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Yamada Nishiki rice (50% polished) from Hyogo


Oryza sativa
Rice stem cross section magnified 400 times
Rice is the seed of a monocot plant Oryza sativa, of the grass family (Poaceae). As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East, South, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indiesmarker. It is the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize ("corn").

Since a large portion of maize crops are grown for purposes other than human consumption, rice is probably the most important grain with regards to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human species.

A traditional food plant in Africa, rice has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.

Rice is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 20 years. The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. The grass has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long. The edible seed is a grain (caryopsis) 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick.

Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is very labor-intensive to cultivate and requires plenty of water for cultivation. Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain. Although its parent species are native to South Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide.

The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While with rice growing and cultivation the flooding is not mandatory, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.

(The name wild rice is usually used for species of the grass genus Zizania, both wild and domesticated, although the term may also be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza.)

Preparation as food



The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be continued, removing the 'bran', i.e., the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating white rice. White rice, which keeps longer, lacks some important nutrients; in a limited diet which does not supplement the rice, brown rice helps to prevent the disease beriberi.

White rice may also be buffed with glucose or talc powder (often called polished rice, though this term may also refer to white rice in general), parboiled, or processed into flour. White rice may also be enriched by adding nutrients, especially those lost during the milling process. While the cheapest method of enriching involves adding a powdered blend of nutrients that will easily wash off (in the United States, rice which has been so treated requires a label warning against rinsing), more sophisticated methods apply nutrients directly to the grain, coating the grain with a water insoluble substance which is resistant to washing.
Terraced rice paddy on a hill slope in Indonesia.


In Indiamarker, rice is cooked in boiling milk and the mixture is then sweetened with jaggery to form 'payash' or 'ksheer'.

In some countries parboiled rice is popular. Parboiled rice is subjected to a steaming or parboiling process while still a brown rice. This causes nutrients from the outer husk, especially thiamine, to move into the grain itself. The parboil process causes a gelatinisation of the starch in the grains. The grains become less brittle, and the color of the milled grain changes from white to yellow. The rice is then dried, and can then be milled as usual or used as brown rice. Milled parboiled rice is nutritionally superior to standard milled rice. Parboiled rice has an additional benefit in that it does not stick to the pan during cooking, as happens when cooking regular white rice. This type of rice is eaten in parts of India and countries of West Africa are also accustomed to consuming parboiled rice.

Despite the hypothetical health risks of talc (such as stomach cancer), talc-coated rice remains the norm in some countries due to its attractive shiny appearance, but it has been banned in some, and is no longer widely used in others (such as the United States). Even where talc is not used, glucose, starch, or other coatings may be used to improve the appearance of the grains.

Rice bran, called nuka in Japanmarker, is a valuable commodity in Asia and is used for many daily needs. It is a moist, oily inner layer which is heated to produce an oil. It is also used as a pickling bed in making rice bran pickles and Takuan.

Raw rice may be ground into flour for many uses, including making many kinds of beverages such as amazake, horchata, rice milk, and sake. Rice flour does not contain gluten and is suitable for people on a gluten-free diet. Rice may also be made into various types of noodles. Raw wild or brown rice may also be consumed by raw-foodist or fruitarians if soaked and sprouted (usually 1 week to 30 days); see also Gaba rice below.

Processed rice seeds must be boiled or steamed before eating. Cooked rice may be further fried in oil or butter, or beaten in a tub to make mochi.

Rice is a good source of protein and a staple food in many parts of the world, but it is not a complete protein: it does not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts for good health, and should be combined with other sources of protein, such as nuts, seeds, beans, fish, or meat.

Rice, like other cereal grains, can be puffed . This process takes advantage of the grains' water content and typically involves heating grains in a special chamber. Further puffing is sometimes accomplished by processing pre-puffed pellets in a low-pressure chamber. The ideal gas law means that either lowering the local pressure or raising the water temperature results in an increase in volume prior to water evaporation, resulting in a puffy texture. Bulk raw rice density is about 0.9 g/cm³. It decreases to less than one-tenth that when puffed.

Cooking

There are many varieties of rice such as laweed; for many purposes the main distinction is between long- and medium-grain rice. The grains of long-grain rice (high amylose) tend to remain intact after cooking; medium-grain rice (high amylopectin) becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italymarker and many arrossos -as arròs negre, etc.- in Spainmarker.

Uncooked, polished, white long-grain rice grains
Chinese rice dish utilising Basmati rice
Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, and absorbs water during cooking. It can be cooked in just as much water as it absorbs (the absorption method), or in a large quantity of water which is drained before serving (the rapid-boil method). Electric rice cookers, popular in Asia and Latin America, simplify the process of cooking rice. Rice is often heated in oil before boiling, or oil is added to the water; this is thought to make the cooked rice less sticky.

