Roman and Eastern Catholicism in the United States
is part of the worldwide Catholic
, the Christian
full communion with the Pope
. Catholicism arrived
in what is now Continental
during the earliest days of the European colonization of
and onward, the Spanish Catholic
missionaries followed closely on the heels of Columbus
. At the time the country was
founded on the eastern seacoast only a small fraction of the
population were Catholic. The numbers of Catholics has grown over
the country's history. It is now the largest Christian church in
the United States today. With about 70 million registered residents
professing the faith in 2008, the United States has the fourth largest Catholic
population in the world after Brazil, Mexico, and the
The 2008 Yearbook of American
and Canadian Churches
, a statistical listing of major religious
bodies published by National Council of Churches
reports over 67,515,016 registered members of the Roman Catholic Church
. The next
largest Christian group is a Protestant denomination, the Southern Baptist Convention
which reports only 16,306,246 members.
The Church's leadership body in the United States is the U. S. Conference of Catholic
Bishops, made up of the hierarchy of bishop and archbishops of the United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands, although each bishop is independent in his own
diocese, answerable only to the
In addition to the 195 dioceses represented in the USCCB, there are
several dioceses in the nation's other four overseas dependencies.
In the Commonwealth of
, the bishops in the six dioceses (one metropolitan
archdiocese and five suffragan dioceses) form their own episcopal conference
, the Conferencia Episcopal
. The bishops in U.S. insular areas in the Pacific Ocean — the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana
Islands, the Territory of American Samoa, and the Territory of Guam — are members of the Episcopal Conference
of the Pacific.
for Catholics exists
in the United States. The Archdiocese of
, the first diocese
in the country in 1789 with John
as its head, received Prerogative of Place
the 1850s, which confers to its archbishop
of the leadership responsibilities granted to primates in other
countries. Bishop Carroll's family was very well connected.
cousin, Charles Carroll of
Carrollton, one of the richest men in America, was the sole
Catholic to sign the Declaration of Independence and
the first United States
senator from Maryland.
In 1774, the colonial government
commissioned John Carroll, Benjamin
, Samuel Chase
, and his
cousin, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, to seek aid from British
Canada (which at the time was predominantly French Catholic). The
bishop's younger brother, Daniel
, a good friend of James
, was one of only five men to sign both the Articles of Confederation
of the United
Provinces and dioceses of the Roman
Catholic Church in the U.S.
Each color represents one of the 32 Latin-rite
The color for Dubuque (Iowa) is slightly different from that
of Denver (Colorado and Wyoming).
Represented in the USCCB are 195 archdioceses and dioceses (in the
U.S. and the Territory of the Virgin Islands):
- 145 Latin Catholic dioceses
- 33 Latin Catholic archdioceses, and 32 Latin Catholic
ecclesiastical provinces (the Roman
Catholic Archdiocese for the Military Services USA is not a
metropolitan archdiocese and has no suffragan diocese)
- 15 Eastern Catholic dioceses
- 2 Eastern Catholic archdioceses, and 2 Eastern Catholic
There are also several dioceses in the nation's other four overseas
dependencies. In the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
bishops in the six dioceses (one metropolitan archdiocese and five
suffragan dioceses) form their own episcopal conference
, the Conferencia Episcopal
. The bishops in U.S. insular areas in the Pacific Ocean — the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana
Islands, the Territory of American Samoa, and the Territory of Guam — are members of the Episcopal Conference
of the Pacific.
This diocesan list gives the Catholic Church the third highest
total number of individual parishes in the U.S., behind Southern
Baptists and Methodists. However, because the average Catholic
parish is significantly larger than the average church from those
denominations, there are more than 4 times as many Catholics as
Southern Baptists and more than 8 times as many as Methodists
The Church has over 41,406 diocesan and religious-order priests in
the United States; also over 30,000 lay ministers (80% of them
women), 17,000 men who are ordained as permanent deacons in the
United States (a permanent deacon is a man, either married or
single, who is ordained to the order of deacons, the first of three
ranks in ordained ministry. They assist priests in administrative
and pastoral roles), 63,032 sisters, 5,040 brothers, 16 U.S.
