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The Rocky Mountains (or Rockies) are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbiamarker, in Canadamarker, to New Mexicomarker, in the United Statesmarker. The range's highest peak is Mount Elbertmarker in Coloradomarker at above sea level. Though part of North America's Pacific Cordillera, the Rockies are distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges (as named in Canada) or Pacific Mountain System (as known in the United States), which are located immediately adjacent to the Pacific coastmarker.

The eastern edge of the Rockies rises impressively above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Front Range of Coloradomarker, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyomingmarker, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montanamarker, and the Clark Range of Albertamarker. In Canada geographers define three main groups of ranges: the Continental Rangesmarker, Hart Ranges and Muskwa Ranges (the latter two flank the Peace River, the only river to pierce the Rockies, and are collectively referred to as the Northern Rockies). Mount Robsonmarker in British Columbiamarker, at , is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies. The Muskwa and Hart Ranges together comprise what is known as the Northern Rockies (the Mackenzie Mountainsmarker north of the Liard Rivermarker are sometimes referred to as being part of the Rockies but this is an unofficial designation).

The western edge of the Rockies includes subranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake Citymarker and the Bitterrootsmarker along the Idahomarker-Montanamarker border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateaumarker separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west, most prominent among which are the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range and Coast Mountainsmarker. The Rockies do not extend into the Yukonmarker or Alaskamarker, or into central British Columbia, where the Rocky Mountain System (but not the Rocky Mountains) includes the Columbia Mountains, the southward extension of which is considered part of the Rockies in the United States. The Rocky Mountain System within the United States is a United States physiographic region; the Rocky Mountain System is known in Canada as the Eastern System.

Geography and geology

The Rocky Mountains are commonly defined as stretching from the Liard Rivermarker in British Columbia south to the Rio Grandemarker in New Mexico. Other mountain ranges continue beyond those two rivers, including the Selwyn Range in Yukonmarker, the Brooks Range in Alaskamarker, and the Sierra Madre in Mexicomarker, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American cordilleramarker. The United States definition of the Rockies, however, includes the Cabinet and Salish Mountainsmarker of Idaho and Montana, whereas their counterparts north of the Kootenai River, the Columbia Mountains, are considered a separate system in Canada, lying to the west of the huge Rocky Mountain Trenchmarker, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard Rivermarker. The Rockies vary in width from 70 to 300 miles (110 to 480 kilometers). Also west of the Rocky Mountain Trench, farther north and facing the Muskwa Range across the trench, are the Stikine Rangesmarker and Omineca Mountainsmarker of the Interior Mountains system of British Columbia. A small area east of Prince George, British Columbiamarker on the eastern side of the Trench, the McGregor Plateaumarker, resembles the Rockies but is considered part of the Interior Plateaumarker.


The younger ranges of the Rocky Mountains uplifted during the late Cretaceous period (100 million – 65 million years ago), although some portions of the southern mountains date from uplifts during the Precambrian (3,980 million – 600 million years ago). The mountains' geology is a complex of igneous and metamorphic rock; younger sedimentary rock occurs along the margins of the southern Rocky Mountains, and volcanic rock from the Tertiary (65 million – 1.8 million years ago) occurs in the San Juan Mountains and in other areas. Millennia of severe erosion in the Wyoming Basin transformed intermountain basins into a relatively flat terrain. The Tetonsmarker and other north-central ranges contain folded and faulted rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age draped above cores of Proterozoic and Archean igneous and metamorphic rocks ranging in age from 1.2 billion (e.g., Tetons) to more than 3.3 billion years (Beartooth Mountains).

Periods of glaciation occurred from the Pleistocene Epoch (1.8 million – 70,000 years ago) to the Holocene Epoch (fewer than 11,000 years ago). Recent episodes included the Bull Lake Glaciation that began about 150,000 years ago and the Pinedale Glaciation that probably remained at full glaciation until 15,000–20,000 years ago. Ninety percent of Yellowstone National Park was covered by ice during the Pinedale Glaciation.The little ice age was a period of glacial advance that lasted a few centuries from about 1550 to 1860. For example, the Agassiz and Jackson glaciers in Glacier National Parkmarker reached their most forward positions about 1860 during the Little Ice Age.

Water in its many forms sculpted the present Rocky Mountain landscape. Runoff and snowmelt from the peaks feed Rocky Mountain rivers and lakes with the water supply for one-quarter of the United States. The rivers that flow from the Rocky Mountains eventually drain into three of the world's Oceans: the Atlantic Oceanmarker, the Pacific Oceanmarker, and the Arctic Oceanmarker.

The Continental Divide is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlanticmarker or Pacificmarker Oceans. Triple Divide Peakmarker (8,020 feet / 2,444 m) in Glacier National Park marker is so named because water that falls on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific, but Hudson Baymarker as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie Rivermarker, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Seamarker of the Arctic Oceanmarker.