In Arab cuisine rice is an ingredient of many soups and dishes with fish, poultry, and other types of meat. It is also used to stuff vegetables or is wrapped in grape leaves. When combined with milk, sugar and honey, it is used to make desserts. In some regions, such as Tabaristan, bread is made using rice flour. Medieval Islamic texts spoke of medical uses for the plant.

Rice may also be made into rice porridge (also called congee, okayu, jook, or rice gruel) by adding more water than usual, so that the cooked rice is saturated with water to the point that it becomes very soft, expanded, and fluffy. Rice porridge is commonly eaten as a breakfast food, and is also a traditional food for the sick.

Rice may be soaked prior to cooking, which saves fuel, decreases cooking time, minimizes exposure to high temperature and thus decreases the stickiness of the rice. For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains.

Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is milled, fully cooked and then dried. There is also a significant degradation in taste and texture.

A nutritionally superior method of preparing brown rice known as GABA Rice or GBR (Germinated Brown Rice) may be used. This involves soaking washed brown rice for 20 hours in warm water (38°C or 100°F) prior to cooking it. This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. By this method, a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA.

Cooked rice can contain Bacillus cereus spores, which produce an emetic toxin when left at 4°C–60°C [6299]. When storing cooked rice for use the next day, rapid cooling is advised to reduce the risk of toxin production.

Rice flour and starch often are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness.

Rice growing ecology

Rice can be grown in different ecologies, depending upon water availability.

  1. Lowland, rainfed, which is drought prone, favors medium depth; waterlogged, submergence, and flood prone
  2. Lowland, irrigated, grown in both the wet season and the dry season
  3. Deep water or floating rice
  4. Coastal Wetland
  5. Upland rice, Upland rice is also known as Ghaiya rice, well known for its drought tolerance


History of domestication & cultivation

Asia

Rice has been cultivated in Asia for over 10,000 years.

Historians believe that while the 'indica' variety of rice was first domesticated in the area covering the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas (i.e. north-eastern India), stretching through Bengalmarker, Burmamarker, Thailandmarker, Laosmarker, Vietnammarker and Southern Chinamarker, the 'japonica' variety was domesticated from wild rice in southern China. Chinese records of rice cultivation go back 4000 years.

The earliest remains of cultivated rice in the Indiamarker have been found in the north and west and date from around 2000 BC. Perennial wild rices still grow in Assammarker and Nepalmarker. It seems to have appeared around 1400 BC in southern India after its domestication in the northern plains. It then spread to all the fertile alluvial plains watered by rivers. Cultivation and cooking methods are thought to have spread to the west rapidly and by medieval times, southern Europe saw the introduction of rice as a hearty grain. Some says that the word rice is derived from the Tamil word arisi.

Rice is first mentioned in the Yajur Veda (c. 1500-800 BC) and then is frequently referred to in Sanskrit texts. In Indiamarker there is a saying that grains of rice should be like two brothers, close but not stuck together. Rice is often directly associated with prosperity and fertility, hence there is the custom of throwing rice at newlyweds. In India, rice is always the first food offered to the babies when they start eating solids or to husband by his new bride, to ensure they will have children.

Today, the majority of all rice produced comes from Indiamarker, Chinamarker, Japanmarker, Indonesiamarker, Thailandmarker, Burmamarker, and Bangladeshmarker. Asian farmers still account for 92-percent of the world's total rice production.

The basmati of India and Pakistan and govindabhogvariety of Bengalmarker are considered the finest of all varieties..

Genetics shows that rice was first domesticated in the region of the Yangtze river valley.

Africa

African rice has been cultivated for 3500 years. Between 1700 and 800 BC, 'Oryza glaberrima propagated from its original centre, the Niger River delta, and extended to Senegalmarker. However, it never developed far from its original region. Its cultivation even declined in favour of the Asian species, possibly brought to the African continent by Arabs coming from the east coast between the 6th and 11th centuries CE.
In parts of Africa under Islam, rice was chiefly grown in southern Morocco. During the ninth century rice was also brought to east Africa by Arab traders. Although, the diffusion of rice in much sub-Saharan Africa remains uncertain, Arabs brought it to the region stretching from Lake Chadmarker to the White Nile.

Middle East

According to Zohary and Hopf (2000, p. 91), O. sativa was introduced to the Middle East in Hellenistic times, and was familiar to both Greek and Roman writers. They report that a large sample of rice grains was recovered from a grave at Susamarker in Iranmarker (dated to the first century AD) at one end of the ancient world, while at the same time rice was grown in the Pomarker valley in Italy.