Cardinals, 424 active and retired U.S. bishops in the United
States, and 5,029 seminarians enrolled in the United States.
Overall, it employs more than one million employees with an
operating budget of nearly 100 billion dollars to run parishes,
diocesan primary and secondary schools, nursing homes, retreat
centers, diocesan hospitals, and other charitable
150,000 Catholic school
operate in the United States, teaching 2.7 million students.
schools of higher education include: Canisius College, Boston
College, Fairfield University, Providence College, Seattle University, Catholic University of America, DePaul University, University of Portland, College of Holy Cross, Fordham University, Georgetown University, La Salle University, Loyola
University, Marquette University, Saint Louis University, Seton Hall University, University of Notre Dame, University of
San Diego, University of San Francisco, University of Santa Clara, Villanova University, University of Dayton, Barry University,
University, University of
Dallas, etc. Many of these universities and colleges have
established programs abroad and collaborate with schools in other
countries. In 2009, for example, representatives of four
Jesuit institutions in California (the University of San Francisco,
the University of Santa Clara, the Jesuit School of Theology, and
Marymount University) were in consultation with the religious studies
faculty of the University of Fudan, Shanghai, China, to broaden
the religious studies programs at that university.
In 2002, the Church's Catholic health care system, overseeing 625
hospitals with a combined revenue of 30 billion dollars, was also
the nation's largest group of nonprofit systems. In 2008, the cost
of running these hospitals had risen to $84.6 billion, including
the $5.7 billion they donate. According to the Catholic Health
Association of the United States
, 60 health care systems, on
average, admit one in six patients nationwide each year.
is also active
as one of the largest voluntary social
networks in the United States. In 2009 it welcomed in
New Jersey the 50,000th refugee to come to the United States from
Likewise, the U.S. Bishops' Migration and Refugee Services has
resettled 14,846 refugees from Myanmar since 2006.
There are 68,115,001 registered Catholics in the United States (22%
of the U.S. population) according to the Official Catholic
2009. Estimates from recent years generally range
around 20% to 28%. Based on Pew Research Center surveys conducted
from January 2006 to September 2006, 25.2% of the American
population claim to be followers of the Roman Catholic Church (of a
national population of 300 million residents). According to a new
survey of 35,556 American residents (released in 2008 by the Pew
Forum on Religion and Public Life), 23.9% of Americans (both
registered and unregistered) identify themselves as Roman Catholic
(approximately 72 million of a national population of 306 million
residents). The study also notes that 10% of those people who
identify themselves as Protestant in the interview are former
Catholics and 8% of those who identity themselves as Catholic are
former Protestants. Nationally, more parishes have opened than
closed. The northeastern quadrant of the U.S. (i.e., New England,
Mid-Atlantic, East North Central, and West North Central) has seen
a decline in the number of parishes since 1970, but parish numbers
are up in the other five regions (i.e., South Atlantic, East South
Central, West South Central, Pacific, and Mountain regions).
Catholics in the U.S. are about 6% of the church's total worldwide
A poll by The Barna Group in 2004 found Catholic ethnicity to be
60% non-Hispanic white (mostly Irish, Italian, Polish), 31%
of any race, 4% Black
, and 5% other ethnicity (mostly
and other Asian Americans
, and American
of 195 dioceses, 5 dioceses are vacant (sede vacante). Another 14 bishops, including two cardinals, are past the retirement age of 75.
Roman Catholicism by state
By percentage of Catholics
The Catholic parochial school system developed in the
early-to-mid-nineteenth century partly in response to what was seen
as anti-Catholic bias in American public schools. Most states
passed constitutional amendments, called Blaine Amendments
, forbidding tax money be
used to fund parochial schools. In 2002, the United
States Supreme Court partially vitiated these amendments, in theory,
when they ruled that vouchers were constitutional if tax dollars
followed a child to a school, even if it was religious.
