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Robert Colquhoun (20 December 1914 – 20 September 1962) was a Scottishmarker painter, printmaker and theatre set designer.

Colquhoun was born in Kilmarnockmarker and was educated at Kilmarnock Academy. He won a scholarship to study at the Glasgow School of Artmarker, where he met Robert MacBryde with whom he established a lifelong friendship and collaboration, the pair becoming known as "the two Roberts". He joined MacBryde on a travelling scholarship to Francemarker and Italymarker from 1937 to 1939, before serving as an ambulance driver in the Royal Army Medical Corps during the Second World War. After being injured, he returned to Londonmarker in 1941 where he shared studio space with MacBryde. The pair shared a house with John Minton and, from 1943, Jankel Adler.

Colquhoun's early works of agricultural labourers and workmen were strongly influenced by the colours and light of rural Ayrshiremarker. His work developed into a more austere, Expressionist style, heavily influenced by Picasso, and concentrated on the theme of the isolated, agonised figure. From the mid 1940s to the early 1950s he was considered one of the leading artists of his generation. He was also a prolific printmaker, producing a large number of lithographs and monotypes throughout his career.

During and after the Second World War he worked with MacBryde on several set designs. These included sets for Gielgud's Macbeth, King Lear at Stratfordmarker and Massine's Scottish ballet Donald of the Burthens, produced by the Sadler's Wells Balletmarker at Covent Gardenmarker in 1951.

Robert Colquhoun died, an alcoholic, in relative obscurity in London in 1962.

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