In Iraqmarker rice was grown in some areas of southern Iraq. With the rise of Islam it moved north to Nisibinmarker, the southern shores of the Caspian Seamarker and then beyond the Muslim world into the valley of Volga. In Palestine, rice came to be grown in the Jordan Valley. Rice is also grown in Yemen.

Europe

The Moors brought Asiatic rice to the Iberian Peninsulamarker in the tenth century. Records indicate it was grown in Valenciamarker and Majorcamarker. In Majorca, rice cultivation seems to have stopped after the Christian conquest, although historians are not certain.

Muslims also brought rice to Sicily, where it was an important crop.

After the middle of the 15th century, rice spread throughout Italymarker and then Francemarker, later propagating to all the continents during the age of European exploration.

Caribbean and Latin America

Rice is not native to the Americas but was introduced to the Caribbeanmarker and South America by European colonizers at an early date with Spanish colonizers introducing Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruzmarker and the Portuguese and their African slaves introducing it at about the same time to Colonial Brazilmarker. Recent scholarship suggests that African slaves played an active role in the establishment of rice in the New World and that African rice was an important crop from an early period. In either case, varieties of rice and bean dishes were a staple dish along the peoples of West Africa and they remained a staple among their descendants subjected to slavery in the Spanish New World colonies and elsewhere in the Americas.

United States

In 1694, rice arrived in South Carolinamarker, probably originating from Madagascarmarker.

In the United Statesmarker, colonial South Carolina and Georgiamarker grew and amassed great wealth from the slave labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetownmarker, Charlestonmarker, and Savannahmarker. From the slaves, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by the slaves). The invention of the rice mill increased profitability of the crop, and the addition of water power for the mills in 1787 by millwright Jonathan Lucas was another step forward. Rice culture in the southeastern U.S. became less profitable with the loss of slave labor after the American Civil War, and it finally died out just after the turn of the 20th century. Today, people can visit the only remaining rice plantation in South Carolina that still has the original winnowing barn and rice mill from the mid-1800s at the historic Mansfield Plantationmarker in Georgetown, SCmarker. The predominant strain of rice in the Carolinas was from Africa and was known as "Carolina Gold." The cultivar has been preserved and there are current attempts to reintroduce it as a commercially grown crop.

American long-grain rice plants


In the southern United States, rice has been grown in southern Arkansasmarker, Louisianamarker, and east Texasmarker since the mid 1800s. Many Cajun farmers grew rice in wet marshes and low lying prairies where they could also farm crayfish when the fields were flooded. In recent years rice production has risen in North America, especially in the Mississippi River Deltamarker areas in the states of Arkansasmarker and Mississippimarker.

Rice cultivation began in Californiamarker during the California Gold Rush, when an estimated 40,000 Chinese laborers immigrated to the state and grew small amounts of the grain for their own consumption. However, commercial production began only in 1912 in the town of Richvalemarker in Butte Countymarker. By 2006, California produced the second largest rice crop in the United States, after Arkansas, with production concentrated in six counties north of Sacramentomarker. Unlike the Mississippi Delta region, California's production is dominated by short- and medium-grain japonica varieties, including cultivars developed for the local climate such as Calrose, which makes up as much as eighty five percent of the state's crop.

References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris

More than 100 varieties of rice are commercially produced primarily in six states (Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and California) in the U.S.According to estimates for the 2006 crop year, rice production in the U.S. is valued at $1.88 billion, approximately half of which is expected to be exported.The U.S. provides about 12% of world rice trade.The majority of domestic utilization of U.S. rice is direct food use (58%), while 16 percent is used in processed foods and beer respectively. The remaining 10 percent is found in pet food.

Australia

Although attempts to grow rice in the well-watered north of Australia have been made for many years, they have consistently failed because of inherent iron and manganese toxicities in the soils and destruction by pest.

In the 1920s it was seen as a possible irrigation crop on soils within the Murray-Darling Basin that were too heavy for the cultivation of fruit and too infertile for wheat.

Because irrigation water, despite the extremely low runoff of temperate Australia, was (and remains) very cheap, the growing of rice was taken up by agricultural groups over the following decades. Californian varieties of rice were found suitable for the climate in the Riverinamarker, and the first mill opened at Leetonmarker in 1951.

Even before this Australia's rice production greatly exceeded local needs, and rice exports to Japan have become a major source of foreign currency. Above-average rainfall from the 1950s to the middle 1990s encouraged the expansion of the Riverina rice industry, but its prodigious water use in a practically waterless region began to attract the attention of environmental scientists. These became severely concerned with declining flow in the Snowy Rivermarker and the lower Murray Rivermarker.

