陸軍司令部)
The ROC Army GHQ is headed by a 3-star general and is responsible for overall command of all ROC Army assets. Army GHQ is subordinate to the General Staff (military), the Minister of Defense (civilian) and the ROC President.
*Internal Units: Personnel, Combat Readiness & Training, Logistics, Planning, Communications, Electronics & Information, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare.
*Aviation and Special Forces Command (航空特戰指揮部)
:*3 Air Cavalry(Air Assault)/Airborne brigades, 601st(northern), 602nd(central). 603rd brigade only exist on paper.
:*1 Special Warfare brigade, 862 Special Operations Brigade


*6th Army Corps (第六軍團司令部): Northern Taiwan
:*1 Mechanized Infantry Brigade, 269 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
:*2 Armour brigades, 542 Armor Brigade, 584 Armor Brigade
:* 21st Artillery Command
:* 53rd Engineer Group
:* 73rd Signals Group
:* 33rd Chemical Warfare Group


*8th Army Corps (第八軍團司令部): Southern Taiwan
:*1 Mechanized Infantry Brigade, 298 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
:*1 Armor Brigade, 564 Armor Brigade
:* 43rd Artillery Command
:* 54th Engineer Group
:* 39th Chemical Warfare Group
ROC Military Police Special Forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise.


*10th Army Corps (第十軍團司令部): Central Taiwan
:*1 Mechanized Infantry Brigade, 200 Mechanized Infantry Brigade
:*1 Armour brigade, 586 Armor Brigade
:* 58th Artillery Command
:* 52nd Engineer Group
:* 36th Chemical Warfare Group
:* 74th Signals Group


*Hua-Tung Defense Command (花東防衛司令部): Eastern Taiwan
:* Hualien (花蓮) Defense Team
:* Taitung (台東) Area Command


*Kinmenmarker Defense Command (金門防衛司令部)
:* Jindong (金東, Kinmen East) Defense Team
:* Jinshih (金西, Kinmen West) Defense Team
:* Shihyu (獅嶼) Defense Team
:* Artillery Group


*Penghumarker Defense Command (澎湖防衛司令部)
:* Golden (高登) Defense Team


*Matsu Defense Command (馬祖防衛司令部)
:* Beigao (北高) Defense Team
:* Juguang (莒光) Defense Team


*Tungyin Defense Command (東引防衛司令部)
:* Tungyin (東引) Area Command


*Armed Force Reserve Command (後備軍人司令部)
:*9 active infantry brigades, 24 Reserve brigades (Activated only in time of war)
*Logistics Command (後勤司令部)
*Education, Training and Doctorine Command (教育訓練暨準則發展司令部)
*Republic of China Military Academy, Training & Command Schools, Chemical Warfare Corps, Engineering Corps, Arsenal Development.


ROC Army's former Army Missile Command had transferred to ROC Air Force.

History

The Republic of China Army was founded as the National Revolutionary Army, the armed wing of Sun Yat-sen's KMT in 1924. It participated in the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War (during World War II) and the Chinese Civil War before withdrawing with the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Until the 1970s, the stated mission of the Army was to retake the Mainland from the People's Republic of Chinamarker. Following the lifting of martial law in 1988 and the democratization of the 1990s, the mission of the ROC Army has been shifted to the defense of Taiwanmarker, Penghumarker, Kinmenmarker and Matsumarker from a PLA invasion.

In the defense of Taiwan, it has participated in combat operations against the PLA in the Battle of Kuningtou, and in the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. In addition to these major conflicts, ROCA commandos were regularly sent to raid the Fujianesemarker coast.

With the downsizing of ROC armed forces in recent years, the Army has endured the largest number of cutbacks as ROC military doctrine has begun to emphasize the importance of offshore engagement with the Navy and Air Force; subsequent to this shift in emphasis, the ROC Navy and Air Force have taken precedence over the ROC Army in defense doctrine and weapons' procurement. Recent short term goals in the Army include acquisition and development of joint C2 systems, advanced attack helicopters and armored vehicles, MLRS and field air defense systems. The Army is also in the process of transitioning to an all volunteer force.

Equipment

An ROCA M60A3 Main Battle Tank.


The CM-32 Armoured Vehicle, currently under production (mobile-gun platform variant is shown).


From the 1990s onwards, the Republic of China Army launched several upgrade programmes to replace out-dated equipment with cutting-edge state of the art advanced weapons, also increasing its emphasis on forces that could be rapidly deployed and were suited for combat in Taiwan's heavily urbanized environment. Orders were placed with the United Statesmarker for M60A3 Patton tanks, M109A6 "Paladin" howitzers and AH-1W SuperCobra attack helicopters, as well as updating existing equipment.

Along with the other ROC military branches, the ROC Army has extensive experience in the construction and utilization of underground tunnels and bases gained during the People's Republic of China's bombardments of Kinmenmarker and Matsu during the Cold War and many facilities are rumoured to be located underground in undisclosed locations.