However, as of 2009, no state's school system has changed its laws
to allow this.
early 1980s, there was only one Catholic justice on the U.S. Supreme Court: William
J. Brennan, Jr.
This changed in the mid-1980s when President Ronald Reagan
appointed Antonin Scalia
and Anthony Kennedy
to the court, both of whom
were Catholic. President George H.
appointed Clarence Thomas
(a Catholic who at the time
of his appointment was attending Episcopalian
though he has since become an active Catholic). President George W. Bush
appointed John Roberts
and Samuel Alito
, both Catholics. , the Supreme
Court currently has a Catholic majority. With the confirmation of
Judge Sonia Sotomayor
as a Supreme
Court Justice, six of the nine justices are now Catholic. Several
scholars have suggested reasons for this change: as Protestantism's
dominance in American culture recedes as it has over the last
half-century, Catholicism has become a non-issue in court
appointments, and "the nation's concerns about diversity have
shifted from religion and geography to gender and race." The fact
that Catholics are now the largest single religious denomination in
the US and increasingly well-educated are also factors to be
The four Catholic Supreme Court justices nominated in the last
decade have become reliable votes for abortion restriction. In
(1989), City of
Akron v. Akron
Center for Reproductive Health
(1990), Hodgson v. Minnesota
(1990), and Rust v. Sullivan
(1991), Scalia and Kennedy upheld
the restrictions in question. This is not to say that all Catholics
vote a certain way; the majority of Catholic judges have been
appointed by Republicans (traditionally opposed to abortion), while
Protestant and Jewish judges have been appointed by Democrats
(traditionally tolerant of abortion). However, there is still a
great difference between Catholic judges and Protestant judges.
While many Protestant judges were pro-choice, only one Catholic
judge has ever ruled against abortion restrictions, and that was in
one of six cases. This makes for very reliable voting patterns in
the Supreme Court, at least when it comes to abortion issues.
Catholicism first came to the territories
now forming the continental United States before the Protestant Reformation with the
Spanish explorers and settlers in present-day Florida (1513) and the Southwest.
Christian worship service held in the current United States in
was a Catholic Mass celebrated in
Pensacola, FL. (St. Michael records) Not long after that, the first
permanent European colony was established at St. Augustine in
. The influence of the Alta California missions
and onwards) also forms a lasting
memorial to part of this heritage. In the French territories, Catholicism
was ushered in with the establishment of colonies and forts in
Detroit (1701), St. Louis (1763), Mobile (1702), Biloxi, Baton Rouge (1699), and New Orleans (1718). As early as 1604, the French established a site in Maine on
Island, but it was short-lived.
Catholicism in the
Spanish (East and West Florida) and French (eastern
Louisiana/Quebec) colonies was undisturbed under later
administration by Britain.
In the English colonies along the Atlantic seaboard, Catholicism
was later to be seen as a stigma, even though it had been involved
in English colonization of America from the beginning with John Cabot
Mary, the Catholic, was also Queen of Chile
, but few, if any,
English relations developed from this, since men such as Hawkins
preferred the Spanish Main
like Frobisher, the Northwest
. Elizabeth, in restoring Anglicanism to favor
Calvinism, had her lieutenants Drake and Raleigh attempt to found
Anglican settlements. English
Catholics reintroduced Catholicism with the settling of
Avalon and Maryland (1634); these colonies offered
a rare example of religious
toleration in a fairly intolerant age, particularly among other
English colonies which frequently exhibited a quite militant
Maryland Toleration Act
note the pre-eminence of the Archdiocese of Baltimore
Catholic circles.) The Duke of York
future King James II of England
was also Catholic and issued the Declaration of Indulgence
Combined between the duke and Baron Baltimore
Catholicism on the proprietary level was highly spread out in 1664,
from the Potomac to the Connecticut rivers, with part of Maine and
Massachusetts even held by the duke. New York's western land claims
were over a vast expanse, which neighboring Protestant colonies
feared to be settled by its Catholic proprietor, in contention with
their own land charters.
