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Robert III redirects here. Robert Curthose of Normandy is also sometimes known as Robert III or Robert II.


Robert III (c. 1340 – 4 April 1406) was King of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406)

Biography

He was the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. They had previously married in 1336, but some had criticised that ceremony as uncanonical.

In 1368 his granduncle King David II of Scotland created him Earl of Carrick, and he took some part in the government of the kingdom until about 1387, when a kick from a horse disabled him. Probably in consequence of this accident his brother Robert, Earl of Fifemarker, and not the crown prince himself, became guardian of the kingdom in 1389; but the latter succeeded to the throne on his father's death in May 1390.

At this time he changed his baptismal name of John - unpopular owing to its connection with John de Baliol; he also wished to avoid being called John II, as recognition of Balliol's kingship would weaken the Bruce title to the throne - for that of Robert, and became crowned at Sconemarker in August 1390 as King Robert III. Although he probably attended several parliaments, the new king was seen only nominally as the ruler of Scotland, the real power remaining in the hands of his brother, the Earl of Fife.

In 1399, however, owing to the king's "sickness of the body", his elder son, David, Duke of Rothesay, gained appointment as lieutenant of the kingdom; but there followed an English invasion of Scotland, serious differences between Rothesay and his uncle, Robert, now Duke of Albany, and finally in March 1402 Rothesay's mysterious death at Falkland Palacemarker.

Robert III began to fear for the fate of his only surviving son, young James. In February 1406 he had James taken in secrecy to Dirleton Castlemarker to wait for a ship to transport him to France. Robert of Fife sent a large force after Crown Prince James and when a battle was fought nearby, James was put in a rowing boat and ferried to the Bass Rockmarker in the Firth of Forthmarker. The 11-year-old heir to the throne and his guardians were left for a month on the tiny, windswept, rocky island among the boiling seas, before a ship arrived trying to bring James to France. Robert of Fife informed the English King, who arranged the ship's interception. Thus James became a prisoner of the King of England for 18 years. When Robert III heard of his son's capture, he became even more depressed and allegedly died from grief over the capture of James. Robert asked to be buried under a dunghill with the epitaph: Here lies the worst of Kings and the most miserable of men. He was interred at Paisleymarker instead of Sconemarker, the traditional burial ground of the Scottish kings, as he did not consider himself worthy of the honour.

Marriage and issue

In 1367, Robert III married Anabella Drummond, daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stobhall and Mary Montifex.

Ancestry



Notes

See also



References

  • Stephen Boardman, 'The Early Stewart Kings: Robert II and Robert III (1371-1406)', East Linton, 1996


External links




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