Although rice growing in Australia is exceedingly efficient and highly profitable due to the cheapness of land, several recent years of severe drought have led many to call for its elimination because of its effects on extremely fragile aquatic ecosystems. The Australian rice industry is somewhat opportunistic, with the area planted varying significantly from season to season depending on water allocations in the Murraymarker and Murrumbidgeemarker irrigation regions.

World production and trade

Production and export

Paddy rice output in 2005.
World production of rice has risen steadily from about 200 million tonnes of paddy rice in 1960 to 600 million tonnes in 2004. Milled rice should be about 68% of paddy by weight, although use of antiquated milling equipment in many countries means this conversion factor can sometimes be much lower. In 2004, the top four producers were China (26% of world production), India (20%), Indonesia (9%) and Bangladesh (5%).

World trade figures are very different, as only about 5–6% of rice produced is traded internationally. The largest three exporting countries are Thailandmarker, Vietnammarker, and the United Statesmarker. Major importers usually include Indonesiamarker, Bangladeshmarker, the Philippinesmarker, Brazilmarker and some African and Persian Gulfmarker countries. Although China and India are the two largest producers of rice in the world, both countries consume the majority of the rice produced domestically, leaving little to be traded internationally.

Price

In March to May 2008, the price of rice rose greatly due to a general upward trend in grain prices caused by droughts in major producing countries (particularly Australia), increased use of grains for animal feed and US subsidies for bio-fuel production. Although there was no shortage of rice on world markets the general upward trend in grain prices led to panic buying and government rice export bans. This caused significant rises in rice prices. In late April 2008, prices hit 24 cent a pound, twice the price that it was seven months earlier.

On the 30th of April, 2008, Thailandmarker announced the project of the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries (OREC) with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice.

Worldwide consumption

Consumption of rice by country—2003/2004
(thousand metric ton)
135
85.25
36.95
26.4
24
18
10
10
9.7
8.7
7.3
5.0
3.9
3.9
2.7
Source:
United States Department of Agriculture


Between 1961 and 2002, per capita consumption of rice increased by 40%.

Rice is the most important crop in Asia. In Cambodia, for example, 90% of the total agricultural area is used for rice production. .

U.S. rice consumption has risen sharply over the past 25 years, fueled in part by commercial applications such as beer production. Almost one in five adult Americans now report eating at least half a serving of white or brown rice per day.

Environmental impacts

In many countries where rice is the main cereal crop, rice cultivation is responsible for most of the methane emissions. Rice requires slightly more water to produce than other grains.

As sea levels rise, rice will become more inclined to remain flooded for longer periods of time. Longer stays in water cuts the soil off from atmospheric oxygen and causes fermentation of organic matter in the soil. During the wet season, rice cannot hold the carbon in anaerobic conditions. The microbes in the soil convert the carbon into methane which is then released through the respiration of the rice plant or through diffusion of water. Current contributions of methane from agriculture is ~15% of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, as estimated by the IPCC. A further rise in sea level of 10-85 centimeters would then stimulate the release of more methane into the air by rice plants. Methane is twenty times more effective as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.

Pests and diseases

Rice pests are any organisms or microbes with the potential to reduce the yield or value of the rice crop (or of rice seeds). (Jahn et al. 2007) Rice pests include weeds, pathogens, insects, rodents, and birds. A variety of factors can contribute to pest outbreaks, including the overuse of pesticides and high rates of nitrogen fertilizer application. Weather conditions also contribute to pest outbreaks. For example, rice gall midge and army worm outbreaks tend to follow periods of high rainfall early in the wet season, while thrips outbreaks are associated with drought..

One of the challenges crop protection specialists are trying to help address is the development of rice pest management techniques which are sustainable. In other words, to manage crop pests in such a manner that future crop production is not threatened. At present, rice pest management includes cultural techniques, pest-resistant rice varieties, and pesticides (which include insecticide). Increasingly, there is evidence that farmers' pesticide applications are often unnecessary. By reducing the populations of natural enemies of rice pests, misuse of insecticides can actually lead to pest outbreaks (Cohen et al. 1994). Botanicals, so-called “natural pesticides”, are used by some farmers in an attempt to control rice pests, but in general the practice is not common. Upland rice is grown without standing water in the field. Some upland rice farmers in Cambodia spread chopped leaves of the bitter bush (Chromolaena odorata) over the surface of fields after planting. This practice probably helps the soil retain moisture and thereby facilitates seed germination. Farmers also claim the leaves are a natural fertilizer and helps suppress weed and insect infestations.