Catholicism thus became limited to the Middle Colonies
, whereas the South was
officially Anglican and New England, in the north, was Calvinist.
English colonial religion was a New World microcosm of spiritual
conditions back in England, as each had then affiliated with their
own kind. Whereas Catholicism was once the predominant English
affiliation (with some Lollardy
Reformation disestablished this and caused a split between
magisterial and radical reformations which departed from the usual
custom. The South was thus a Broad
blend of Catholicism and Calvinism, whereas the North
was strictly Low Church
each responded to the English Civil
in their own way. The North supported Oliver Cromwell
with troops and the South
supported Charles I
, who was
later considered a martyr.
The Catholics in America, although officially discriminated against
by their Southern compatriots, were not in any position to favor
the Northern Calvinists, who were more extreme in their dislike of
Catholicism. The Calvinists laid siege upon Catholic rule in the
Middle Colonies, deposing both the Duke of York/King of England and
the then-Lord Baltimore, but Jacobitism
did not thrive in the colonies, apart from such isolated examples
as Flora MacDonald
, ironically a
Calvinist. The Anglicans cooperated in order to retain their
position of authority in a time when Calvinism became orthodox and
accepted, while Catholicism was diminished.
At the time of the American
, Catholics formed 1.6% of the population of the
thirteen colonies (35,000 out of 4,000,000, including slaves), and
only one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence,
, was a
Catholic. One of the reasons Americans rebelled from British rule
was the fact that French Canada was allowed freedom of religion
under the Quebec Act
, whereas the English
colonies were still expected to worship at an official church. This
kind of double standard inspired a nationalistic disgust in the
colonists, who ultimately chose to make the First Amendment of
their Bill of Rights
contain a guarantee of freedom of religion. Irish Catholics
(unlike Lord Baltimore and
the Earl of Ulster
/Duke of York,
their English landlords) were initially mostly barred from settling
in the colonies, but later came to seek refuge from their troubled
homeland and this is what revived Catholicism in America after
number of Roman Catholics in Continental United States
increased almost overnight with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the Adams-Onís
Treaty (purchasing Florida) in 1819, and in
1847 with the incorporation of the northern
territories of Mexico into the
United States (Mexican Cession) at
the end of the Mexican American
Catholics formed the majority in these continental
areas and had been there for centuries. Most were descendants of
the original settlers, dating back to the 16th and 17th centuries,
benefiting in the Southwest, for example, from the livestock industry
introduced by Jesuit
priest Eusebio Kino
However, U.S. Catholics increased most dramatically and
significantly in the latter half of the 19th century and the early
20th century due to a massive influx of European immigrants from Ireland, Italy, Germany (especially the south and west), Austria-Hungary, and the Russian
Empire (largely Poles). Substantial numbers of Catholics also
came from French Canada during the
mid-19th century and settled in New England.
Although these ethnic groups tended to live
and worship apart initially, over time they intermarried so that,
in modern times, many Catholics are descended from more than one
By 1850 Catholics had become the country’s largest single
denomination. Between 1860 and 1890, their population in the United
States tripled through immigration; by the end of the decade it
would reach seven million. This influx would eventually bring
increased political power for the Roman Catholic Church and a
greater cultural presence, which led simultaneously to a growing
fear of the Catholic "menace" among America's Protestants.
