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Robert Dickson (1765–1823) was a fur trader, and later an agent for the Indian Department in Upper Canada, who played a prominent part in the War of 1812.

He was born in Dumfriesmarker, where his father was a merchant. When his father's business failed, Robert and his brothers William and Thomas travelled to Canada to work for their cousin Robert Hamilton. While Robert's brothers made careers for themselves in Newarkmarker and the Niagara peninsula, Robert found routine office work tedious, and was sent to Mackinac Islandmarker in 1786 to trade on his own.

He spent many years trading among Indian tribes to the west. In 1797, he married the daughter of a Sioux chief.

During the years preceding the War of 1812, Dickson and other British and Canadian traders were angered by American encroachments into the area where they previously enjoyed a monopoly. As war appeared imminent, Dickson recruited over 100 warriors from the "Western Indians", from the present-day states of Wisconsinmarker, Michiganmarker and Illinoismarker at the British military outpost at St. Joseph Islandmarker.

When news of the outbreak of war arrived, Dickson led a total of 400 Indians in an expedition led by Captain Charles Roberts, which captured Mackinac Islandmarker from its unwary American garrison. He subsequently led the Western Indians south to join the British army at Amherstburg, where they took part in the Siege of Detroit, which caused the surrender of an American army. In the autumn following these victories, Dickson travelled to Montreal, where he was appointed to the Indian Department as Agent and Superintendent for the Western Indians.

During 1813, he led contingents of Indians at the unsuccessful Siege of Fort Meigs and Battle of Fort Stephenson. In 1814, he recruited fresh contingents of the Western Indians and led them at the successful defence of Mackinac Islandmarker and the Engagement on Lake Huron. He ended the war at the captured post of Prairie du Chienmarker, where he quarreled with Andrew Bulger, the post's commandant.

After the war, he retired from the Indian Department although, while on a visit to Scotland in 1816, he applied unsuccessfully to be the Indian Department agent at Amherstburg.

The war had ruined Dickson's fur trading business. He nevertheless resumed trading, but died unexpectedly at Drummond Islandmarker in 1823.

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