Among rice cultivars there are differences in the responses to, and recovery from, pest damage. Therefore, particular cultivars are recommended for areas prone to certain pest problems. The genetically based ability of a rice variety to withstand pest attacks is called resistance. Three main types of plant resistance to pests are recognized as nonpreference, antibiosis, and tolerance. Nonpreference (or antixenosis) describes host plants which insects prefer to avoid; antibiosis is where insect survival is reduced after the ingestion of host tissue; and tolerance is the capacity of a plant to produce high yield or retain high quality despite insect infestation. Over time, the use of pest resistant rice varieties selects for pests that are able to overcome these mechanisms of resistance. When a rice variety is no longer able to resist pest infestations, resistance is said to have broken down. Rice varieties that can be widely grown for many years in the presence of pests, and retain their ability to withstand the pests are said to have durable resistance. Mutants of popular rice varieties are regularly screened by plant breeders to discover new sources of durable resistance.

Major rice pests include the brown planthopper the rice gall midge, the rice bug, the rice leafroller,, rice weevils, stemborer, panicle rice mite, rats, and the weed Echinochloa crusgali.

Major rice diseases include Rice ragged stunt, Sheath Blight and tungro. Rice blast, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is the most significant disease affecting rice cultivation.

Cultivars

While most breeding of rice is carried out for crop quality and productivity, there are varieties selected for other reasons such as texture, smell and squishiness. Cultivars exist that are adapted to deep flooding, and these are generally called 'floating rice' [6300].

The largest collection of rice cultivars is at the International Rice Research Institute ( IRRI) in the Philippinesmarker, with over 100,000 rice accessions [6301] held in the International Rice Genebank [6302]. Rice cultivars are often classified by their grain shapes and texture. For example, Thai Jasmine rice is long-grain and relatively less sticky, as long-grain rice contains less amylopectin than short-grain cultivars. Chinese restaurants usually serve long-grain as plain unseasoned steamed rice. Japanese mochi rice and Chinese sticky rice are short-grain. Chinese people use sticky rice which is properly known as "glutinous rice" (note: glutinous refer to the glue-like characteristic of rice; does not refer to "gluten") to make zongzi. The Japanese table rice is a sticky, short-grain rice. Japanese sake rice is another kind as well.

Indian rice cultivars include long-grained and aromatic Basmati (grown in the North), long and medium-grained Patna rice and short-grained Sona Masoori (also spelled Sona Masuri). In the state of Tamil Nadu, the most prized cultivar is ponni which is primarily grown in the delta regions of Kaveri River. Kaveri is also referred to as ponni in the South and the name reflects the geographic region where it is grown. In the Western Indian state of Maharashtramarker, a short grain variety called Ambemohar is very popular. this rice has a characteristic fragrance of Mango blossom.
Unpolished long-grain rice grains with bran


Aromatic rices have definite aromas and flavours; the most noted cultivars are Thai fragrant rice, Basmati, Patna rice, and a hybrid cultivar from America sold under the trade name, Texmati. Both Basmati and Texmati have a mild popcorn-like aroma and flavour. In Indonesia there are also red and black cultivars.

High-yield cultivars of rice suitable for cultivation in Africa and other dry ecosystems called the new rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars have been developed. It is hoped that their cultivation will improve food security in West Africa.

Draft genomes for the two most common rice cultivars, indica and japonica, were published in April 2002. Rice was chosen as a model organism for the biology of grasses because of its relatively small genome (~430 megabase pairs). Rice was the first crop with a complete genome sequence.

On December 16, 2002, the UN General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice. The declaration was sponsored by more than 40 countries.

Biotechnology

High-yielding varieties

The High Yielding Varieties are a group of crops created intentionally during the Green Revolution to increase global food production. Rice, like corn and wheat, was genetically manipulated to increase its yield. This project enabled labor markets in Asia to shift away from agriculture, and into industrial sectors. The first "Rice Car", IR8 was produced in 1966 at the International Rice Research Institute which is based in the Philippines at the University of the Philippines' Los Baños site. IR8 was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named "Peta" and a Chinese variety named "Dee Geo Woo Gen."

Scientists have identified and cloned many genes involved in the gibberellin signaling pathway, including GAI1 (Gibberellin Insensitive) and SLR1 (Slender Rice). Disruption of gibberellin signaling can lead to significantly reduced stem growth leading to a dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. In the presence of nitrogen fertilizers, and intensive crop management, these varieties increase their yield two to three times.