Some anti-immigrant and Nativism
movements, like the Know Nothings
the Ku Klux Klan
, have also been
. Indeed, for most of
the history of the United States, Catholics have been victims of
discrimination and persecution. It was not until the time of the
Presidency of John F. Kennedy
following century that Catholics lived in the U.S. largely free of
suspicion. The Ku Klux Klan-ridden South discriminated against
Catholics (as they did the Jews and African Americans) for their
commonly Irish, Italian, Polish, German, or Spanish ethnicity. Many
Protestants in the Midwest and the North labeled Catholics as
", "incapable of free
thought without the approval of the Pope
example, in 1850, Franklin Pierce
as the U. S. Attorney for the District of New Hampshire, presented
resolutions for the removal of restrictions on Catholics from
holding office in that state, as well as the removal of property
qualifications for voting; however, these pro-Catholic measures
were submitted to the electorate and were unsurprisingly defeated.
As the nineteenth century progressed, animosity between Protestants
and Catholics waned; most Protestant Americans came to understand
that, despite anti-Catholic
rhetoric, Roman Catholics were not trying to seize control of the
government. Nonetheless, concerns continued into the twentieth
century that there was too much "Catholic influence" on the
In the latter half of the 19th century, the first attempt at
standardizing discipline in the American Church occurred with the
convocation of the Plenary
Councils of Baltimore
. These councils resulted in the promulgation
of the Baltimore Catechism and
the establishment of the Catholic University of
By the beginning of the 20th century, approximately one-sixth of
the population of the United States was Roman Catholic.
Catholic immigrants come to the United States from the Philippines, Poland, and Latin
America, especially from Mexico.
and diversity has greatly
impacted the flavor of Catholicism in the United States. For
example, many dioceses serve in both the English language
and the Spanish language
. Also, when many
parishes were set up in the United States, separate churches were
built for parishioners from Ireland, Germany, Italy, etc. In
Iowa, the development of the Archdiocese of
Dubuque, the work of Bishop Loras
and the building of St. Raphael's Cathedral illustrate this point.
In the later 20th century "[...] the Catholic Church in the United
States became the subject of controversy due to allegations of
abuse of children and adolescents
, of episcopal negligence in
arresting these crimes, and of numerous civil suits that cost
Catholic dioceses hundreds of millions of dollars in damages."
Because of this, higher scrutiny and governance, as well as
protective policies and diocesan investigation into seminaries have
been enacted to correct these former abuses of power, and safeguard
parishioners and the Church from further abuses and scandals. Many
see in these reforms (along with Vatican
) signs of a new era of lay initiative and
One initiative is the "National
Leadership Roundtable on Church Management
" (NLRCM), a lay-led
group born in the wake of the sexual abuse scandal and dedicated to
bringing better administrative practices to 194 dioceses which
include 19,000 parishes nationwide.
Recently John Micklethwait
of The Economist
co-author of God Is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith Is
Changing the World
, said that American Catholicism, which he
describes in his book as "arguably the most striking Evangelical
success story of the second half of the nineteeth century," has
competed quite happily "without losing any of its basic
characteristics." It has thrived in America's "pluralism."
American Catholic Servants of God, Venerables, Beatified, and
For a full list of Servants of God and other open causes, see
American saints and beatified people.
The following are some notable American Servants of God and all
Venerables, Beatified, and Saints of the U.S.:
|Servants of God
|Nelson Baker, Vincent Robert Capodanno, Dorothy Day, Demetrius Gallitzin,Isaac Hecker, Emil
Kapaun, Rose Hawthorne
Lathrop, Patrick Peyton, Fulton J. Sheen
||Solanus Casey, Cornelia Connelly, Samuel Charles Mazzuchelli,
Michael J. McGivney, Pierre Toussaint, Félix Varela
||Marianne Cope, Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, Francis Xavier Seelos, Junípero Serra, Kateri Tekakwitha
||Frances Xavier Cabrini,
Jean de Lalande, Damien De Veuster, Katharine Drexel, Rose Philippine Duchesne, René Goupil, Mother Théodore Guérin, Isaac Jogues, John
Neumann, Elizabeth Ann
Top six Catholic pilgrimage destinations in the U.S.
