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The River Darent or River Darenth or Dartford Creek is a Kentish tributary of the River Thames in Englandmarker. Its name is believed to be from a Celtic word meaning 'river where oak-trees grow' (compare "Derwent").

Fed by springs in the greensand hills south of Westerhammarker in Kentmarker and Limpsfield Chartmarker in Surreymarker it flows for eastwards and then northwards past the villages of Otfordmarker and Shorehammarker, past the castle and ruined Roman villa at Lullingstonemarker, past Eynsfordmarker, Farninghammarker, Horton Kirbymarker, South Darenthmarker, Sutton-at-Honemarker, Darenthmarker, and through the large town of Dartfordmarker. North of Dartford the Darent receives the waters of the River Craymarker from the west as it passes through Dartford Marshes and Crayford Marshes, where it forms a boundary between Greater Londonmarker and Kentmarker (and specifically, the London Borough of Bexleymarker and the borough of Dartford). The Darent joins the Thames near Crayford Ness.

As its name suggests, Dartford ('Tarentefort' in the Domesday Book) was once a fording place over the Darent where it crossed the road from London to the Kent coast. There are records of a ford operating in Roman times. A ferry, operated by a hermit, was established there by 1235. The post of hermit continued until 1518, long after the first bridge was built (a footbridge, constructed during the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413) and surviving until the mid-eighteenth century). The landscapes of the river's valley were painted in a visionary manner by the early Victorian artist Samuel Palmer.

The river is largely small and peaceful, a surprise given the breadth of the valley it has cut out. Apparently the 'proto-Darent' was formerly much larger than the present day but the River Medway, through erosion of the soft chalk and clays of the North Downsmarker/Western Wealdmarker, has captured much of the headwaters that once supplied the Darent.

The river was used for trade and in 1835 approximately 50,000 to 60,000 tons per annum were being carried on the river. The size of the river limited single cargoes to even on spring tides and as a result a ship canal was proposed. The proposal was unable to overcome its critics and as a result in 1839 an alternative based on dredging the river and a few short cuts was taken up. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1840 allowing construction to start and tolls to be levied once the work was complete. The project was completed in 1844 and included shortening the upper part of the navigation through the use of a cut and dredging.
The Darent flowing through Central Park, Dartford


Fly fishing the Darenth, circa 1834


By 1989 it was realised that the flow of the river was decreasing dramatically, when it was officially recognised as the 'lowest flow' river in the country. Wildlife was being destroyed. Since then much work has been carried out to rectify the situation, including shutting down of a number of boreholes along its length, by the Environment Agency. A sculpture was unveiled in 2004 to celebrate the renewed life of the river, depicting the wildlife which has been saved.

Watermills

The River Darent powered a number of watermills. From source to mouth they are:


Westerham (Elm View) Mill


c.1912
miller at this corn mill in 1771 was James Marchane, who was joined by his son James. James Jr died in 1805 and James Sr died c.1812. The mill was sketched by G. Samuel in 1818. It had an overshot waterwheel. The cast iron overshot waterwheel was by . It was fitted in 1868, replacing a wooden wheel which may have been breast shot. In 1890, the waterwheel was adapted to drive a set of pumps to supply Westerham. An average of could be supplied. The milling machinery was removed in 1936 and during the Second World War a doodlebug landed nearby and blew the roof of the mill off. The derelict building stood in April 1954, but had been demolished by July 1960.

Darenth (Tower Wood) Mill


This corn mill had an external cast iron overshot waterwheel carried on a wooden axle. The mill was working up to the outbreak of the First World War and demolished in the 1930s. It had two pairs of millstones.

Squerryes (Spring Shaw) Mill, Westerham


Squerryes, or Spring Shaw Mill was a corn mill with a cast iron overshot waterwheel some or diameter and wide. The mill was marked as disused on the 1895 6" Ordnance Surveymarker map. It was a small building of square and had been demolished by 1955. Little is known of the machinery except that the upright shaft was wooden and of diameter. The wooden great spur wheel was of compass arm construction.

Valence Pump, Brasted


This water powered pump was driven by a cast iron high breast shot waterwheel of by . A diameter cast iron spur geared pitwheel drove two ram pumps. The pump dated from 1858 and was still in existence in 1980.

Brasted Mill


c.1909
was a corn mill, now converted to a dwelling. The cast iron breast shot waterwheel was by . In September 1812, James Weight, miller of Brasted, was claiming relief for himself, his wife and five children. A man by the name of Staples who went by the name of Chapman had leased the mill in Brastedmarker in 1812; he claimed relief in January 1815. The mill ceased work in the 1920s and the machinery was removed c1934.