Human history

Since the last great Ice Age, the Rocky Mountains were home first to Paleo-Indians and then to the indigenous peoples, including the Apache, Arapaho, Bannock, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, Flathead, Shoshoni, Sioux, Ute, Kutenai (Ktunaxa in Canada), Sekani, Dunne-za, and others. Paleo-Indians hunted the now-extinct mammoth and ancient bison (an animal 20% larger than modern bison) in the foothills and valleys of the mountains. Like the modern tribes that followed them, Paleo-Indians probably migrated to the plains in fall and winter for bison and to the mountains in spring and summer for fish, deer, elk, roots, and berries. In Colorado, along the crest of the Continental Divide, rock walls that Native Americans built for driving game date back 5,400–5,800 years. A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that indigenous peoples had significant effects on mammal populations by hunting and on vegetation patterns through deliberate burning.

Recent human history of the Rocky Mountains is one of more rapid change. The Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado—with a group of soldiers, missionaries, and African slaves—marched into the Rocky Mountain region from the south in 1540. The introduction of the horse, metal tools, rifles, new diseases, and different cultures profoundly changed the Native American cultures. Native American populations were extirpated from most of their historical ranges by disease, warfare, habitat loss (eradication of the bison), and continued assaults on their culture.

Colorado Rockies.
In 1739, Frenchmarker fur traders Pierre and Paul Mallet, while journeying through the Great Plainsmarker, discovered a range of mountains at the headwaters of the Platte River, which local American Indian tribes called the "Rockies", becoming the first Europeans to report on this uncharted mountain range.

Sir Alexander MacKenzie (1764 – March 11, 1820) became the first European to cross the Rocky Mountains in 1793. He found the upper reaches of the Fraser River and reached the Pacific coast of what is now Canada on July 20 of that year, completing the first recorded transcontinental crossing of North America north of Mexico. He arrived at Bella Coola, British Columbiamarker, where he first reached saltwater at South Bentinck Arm, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) was the first scientific reconnaissance of the Rocky Mountains. Specimens were collected for contemporary botanists, zoologists, and geologists. The expedition was said to have paved the way to (and through) the Rocky Mountains for European-Americans from the East, although Lewis and Clark met at least 11 European-American mountain men during their travels.

Mountain men, primarily French, Spanish, and British, roamed the Rocky Mountains from 1720 to 1800 seeking mineral deposits and furs. The fur-trading North West Company established Rocky Mountain House as a trading post in what is now the Rocky Mountain Foothillsmarker of present-day Alberta in 1799, and their business rivals the Hudson's Bay Company established Acton House nearby. These posts served as bases for most European activity in the Canadian Rockies in the early 1800s. Among the most notable are the expeditions of David Thompson , who followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. On his 1811 expedition, he camped at the junction of the Columbia River and the Snake River and erected a pole and notice claiming the area for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a fort at the site.

By the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woodsmarker to the "Stony Mountains"; the UK and the USA agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands further west to the Pacific Oceanmarker. Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, the Oregon dispute, was deferred until a later time.

In 1819, Spainmarker ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, though these rights did not include possession and also included obligations to Britain and Russia concerning their claims in the same region.

After 1802, American fur traders and explorers ushered in the first widespread Caucasian presence in the Rockies south of the 49th parallel. The more famous of these include Americans William Henry Ashley, Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, John Colter, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Andrew Henry, and Jedediah Smith. On July 24, 1832, Benjamin Bonneville led the first wagon train across the Rocky Mountains by using Wyomingmarker's South Passmarker. Similarly, in the wake of Mackenzie's 1793 expedition, fur trading posts were established west of the Northern Rockies in a region of the northern Interior Plateaumarker of British Columbia which came to be known as New Caledonia, beginning with Fort McLeodmarker (today's community of McLeod Lake]] and Fort Frasermarker, but ultimately focussed on Stuart Lake Post (today's Fort St. Jamesmarker).

Negotiations with Great Britainmarker over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon Dispute became important in geopolitical diplomacy between the British Empire and the new American Republic. Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S.A., lasted until June 15, 1846, when Britain ceded their claims to this land with the Oregon Treaty.

In 1841 James Sinclair, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, guided some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west to bolster settlement around Fort Vancouvermarker in an attempt to retain the Columbia District for Britain. The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, a region of the Rocky Mountain Trenchmarker near present-day Radium Hot Springsmarker, British Columbiamarker, then traveled south. Despite such efforts, in 1846, Britain ceded all claim to Columbia District lands south of the 49th parallel to the United States; as resolution to the Oregon boundary dispute by the Oregon Treaty.

