**Arthur John Robin Gorell Milner** FRS FRSE
(

**Robin Milner** or

**A.J.R.G.**
**Milner**, born 13 January 1934
near Plymouth) is a
prominent British computer
scientist.
## Life, education and career

Milner was
born in Yealmpton, near Plymouth, England into a
military family. He was awarded a scholarship to Eton College in 1947, and subsequently served in the Royal Engineers, attaining the rank of
Second Lieutenant. He then enrolled at King's College,
Cambridge, graduating in 1957, Milner first worked as a
schoolteacher then as a programmer at
Ferranti, before entering academia at
City University,
London, then Swansea University, Stanford University, and from 1973 at the University of Edinburgh, where he
was a co-founder of the Laboratory for Foundations of Computer
Science (LFCS). He returned to Cambridge as the head of the Computer
Laboratory in 1995 from which he has subsequently stepped
down, although he is still at the laboratory. Since 2009,
Milner is a SICSA Advanced Research Fellow and holds (part-time)
the Chair of Computer Science at the

University of Edinburgh.

## Contributions

Milner is generally regarded as having made three major
contributions to

computer science.
He developed

LCF, one of the
first tools for

automated
theorem proving. The language he developed for LCF,

ML, was the first language with
polymorphic

type inference and
type-safe

exception handling. In
a very different area, Milner also developed a theoretical
framework for analyzing

concurrent
systems, the

calculus of communicating
systems (CCS), and its successor, the

pi-calculus. He is currently working on
bigraphs, a formalism subsuming CCS and the pi-calculus.

## Honors and awards

He was made a Fellow of the

Royal
Society in 1988 and received the

ACM Turing Award in 1991. In 1994 he was inducted
as a

Fellow of the

ACM. In 2004 the

Royal Society of
Edinburgh awarded Milner with a Royal Medal for his "bringing
about public benefits on a global scale". In 2008, he was elected a
Foreign Associate of the

National Academy of
Engineering for "fundamental contributions to computer science,
including the development of LCF, ML, CCS, and the pi-calculus."

[14008]
## Selected publications

- A calculus of communicating systems, Robin Milner. Springer
(LNCS 92), 1980. ISBN 3-540-10235-3
- Communication and Concurrency, Robin Milner. Prentice Hall
(International Series in Computer Science), 1989. ISBN
0-131-15007-3
- The Definition of Standard ML, Robin Milner, Mads Tofte, Robert Harper, MIT Press 1990
- The Definition of Standard ML (Revised), Robin Milner, Mads Tofte, Robert Harper, David MacQueen, MIT
Press 1997. ISBN 0-262-63181-4
- Commentary on Standard ML, Robin Milner, Mads Tofte, MIT Press 1997. ISBN
0-262-63137-7
- Communicating and Mobile Systems: the Pi-Calculus, Robin
Milner. Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-65869-1

## References

## Bibliography

## External links