Sundridge Mill


This was a paper mill. In December 1822 Nicholas Tapsfield, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself and his wife Mary. He had been apprenticed at a paper mill at East Malling. In December 1831, Thomas Green, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself, his wife and five children. He had been apprenticed in 1804 to William Dacie at a paper mill in Bermondseymarker, then to a Mr Hall in St. Mary Cray when Dacie retired. In March 1832, Henry Sparks, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself, wife Susanna and five children. He had been apprenticed to Messrs. Smith & Knight at Godalmingmarker in 1796, serving only four years. In May 1839, Henry Thomas, papermaker of Sundridge was claiming relief for himself. He had been a papermaker all his working life. The internal overshot waterwheel was by , carried on an oak axle. Sundridge Mill produced paper for the Bank of Englandmarker until its closure in 1901, business being transferred to Eynsford Paper Mill. The mill buildings were converted to a laundry, and the waterwheel was removed c1914 to be replaced by steam power. The mill was demolished in October 1969.

Chipstead Mill, Chevening


Chipstead Mill was a four storey building which had been enlarged in the late C19th. It worked until after the Second World War, but the machinery had been removed by 1950. The waterwheel was overshot and drove two pairs of French Burr millstones. A steam engine provided auxiliary power until it was replaced by a suction gas engine. Roller milling plant had been installed in the 1890s but milling ceased in the 1920s. The mill building was standing in the 1980s.

Longford Mill, Dunton Green


This was a corn mill rebuilt by Weeks of Maidstone in 1859, it had an internal cast iron overshot waterwheel by , which had probably replaced a breast shot waterwheel of larger diameter.. The waterwheel drove three pairs of millstones. Electricity replaced water power between the wars, and the mill last worked in 1947. The stones of the mill were said to have been caused to run backwards at one time through the mill being bewitched. The mill drove three pairs of millstones, the machinery being mostly of cast iron. The mill building survived until 1987 when the site was redeveloped.

Otford Mill


There was a watermill in Otford in 1541. The last mill on this site was a corn mill with two waterwheels. It was latterly used as a saw mill and burnt down on 7 January 1924. A picture of the mill can be seen here. The breastshot waterwheel remained in 1930. One waterwheel was of wood construction, driving three pairs of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. The machinery was all wooden. The second waterwheel was of cast iron, driving two pairs of French Burr stones vis cast iron machinery.

Upper Mill, Shoreham


This was a corn mill. Originally powered by an internal breast shot waterwheel of some by driving one pair of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. The great spur wheel was a cast iron wheel with wooden cogs. The waterwheel had been replaced by a turbine which drove the millstones via a great spur wheel that was only diameter. The mill was house converted in 1971.

Lower (Shoreham Paper) Mill, Shoreham


This was the site of a fulling mill belonging to Palsters Manor. It was bought by the Passele family in the fourteenth century. The manor passed to Francis Sandbach in 1578 and was willed to John Polhill. He bought the fulling mill in 1602. The last mill on the site was a paper mill; it was demolished in 1936. The low breast shot waterwheel was by . It drove machinery via a layshaft driven from the spur geared pitwheel. The mill was demolished in the 1930s. The paper mill had been run for over 200 years by the Wilmot family.

Wood Mill, Eynsford


Although it is said that this mill, which stood just downstream of Eynsfordmarker Bridge, was a corn mill with an undershot waterwheel other evidence shows this to have been a water powered saw mill which had been erected c1853. It may have stood on the site of an earlier mill.

Old Mill, Eynsford


This was a corn mill. It stands immediately downstream of the bridge by Eynsford ford. The low breast shot waterwheel was diameter in 1887, being replaced by one of at least diameter. It was wide. The millstones were only diameter, suggesting that only a limited amount of flour was available. The mill was working until 1911, no auxiliary power being used. The building was house converted in the 1920s and survives today.

Eynsford Paper Mill


This paper mill was founded in 1648 by Hugenot refugees. The paper mill replaced an earlier corn mill. In 1882, it is recorded as having a waterwheel by . The mill suffered two fires in the 1900s but was rebuilt. It was working until 1952 but has now been demolished.