Potentials for the future

As the UN Millennium Development project seeks to spread global economic development to Africa, the "Green Revolution" is cited as the model for economic development. With the intent of replicating the successful Asian boom in agronomic productivity, groups like the Earth Institute are doing research on African agricultural systems, hoping to increase productivity. An important way this can happen is the production of "New Rices for Africa" (NERICA). These rices, selected to tolerate the low input and harsh growing conditions of African agriculture are produced by the African Rice Center, and billed as technology from Africa, for Africa. The NERICA have appeared in The New York Times (October 10, 2007) and International Herald Tribune (October 9, 2007), trumpeted as miracle crops that will dramatically increase rice yield in Africa and enable an economic resurgence.

Golden rice

German and Swiss researchers have engineered rice to produce Beta-carotene, with the intent that it might someday be used to treat vitamin A deficiency. Additional efforts are being made to improve the quantity and quality of other nutrients in golden rice. The addition of the carotene turns the rice gold.

Expression of human proteins

Ventria Bioscience has genetically modified rice to express lactoferrin, lysozyme, and human serum albumin which are proteins usually found in breast milk. These proteins have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal effects.

Rice containing these added proteins can be used as a component in oral rehydration solutions which are used to treat diarrheal diseases, thereby shortening their duration and reducing recurrence. Such supplements may also help reverse anemia.

Sayings

  • A proverbial saying in Japanmarker states: "The farmer spends eighty-eight efforts on rice from planting to crop." This teaches the sense of mottainai and gratitude for the farmer and for rice itself.
  • There is a Sri Lankan saying, 'deyyange haal kawila', meaning 'having eaten God’s rice'. This is used to explain a crazy person or his actions in general with humour. The reasoning behind this is that when the rice harvest is collected, a small fraction of the best part is dedicated to the gods and that is sacred - if a person eats that, they will be afflicted with curses and lose mental stability/act crazy.
  • The expression for eating a meal in Burmese, "Htamin Sar" means to eat rice. It is similar in the Thai "gin kow". Vietnamese use the phrase "ăn cơm" in the same way. Likewise, the Chinese use the phrase "eat rice", "chi fan", in the common greeting "Ni chi fan le ma?" to mean literally "Have you eaten?", and by extension, "How are you doing?".
  • Laotian culture has a saying, "annokao bin biao", literally "grains of rice", which is a metaphor for great effort or exertion.
  • In the Philippines there is an expression "One grain of rice equals one bead of sweat.". This saying may be seen in the context of the high level of labour involved in the production of rice. It may be said that there is a psychological element to this expression in encouraging people to appreciate the effort that has gone into putting food on their plates and perhaps suggesting that they do not waste food. This may be seen in a similar context as Christians who say Grace before eating food.
  • Ashkenazi Jews consider rice a grain and refrain from eating it during Passover.


See also



References

  1. Smith, Bruce D. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library, A Division of HPHLP, New York, 1998.
  2. International Rice Research Institute The Rice Plant and How it Grows Retrieved January 29, 2008
  3. Risks of Talcum Powder
  4. The latter method of using excess water is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are flushed away when the water is discarded.
  5. Watson, p. 15
  6. Shoichi Ito and Yukihiro Ishikawa Tottori University, Japan.
  7. IRRI rice knowledge bank
  8. drought tolerance in upland rice
  9. Watson, p. 17-18
  10. Slavery in America: Rice and Slavery
  11. Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas by Judith A. Carney
  12. Slavery in America: Rice and Slavery
  13. http://www.carolinagoldricefoundation.org/ Carolina Gold Rice Foundation
  14. Farm Raised Crawfish
  15. States Department of Agriculture August 2006, Release No. 0306.06, U.S. RICE STATISTICS
  16. Wadham, Sir Samuel; Wilson, R. Kent and Wood, Joyce; Land Utilization in Australia, 3rd ed. Published 1957 by Melbourne University Press; p. 246
  17. Australian Bureau of Meteorology; Climatic Atlas of Australia: Rainfall; published 2000 by Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria
  18. all figures from UNCTAD 1998–2002 and the International Rice Research Institute statistics (accessed September 2005)
  19. "Cyclone fuels rice price increase", BBC News, 7 May 2008
  20. "Mekong nations to form rice price-fixing cartel", Radio Australia, April 30, 2008.
  21. "PM floats idea of five-nation rice cartel", Bangkok Post, May 1, 2008.
  22. Don Puckridge, The Burning of the Rice [1]
  23. Methane Emission from Rice Fields - Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming by Heinz-Ulrich Neue.
  24. report12.pdf Virtual Water Trade - Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade p. 108
  25. IPCC. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. United Nations Environment Programme, 2007:Ch5, 8, and 10.[2]
  26. Jahn et al. 2000
  27. e.g. Jahn et al. 2005 [3]
  28. Douangboupha et al. 2006
  29. Jahn et al. 2001)
  30. Jahn et al. 1996
  31. 2004a,b)
  32. [4]
  33. [5]
  34. [6]
  35. (Jahn 1992)
  36. (Jahn et al. 1999)
  37. ( Jahn et al. 2004c, Khiev et al. 2000)
  38. [http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/glossary/default.htm#Glossary/D.htm Definition of resistance
  39. Painter 1951, Smith 2005)
  40. Kogan and Ortman, 1978
  41. (e.g. Liu et al. 2005, Sangha et al. 2008)
  42. (Preap et al. 2006)
  43. (Jahn and Khiev 2004)
  44. (Jahn et al. 2004c)
  45. (Murphy et al. 2006)
  46. Rice weevils
  47. IRRI Rice insect pest factsheets
  48. (Leung et al. 2002)
  49. (Pheng et al. 2001)
  50. IRRI Rice Diseases factsheets
  51. Rice Varieties: IRRI Knowledge Bank. Accessed August 2006. [7]
  52. Yamaguchi, S. Gibberellin Metabolism and its Regulation. 2008. Ann Rev Plant Biol 59: 225-251
  53. Grand Challenges in Global Health, Press release, June 27, 2005
  54. Nature's story
  55. Bethell D. R., Huang J., et al. BioMetals, 17. 337 - 342 (2004).[8]
  56. proverbial saying, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries , (Japanese)

