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Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473 – 1483?) was the sixth child and second son of King Edward IV of Englandmarker and Elizabeth Woodville. He was born in Shrewsburymarker.He was a younger brother of Elizabeth of York, Mary of York, Cecily of York, Edward V of England and Margaret Plantagenet . He was also an older brother of Anne of York, George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, Catherine of York and Bridget of York.


He was created Duke of York in 1474. From this time on, it became a tradition for the second son of the English sovereign to be Duke of York. On 15 January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married the 5-year-old Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk, who had inherited the vast Mowbray estates in 1476. Because York's father-in-law's dukedom had become extinct when Anne could not inherit it, he was created Duke of Norfolk in 1481.

Heir presumptive

His father died on 9 April 1483. Thus his brother Edward, Prince of Wales, became King of England and was acclaimed as such, and Richard his Heir Presumptive. This was not to last. Robert Stillington, the Bishop of Bath and Wells, testified that Edward IV had agreed to marry Lady Eleanor Talbot in 1461. Lady Eleanor was still alive when Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in 1464. The Regency council under Richard Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Gloucester, concluded that this was a case of bigamy, invalidating the second marriage and the legitimacy of all children of Edward IV by this marriage. Under Richard's influence, both Edward and Richard were declared illegitimate and removed from the line of succession on 25 June 1483. The Duke of Gloucester, as a surviving younger brother of Edward IV, became Richard III.

Later life

The Duke of York was sent to the Tower of Londonmarker by King Richard in mid-1483. What happened to him and his brother—the Princes in the Tower—after that has been the subject of much speculation and debate. The view of some professional historians is that they were murdered not long afterwards on Richard's orders, but various alternative views have been put forward. In the 1490s, Perkin Warbeck claimed to be Richard, Duke of York, but he is generally considered to have been an imposter, and was labelled thus by the Tudor regime. The skeletons of two children discovered in a chest in the Tower in 1674 were presumed to be the princes, but the evidence is not conclusive.

Coat of arms of Richard, 1st Duke of York

Titles, styles, honours and arms


As son of the sovereign, Richard was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differentiated by a label argent, on the first point a canton gules.


In popular culture

The comedy series The Black Adder features an alternative history where Richard succeeded his uncle King Richard III to the throne as King Richard IV of England (portrayed by Brian Blessed).

Richard appears in Philippa Gregory's 2009 fictionalized novel The White Queen, which follows the theory that Richard's mother, Elizabeth Woodville, never gave young Richard over to the custody of his uncle, instead swapping him with a changeling and sending the true prince into hiding in Tournaimarker, Belgium. He appears later in the novel under the assumed name, Perkin Warbeck.

See also


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External links

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