Farningham Mill


A mill has been on this site since Domesday. In the fifteenth century the mill was in the possession of the Roper family, Sir Anthony Roper being charged with "pulling down and allowing the watermill to decay and become uninhabited" in 1636. He was ordered to rebuild the mill within two years. The present building built by the Colyers dates to c.1780. The mill was a corn mill; the converted building survives. A curious feature is that the door on the north side of the east face is painted on, to look symmetrical with the real door. The mill was latterly worked by a turbine which drove a saw mill in its final years of operation. The mill last worked for trade in 1900.

Franks Generating Station, Horton Kirby


This installation was of late C19th date. A turbine drove a generating plant to provide elecricity to Franks Hallmarker. After it ceased to be used, the turbine is said to have been installed in Westminster Mill.

Westminster Mill, Horton Kirby


Westminster Mill
was a corn mill which stood upstream of the paper mill. Henry Knight was a miller in Hortonmarker who died in 1724 and Thomas Welch was a miller in Horton who died in 1734. George Cannon took the mill in the early 1830s. In 1843 he was bankrupt as a common brewer, an occupation he carried on along with the mill. Ill health forced his retirement in 1852, and the mill was bought by his brother Stephen. His son, also Stephen, was running Old Mill from 1850, then being 14 years old. Stephen Cannon (father) died in 1872 and Stephen Cannon (son) sold Westminster Mill and Old Mill in order to concentrate the milling business at a mill in Bexleymarker. Latterly the waterwheel was replaced by a turbine and the mill generated electricity. The mill burnt down when struck by lightning in 1908 and was rebuilt as a factory which made shoe laces. The factory closed down in 1991 and the mill has been demolished and the site redeveloped as housing.

Horton Kirby Paper Mill


This mill is under the viaduct of the Chatham Main Line railway. In 1700 there were two corn mills and a forge here. The mill was rebuilt by Henry Hall in 1820 as a paper mill. Paper from this mill was used to print The Sphere and The Tatler; photographs of the paper making process at the mill were used in the first edition of The Children's Encyclopedia. Henry Hall was the proprietor in 1840. An illustration of the machine house c.1880 can be seen here. The mill has a chimney high, which is a listed building. The mill was last used as a factory and closed in 2003, with plans being put forward for conversion to housing use in 2005. The chimney dates to 1880.

Frog Lane Mill, Sutton at Hone


This corn mill was of C19th date. The cast iron breast shot waterwheel was by carried on a square axle. An unusual feature of this mill was that the pitwheel was the same diamter as the waterwheel. The mill had ceased working by 1914. The upper storeys of the mill were demolished in February 1936, leaving the brick base, waterwheel and some machinery. These had been cleared away by June 1965.

South Darenth Mill

South Darenth Mill was a brick building that replaced an earlier mill that burnt down in 1879. This mill was run by the Cannon family. The mill had a cast iron waterwheel which drove three pairs of millstones. A steam engine provided auxiliary power. In 1894, roller milling plant was installed but milling ceased in 1905. The building was severely damaged in the Great Storm of 1987marker.

Darenth Paper Mill

Darenth Paper Mill was working until 1931 when it was taken over by Messrs Portals Ltd, of Laverstokemarker, Hampshire. In 191o, it was in the occupation of Messrs T H Saunders & Co Ltd, also at Hawley Mills and Rye Mill, High Wycombemarker, Buckinghamshire. The breast shot waterwheel was of cast iron with wooden floats. It was by .

Sutton (Old, Sutton at Hone, Darenth Corn, Little Darenth) Mill

Old Mill‎.
corn mill stood at Old Mill Farm. It was built by Thomas Edmeads in the early 1800s. In 1806 the tenant millers were Stephen and George Cannon. The Cannon brothers were declared bankrupt in May 1816 but discharged their debts and returned to milling. George Cannon was again declared bankrupt in 1823. Stephen Cannon had three sons William, George and Stephen. They all learnt the milling trade at his mill.

Stephen Cannon later bought the mill and it passed to his daughter Harriet on his death on 27 February 1856. The mill remained in the Cannon family until 1872, and the mill house until 1888. Latterly the mill had a steam engine and a tall chimney. During the First World War, a bomb hit the mill, but did not explode, although the mill was put out of action. The mill was demolished in September 1928. Photographs of the mill during demolition reveal the cast iron low breast shot waterwheel drove three pairs of millstones via a cast iron layshaft. The original wooden upright shaft and crown wheel were retained.