General References

  • Cohen, J. E., K. Schoenly, K. L. Heong, H. Justo, G. Arida, A. T. Barrion, J. A. Litsinger. 1994. A Food Web Approach to Evaluating the Effect of Insecticide Spraying on Insect Pest Population Dynamics in a Philippine Irrigated Rice Ecosystem. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 747–763. doi:10.2307/2404165
  • Crawford, G.W. and C. Shen. 1998. The Origins of Rice Agriculture: Recent Progress in East Asia. Antiquity 72:858–866.
  • Crawford, G.W. and G.-A. Lee. 2003. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87–95.
  • Douangboupha, B., K. Khamphoukeo, S. Inthavong, J. Schiller, and G. Jahn. 2006. Pests and diseases of the rice production systems of Laos. Pp. 265–281. In J.M. Schiller, M.B. Chanphengxay, B. Linquist, and S. Appa Rao, editors. Rice in Laos. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 457 p. ISBN 978-971-22-0211-7.
  • Heong, KL, YH Chen, DE Johnson, GC Jahn, M Hossain, RS Hamilton. 2005. Debate Over a GM Rice Trial in China. Letters. Science, Vol 310, Issue 5746, 231–233 , 14 October 2005.
  • Huang, J., Ruifa Hu, Scott Rozelle, Carl Pray. 2005. Insect-Resistant GM Rice in Farmers' Fields: Assessing Productivity and Health Effects in China. Science (29 April 2005) Vol. 308. no. 5722, pp. 688–690. DOI: 10.1126/science.1108972
  • Jahn, G. C. 1992. Rice pest control and effects on predators in Thailand. Insecticide & Acaricide Tests 17:252–253.
  • Jahn, GC and B. Khiev. 2004. Gall midge in Cambodian lowland rice. pp. 71–76. In J. Benett, JS Bentur, IC Pasula, K. Krishnaiah, [eds]. New approaches to gall midge resistance in rice. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute and Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 195 p.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev, and C. Pol. 1996. Farmers’ pest management and rice production practices in Cambodian lowland rice. Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project (CIAP), Baseline Survey Report No. 6. CIAP Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 28 pages. [6303]
  • Jahn, G. C., B. Khiev, S. Pheng, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management in rice. In H. J. Nesbitt [ed.] "Rice Production in Cambodia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 83–91.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management practices of lowland rice farmers in Cambodia. In K. L. Heong and M. M. Escalada [editors] "Pest Management Practices of Rice Farmers in Asia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 35–52. ISBN 971-22-0102-3
  • Jahn, G. C., C. Pol, B. Khiev, S. Pheng, and N. Chhorn. 1999. Farmer’s pest management and rice production practices in Cambodian upland and deepwater rice. Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project, Baseline Survey Report No. 7.[6304]
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev and C. Pol 2000. Ecological characterization of biotic constraints to rice in Cambodia. International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) 25 (3): 23–24.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, C. Pol, B. Khiev 2000. Characterizing biotic constraints to production of Cambodian rainfed lowland rice: limitations to statistical techniques. pp. 247–268 In T. P. Tuong, S. P. Kam, L. Wade, S. Pandey, B. A. M. Bouman, B. Hardy [eds.] “Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments.” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments, 5–9 December 1999, Bali, Indonesia. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 488 p.
  • Jahn, GC, B. Khiev, C. Pol, N. Chhorn, S. Pheng, and V. Preap. 2001. Developing sustainable pest management for rice in Cambodia. pp. 243–258, In S. Suthipradit, C. Kuntha, S. Lorlowhakarn, and J. Rakngan [eds.] “Sustainable Agriculture: Possibility and Direction” Proceedings of the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Sustainable Agriculture 18–20 October 1999, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Bangkok (Thailand): National Science and Technology Development Agency. 386 p.
  • Jahn, GC, NQ Kamal, S Rokeya, AK Azad, NI Dulu, JB Orsini, A Barrion, and L Almazan. 2004a. Completion Report on Livelihood Improvement Through Ecology (LITE), PETRRA IPM Subproject SP 27 02. Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA), IRRI, Dhaka. 20 pages text plus 20 pages appendices. [6305]
  • Jahn, GC, NQ Kamal, S Rokeya, AK Azad, NI Dulu, JB Orsini, M Morshed, NMS Dhar, NA Kohinur 2004b. Evaluation Report on Livelihood Improvement Through Ecology (LITE), PETRRA IPM Subproject SP 27 02. Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA), IRRI, Dhaka. 42 pages plus 40 pages of annexes.[6306]
  • Jahn, GC, I. Domingo, L. P. Almazan and J. Pacia. 2004c. Effect of rice bugs (Alydidae: Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius)) on rice yield, grain quality, and seed viability. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(6): 1923–1927.[6307]
  • Jahn, GC, LP Almazan, and J Pacia. 2005. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938–943.[6308]
  • Jahn, GC, JA Litsinger, Y Chen and A Barrion. 2007. Integrated Pest Management of Rice: Ecological Concepts. In Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management (eds. O. Koul and G.W. Cuperus). CAB International Pp. 315–366.
  • Khiev, B., G. C. Jahn, C. Pol, and N. Chhorn 2000. Effects of simulated pest damage on rice yields. IRRN 25 (3): 27–28.
  • Kogan, M., and E. F. Ortman. 1978. Antixenosis a new term proposed to defined to describe Painter’s “non-preference” modality of resistance. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24: 175-176.
  • Leung LKP, Peter G. Cox, Gary C. Jahn and Robert Nugent. 2002. Evaluating rodent management with Cambodian rice farmers. Cambodian Journal of Agriculture Vol. 5, pp. 21–26.
  • Liu, L., Z. Van, Q. Y. Shu, and M. Maluszynski. 2004. Officially released mutant varieties in China. Mutat. Breed. Rev 14: 1:64.