In July 2007 it was reported that the ROC Army would request the purchase of 30 AH-64D Apache Longbow attack helicopters from in the 2008 defence budget. The 2008 defense budget also listed a request for 60 UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters as a partial replacement for the UH-1Hs currently in service. It has been reported that the ROC Army will seek new third generation main battle tanks, as the M60A3s are aging. The possible tanks under consideration are the US M1A2, UK Challenger, German Leopard 2A6, French Le Clerc and the Israeli Merkava. However it is expected to procure the US M1A2 due to closer military ties.[125729]

The U.S. government announced on October 3 that it plans to sell $6.5 billion dollars worth of arms to Taiwan ending the freeze of arms sales to Taiwan. Amongst other things, the plans include $2.532 billion dollars worth of 30 AH-64D Apache Longbow Block III Attack helicopters with night-vision sensors, radar, 173 Stinger Block I air-to-air missiles and 1000 AGM-114L Hellfire missiles. and 182 Javelin missiles will also be available with 20 Javelin command launchers and is estimated to cost $47 million.

Armoured Vehicles



Anti-Tank Weapons



See also



References & notes

  1. August 12, 2007. Retrieved Sept 16, 2009
  2. See "Reforming the Armed Forces", page 5.
  3. http://www.dsca.mil/PressReleases/36-b/2008/Taiwan_08-41.pdf
  4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/03/AR2008100303240.html
  5. http://asia.news.yahoo.com/081003/afp/081003211458asiapacificnews.html


External links



Vehicle
Origin
Type
In service
Notes
M60A3 MBT 480
CM-11 (M48H) MBT 450 Modified in Taiwan
CM-12 MBT 100 Modified in Taiwan
M41 Light Tank 675 50 M41D Modified in Taiwan
CM-32 Eight-Wheeled APC 600 In production
CM-21 M113 APC Variant 225
M113 Tracked APC 650
V-150 Amphibious APC 300
AM General Humvee General Purpose Armoured Vehicle 2,000-2,500

Artillery

Vehicle
Origin
Type
In service
M110 203 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 60
M109A2 155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 225
M108 105 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 100
M115 203 mm Towed Howitzer 70
M59 "Long Tom" 155 mm Towed Howitzer 90
M101 105 mm Towed Howitzer 650
Kung Feng VI 117 mm Tracked MRL
Thunderbolt-2000 Wheeled MRL 57 ordered

Helicopters

Aircraft
Origin
Type
In service
Notes
Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow Block III Attack Helicopter 30 On order
Bell AH-1W SuperCobra Attack Helicopter 62
Boeing CH-47SD Chinook Transport Helicopter 9
Bell OH-58D Kiowa Observer/Light Attack Helicopter 39
Bell TH-67A Creek Utility Helicopter 30
AIDC UH-1H Iroquois Utility Helicopter Less than 40 118 built under licence by AIDC

Anti-Air Weapons

Platform
Origin
Type
In service
Notes
M1097 Avenger Short-Range Air Defense 70 In service with Northern Army Group only
FIM-92 Stinger Shoulder-Launched SAM 728 728 delivered between 1996 and 1998 for Stinger DMS
MIM-72/M48 Chaparral Track short range SAM
Platform
Origin
Type
In service
Notes
M72 LAW Rocket-Propelled Grenade
Type 66 Rocket-Propelled Grenade
M136 Anti-Tank Weapon
APILAS Anti-Tank Weapon 1,000 Over 1,000 delivered by 1998
FGM-148 Javelin Anti-Tank Guided Missile 360 and 40 launchers 182 with 20 launchers on order
BGM-71 TOW-2A/B Anti-Tank Guided Missile 2,076 Unknown number of launchers
Hellfire AGM-114C Anti-Tank Guided Missile 1,000 Carry by AH-1W and OH-58D
Hellfire AGM-114K3 Anti-Tank Guided Missile 240 Carry by AH-1W and OH-58D since 1999
Hellfire AGM-114L Anti-Tank Guided Missile 1,000 On order to be carry by AH-64D

Small Arms

Weapon
Origin
Type
Notes
T75 9 mm Pistol
T51 .45 ACP Pistol
Glock 17 9 mm Pistol
T77 9 mm Submachine Gun
M12 9 mm Submachine Gun
Calico M960 Submachine Gun
MP5 Submachine Gun
Uzi Submachine Gun
M1014 Semi-Automatic Shotgun
Franchi SPAS-12 Combat Shotgun
T65 Assault Rifle Standard Issue
T86 Assault Rifle T65 with M4 carbine
T91 Assault Rifle
M4A1 Carbine
M1 carbine Carbine
M24 Sniper Weapon System Sniper Rifle
T93 Sniper Rifle
M82A1 Sniper Rifle
PSG-1 Sniper Rifle
SSG-2000 Sniper Rifle
T74 General Purpose Machine Gun
T75 Squad Automatic Weapon
M2 Heavy Machine Gun
T85 40 mm Grenade Launcher
MGL Mk-1 40 mm Grenade Launcher

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