Hawley Mills, Sutton at Hone


A site mentioned in Domesday, the mills here were held by the manor of Bignoures and belonged to the Knights of St. John in the Middle Ages, being let at a peppercorn rent to the Prioress of Dartford Nunnery. A wheat mill and a malt mill were released to one George Tasser in 1534. William Vaughan received them from the Crown in 1546 and the mills reverted to the Crown when he died in 1580. The two mills were granted to John Spilman (later Sir John Spilman) by the Crown in 1581.

In 1588, Spilman converted the corn mill into a paper mill, and obtained a monopoly for his paper by manipulating the favour and patronage of successive monarchs. Thomas Churchyard wrote a long poem in 1588, the first description of the papermaking process. Spielman employed 600 men, mainly Germans. The mills remained in the Spilman family until 1679, then a Mr Blackman was the owner in 1686 but he was bankrupt by 1739. Messrs. Pike and Edsall purchased the mill and converted it into a gunpowder mill.There were explosions here in 1745, 1790, 1795, 1796, 1799 and 1833. These killed at least forty people. Edsall went bankrupt in 1778 and the mills were purchased by Messrs Pigou and Andrews. The mill was a papermill by 1840, when William Wiggins was the owner.

The malt mill was not required by Spilman, and he leased it to Godfrey Box of Liège. He erected an iron rolling and slitting mill (for the manufacture of nails; the first in England) between 1590 and 1595, which by 1758 had two waterwheels, one working the upper roller, the other working the lower rollers and a guillotine. A company of "white paper makers" was established here in 1694 and during the eighteenth century the mill was owned by a Mr Quelch.

Dartford Powder Mills

Approximately

The Powder Mills were in operation from c1730, possibly on the site of Spilman's paper mill of 1588. It was in operation until the C20th.

Lower Paper Mill, Dartford


Lower Mill was built in the mid C17th, and closed in 1790. Later it was used as a zinc rolling mill and a printing works for silk and calico.

Victoria Mills, Dartford


c.1900
Mills stood on the site of a fifteenth century fulling mill and an old wire mill, mentioned by William Lambarde in 1570 as a glazing mill. This was used for polishing armoured plate. In the early nineteenth century there were three mills here; an oil mill, a mustard mill and a corn mill in the late eighteenth century it was owned by a Mr Fomereau and worked by the Loder family. The corn mill was a four storey wood structure built in 1790. In the early nineteenth century, miller James Hard was appointed miller to King George IV. It had a wrought iron breast shot waterwheel of 20' diameter driving four pairs of millstones.

Colyers (Orchard's, Bridge, Acacia Hall) Mill, Dartford


In 1217 King John granted a mill worth 100/- a year, situated in Dartfordmarker to Michael de Wallensi and in 1221 William, Prior of Rochester, granted to Alan Martel, Prior of the Knights Templars, half an acre of land by the mill. The mill belonged to the Bishop of Rochester in 1253 and in 1299 was known as Orchard's mill, being then privately owned. Henry Colyer was the miller in 1840. The mill was later run by R & H Strickland Ltd, although milling ceased in 1893 and the building was stripped of its machinery, including a large cast iron waterwheel and a steam engine, in 1898. It then served as a social club for Messrs Burroughs Wellcome & Co. The mill burnt down on 24 January 1962.

Silk Printing Works, Dartford


There was a silk printing works in Dartford which is said to have been powered by a waterwheel. It was said that the waterwheel had been "recently removed" in 1986 as part of a clearance programme for the section of river that the works stood on.

Phoenix Mill, Dartford


This was the furthermost mill on the Darent. About 1650 one John Brown erected a "brassell" mill for splitting iron into rods and nails. Nicholas Tooke owned the mill in 1656 followed by Charles Mauum from 1687 to 1719 and then Messrs. Cooke and Coolson in 1779. The brassell mill gave way to a saw mill, then in 1790 a seven storey cotton mill was built. This burnt down in 1795 and a smaller building, the Phoenix Mill was erected in 1797. George Willding was the miller and Messrs Saunders and Harrison were mustard makers here in 1840. William Masters was a workman here until his death in 1873, and has a memorial in Horton Kirby church. It was a paper mill and closed in 1889.

Tributaries.

Various tributaries feed into the River Darent. They also powered a number of watermills.

Stream at Brasted

Mill Farm Mill, Brasted


Mill Farm Mill may have been built in 1705, which is the date of the Mill House. It was worked by the Smith family, ceasing work c1858. The by cast iron waterwheel and machinery were removed before the First World War. The building was standing in 1954, converted to a garage.