  • Murphy, S, J Stonehouse, J Holt, J Venn, NQ Kamal, MF Rabbi, MH Haque, G Jahn, B Barrion. 2006. Ecology and management of rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera) in Bangladesh. Pp. 162––164. In Perspectives on Pests II: Achievements of research under UK Department for International Development, Crop Protection Programme 2000–05. Natural Resources International Limited. 206 pages. [6309]
  • Painter, R. H. 1951. Insect resistance in crop plants. The Macmillan Co., New York.
  • Pheng, S., B. Khiev, C. Pol and G. C. Jahn 2001. Response of two rice cultivars to the competition of Echinochloa crus-gali (L.) P. Beauv. International Rice Research Institute Notes (IRRN) 26 (2): 36–37.
  • Preap V., M. P. Zalucki and G. C. Jahn. 2006. Brown planthopper outbreaks and management. Cambodian Journal of Agriculture 7(1): 17–25.
  • Preap, V, GC Jahn, K Hin, N Siheng. 2005. Fish and rice management system to enable agricultural diversification. Paper presented at the 5th Asia-Pacific Congress of Entomology, 18–21 October 2005, Jeju, Korea.
  • Saltini Antonio, I semi della civiltà. Grano, riso e mais nella storia delle società umane,, prefazione di Luigi Bernabò Brea Avenue Media, Bologna 1996
  • Sangha JS, Chen YH, Palchamy K, Jahn GC, Maheswaran M, et al. (2008) Categories and Inheritance of Resistance to Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Mutants of Indica Rice ‘IR64’. Journal of Economic Entomology: Vol. 101, No. 2 pp. 575–583.
  • Smith, C. M. 2005. Plant resistance to arthropods: molecular and conventional approaches. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106) [6310]
  • Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition Oxford: University Press, 2000.
  • Watson, Andrew (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world. Cambridge University Press.
  • Zhao, Z. 1998. The Middle Yangtze Region in China is the Place Where Rice was Domesticated: Phytolithic Evidence from the Diaotonghuan Cave, Northern Jiangxi. Antiquity 72:885–897.


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