Thousands passed through the Rocky Mountains on the Oregon Trail beginning in 1842. The Mormons began to settle near the Great Salt Lakemarker in 1847. From 1859 to 1864, gold was discovered in Coloradomarker, Idahomarker, Montanamarker, and British Columbiamarker, sparking several gold rushes bringing thousands of prospectors and miners to explore every mountain and canyon and to create the Rocky Mountains' first major industry. The Idaho gold rush alone produced more gold than the California and Alaska gold rushes combined and was important in the financing of the Union Army during the American Civil War. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, and Yellowstone National Parkmarker was established as the world's first national park in 1872. A transcontinental railroad in Canada was originally promised in 1871, but was not completed until 1885 due to political reasons, but was eventually built via the Kicking Horse Passmarker and Rogers Pass after consideration of a number of other routes. Thanks to the vision of the railway's promoters, vast areas of the Canadian Rockies were set aside as Jasper, Glacier (BC), Banff and Yoho National Parks, laying the foundation for a tourism industry which thrives to this day. Glacier National Park (MT) was established with a similar relationship to tourism promotions by the Northern Pacific Railroad. While settlers filled the valleys and mining towns, conservation and preservation ethics began to take hold. U.S. President Harrison established several forest reserves in the Rocky Mountains in 1891–1892. In 1905, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt extended the Medicine Bow Forest Reserve to include the area now managed as Rocky Mountain National Parkmarker. Economic development began to center on mining, forestry, agriculture, and recreation, as well as on the service industries that support them. Tents and camps became ranches and farms, forts and train stations became towns, and some towns became cities.

Industry and development

Economic resources of the Rocky Mountains are varied and abundant. Minerals found in the Rocky Mountains include significant deposits of copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, silver, tungsten, and zinc. The Wyoming Basin and several smaller areas contain significant reserves of coal, natural gas, oil shale, and petroleum. For example, the Climaxmarker mine, located near Leadville, Coloradomarker, was the largest producer of Molybdenum in the world. Molybdenum is used in heat-resistant steel in such things as cars and planes. The Climax mine employed over 3,000 workers. The Coeur d’Alenemarker mine of northern Idaho produces silver, lead, and zinc. Canada's largest coal mines are near Fernie, British Columbiamarker and Sparwood, British Columbiamarker; additional coal mines exist near Hinton, Albertamarker, and in the Northern Rockies surrounding Tumbler Ridge, British Columbiamarker.
Abandoned mines with their wakes of mine tailings and toxic wastes dot the Rocky Mountain landscape. In one major example, eighty years of zinc mining profoundly polluted the river and bank near Eagle River in north-central Colorado. High concentrations of the metal carried by spring runoff harmed algae, moss, and trout populations. An economic analysis of mining effects at this site revealed declining property values, degraded water quality, and the loss of recreational opportunities. The analysis also revealed that cleanup of the river could yield $2.3 million in additional revenue from recreation. In 1983, the former owner of the zinc mine was sued by the Colorado Attorney General for the $4.8 million cleanup costs; five years later, ecological recovery was considerable.

Agriculture and forestry are major industries. Agriculture includes dryland and irrigated farming and livestock grazing. Livestock are frequently moved between high-elevation summer pastures and low-elevation winter pastures, a practice known as transhumance.

Human population is not very dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer (10 per square mile) and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew rapidly in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990. The 40-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last 40 years. Jackson Hole, Wyomingmarker, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in 40 years.

Tourism

See also: List of U.S. Rocky Mountain ski resorts, List of Alberta ski resorts, List of B.C. ski resorts

Every year the scenic areas and recreational opportunities of the Rocky Mountains draw millions of tourists. The main language of the Rocky Mountains is English. But there are also linguistic pockets of Spanish and Native American languages. French is an official language in Canada's national parks.

People from all over the world visit the sites to hike, camp, or engage in mountain sports. In the summer season, the main tourist attractions are:

In the United States:

In Canada, the mountain range contains these national parks:

Glacier National Park in Montana and Waterton Lakes National Park in Alberta border each other and collectively are known as Waterton-Glacier International Peace Parkmarker. (See also International Peace Park.)

In the winter, skiing is the main attraction. A list of the major ski resorts can be found at List of U.S. Rocky Mountain ski resorts.

The adjacent Columbia Mountains in British Columbia contain major resorts such as, Ferniemarker, Panoramamarker and Kicking Horsemarker, as well as Mount Revelstoke National Parkmarker and Glacier National Park.

There are numerous provincial parks in the British Columbia Rockies, the largest and most notable being Mount Assiniboine Provincial Parkmarker, Mount Robson Provincial Parkmarker, Northern Rocky Mountains Provincial Parkmarker, Kwadacha Wilderness Provincial Parkmarker, Stone Mountain Provincial Parkmarker and Muncho Lake Provincial Parkmarker.

Climate

The Rocky Mountains have a highland climate. The average annual temperature in the valley bottoms of the Colorado Rockies near the latitude of Boulder is 43 °F (6 °C). July is the hottest month there with an average temperature of 82 °F (28 °C). In January, the average monthly temperature is 7 °F (−14 °C), making it the region's coldest month. The average precipitation per year there is approximately 14 inches (360 mm).

The summers in this area of the Rockies are warm and dry, because the western fronts impede the advancing of water-carrying storm systems. The average temperature in summer is 59 °F (15 °C) and the average precipitation is 5.9 inches (150 mm). Winter is usually wet and very cold, with an average temperature of 28 °F (−2 °C) and average snowfall of 11.4 inches (29.0 cm). In spring, the average temperature is 40 °F (4 °C) and the average precipitation is 4.2 inches (107 mm). And in the fall, the average precipitation is 2.6 inches (66 mm) and the average temperature is 44 °F (7 °C).

See also



References

  1. (public domain source)
  2. PBS—THE WEST—Events from 1650 to 1800


External links




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