Stream at Chevening

Whitley (Dibden) Mill, Chevening


This mill stood deep in woodland west of Sevenoaksmarker. It was held by Ralph Bosville of Bradbourne Manor in the sixteenth century. The mill was in existence until at least the mid-nineteenth century but had ceased working by 1900. The overshot waterwheel of composite construction was carried on a wooden axle long and square at the waterwheel, diameter in the mill. The mill was in ruins by the 1920s

Stream at Ightham

Ightham Mill

A tributary rising near St. Cleres is reputed to have driven a watermill, possibly the one at Ighthammarker recorded in 1322 as the property of William Inge.

Kemsing Mill


This mill was on the tributary that drove the mill at Ightham. Kemsingmarker is reputed to be the site of a Roman watermill at Springhead, which was excavated in 1949.

Greatness Stream

Greatness Mill, Sevenoaks

An old mill site, in 1381 a mill at Gretnarsche was in the possession of John Colepeper. The mills were later in the ownership of the Fane/Vane family, being known as "Gretness-mylls" in the 1550s, being two water corn mills. John Thorpe (miller?) was living at Greatness Mill at the time of his death in 1835. The building is of weatherboard on a steel frame on a brick base, replacing an earlier mill that burnt down after the First World War. The overshot waterwheel was by . It drove two pairs of French Burr millstones and one pair of Peak millstones. Roller milling plant had been fitted by 1906. In 1927, the mill was still worked by water power, aided by a gas engine.

Greatness Silk Mill, Sevenoaks


This mill was built in 1761 by Peter Nouaille, who came into the possession of the manorial watermill on marrying Elizabeth de la Mare of Greatness. It stood downstream of the corn mill. Nouaille went bankrupt in 1778 but recovered, employing 100 people when he retired in 1800. The mill had a breastshot waterwheel. It closed down after Nouaille's death c1828. The mills were immortalised in the poem Ode on the Silk Mills at Greatness by Joseph Harrison.

Guzzlebrook

Childs Bridge Mill, Kemsing


A long lost mill site, thought to have been a corn mill. The mill pond was some by in extent.

Longlodge Mill, Otford


Possibly the site of one of Otford's eight Domesday mills. The mill was abandoned at an early date as it was not remembered in field names.

Stream at Bradbourne

Bradbourne Mill, Sevenoaks

This was a corn mill. On 24 October 1545 Brodebourne Mill was granted by Henry VIII to William Darkenolde for 21 years at £6.13s.4d per annum. The King finding the timber for the repair of the mill. In 1557, Ralph Bosville bought the mill. In 1592, Henry Bosville died, leaving his manor of Bradbourne, and a "water grist mill" in the tenure of Richard Phillipes and a "Sythe Mill" in the occupation of Chapman amongst his property. Bosville PM

Cranpit Stream

Hall's Engineering Works, Dartford


Millwright John Hall built a cast iron waterwheel to replace a windmill that powered some of the machinery at his workshops in Hythe Street, Dartford.

Fords

Shoreham Bridge and the disused ford
There were a number of fords on the River Darent.

Shoreham

TQ 5205 6165

There was a ford by the bridge in the village.

Eynsford

The still usable ford at Eynsford
539 655

Eynsford is famous for its ford by the old packhorse bridge.

Farningham

There was a ford at Farningham, now replaced by a bridge.

Dartford

There was a ford in Dartford in Roman times, Dartford being a contraction of Darent-ford. The ford was still in existence in 1840.

See also



References

  1. Horton Kirby (PDF)
  2. Stone Museum of Geology
  3. Felbridge History Group
  4. Rootsweb
  5. Mills Archive
  6. Otford
  7. Polhill
  8. Stoyel gives 1930, Wood gives 1936
  9. Horton Kirby
  10. Kent Archaeology
  11. Abandoned Past
  12. Sevenoaks DC
  13. BBC
  14. Bexley Local Studies
  15. Jevons
  16. Dartford Archive
  17. Dartford Archive
  18. Dartford Archive
  19. Dartford BC
  20. Fehls
  21. Achaeologica Cantiana Vol LXXXI
  22. Kent Archaeological Review
  23. Kent Archaeology
  24. Kent Archaeology
  25. Boorman
  26. Ralph Bosville
  27. Bradbourne Mill Indenture
  28. Bosville
  29. Wetroads
  30. Farningham PC
  31. Fehls
  32. Pigots 1840 directory


External links




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