- See also: List of Shrines
- National Shrine of
the North American Martyrs, Auriesville, New York
- El Santuario de Chimayó, Chimayó, New Mexico, north of Santa Fe
(settled in 1609). Chimayó is sometimes called the "Lourdes
- Basilica of the National Shrine of
St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, Emmitsburg, Maryland
- Basilica of the National Shrine of the
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Baltimore, Maryland
- National Shrine
of St. John Neumann (in St. Peter the Apostle Church),
- Basilica of the National Shrine of the
Immaculate Conception, Washington, D.C.
Notable American Catholics
- For living U.S. bishops, see: List of the
Catholic bishops of the United States
Some notable American Catholics, living and deceased (baptized
and/or buried in a Roman Catholic service) include (in
, Samuel Alito
, Lucille Ball
, Msgr. Geno
, John Barry
, Regina Benjamin
, Black Elk
, Robert Bork
, Tom Brady
, Donna Brazile
, Orestes Brownson
William F. Buckley, Jr.
, Jeb Bush
, John Cabot
, César Chávez
, Harry Connick Jr.
, Gary Cooper
, Mario Cuomo
, Robert De Niro
, Andre Dubus
, Fr. Francis P. Duffy
, F. Scott Fitzgerald
, Raymond Flynn
, Fr. Stan
, Norman Francis
, Andy Garcia
, James Cardinal
, Mel Gibson
, Newt Gingrich
, Rudolph Giuliani
, Mary Ann Glendon
, Fr. Benedict Groeschel
, James Groppi
, Ernest Hemingway
, Luci Baines Johnson
, John F. Kennedy
, Robert Kennedy
, John Kerry
, Alan Keyes
, Thaddeus Kosciusko
, Marquis de La
, Vince Lombardi
, Clare Boothe Luce
, Rocky Marciano
, Chris Matthews
, Claude McKay
, Fr. Thomas Merton
, Ricardo Montalban
, Mother Angelica
, Bishop Francis Mugavero
, Janet Napolitano
, Bernard Nathanson
, Liam Neeson
, Fr. Richard John Neuhaus
, Flannery O'Connor
, Bill O'Reilly
, Nancy Pelosi
, Walker Percy
, Katherine Anne
, Casimir Pulaski
, Anne Rice
, Cokie Roberts
John Glover Roberts
, Tim Russert
, Babe Ruth
, Arnold Schwarzenegger
, Martin Scorsese
, Donna Shalala
), Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen
, Eunice Kennedy Shriver
, Sargent Shriver
, Frank Sinatra
, Sonia Sotomayor
, Sylvester Stallone
, Michael Steele
, Andrew Sullivan
, Clarence Thomas
, Andy Warhol
), John Wayne
, Brian Williams
, Tennessee Williams
- David Neff, "Global Is Now Local: Princeton's Robert Wuthnow
says American congregations are more international than ever,"
Christianity Today June, 2009, 39.
- Thomas W. Spalding, "'A Revolution More Extraordinary': Bishop
John Carroll and the Birth of American Catholicism," Maryland
Historical Magazine, Vol. 84, Fall, 1989, 195 ff.
- Grace Donovan, "The Caton Sisters: the Carrolls of Carrollton
Two Generations Later," U.S. Catholic Historian, 5 (1986),
- Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches 2009
(Nashville: Abington Press, 2009), 12.
- Rocco Palmo, "Vocations crisis? What crisis?, The
Tablet, 30 June, 2007, 56.
- Thomas Healy, "A Blueprint for Change," America 26
September, 2005, 14.
- Thomas Rauasch, "Mandate of Heaven," America 2
November, 2009, 18.
- Arthur Jones, "Catholic heaalth care aims to make 'Catholic' a
brand name," National Catholic Reporter 18 July, 2003,
- Alice Popovici, "Keeping Catholic priorities on the table,"
National Catholic Reporter
26 June, 2009, 7.
- "50,000th refugee settled," National Catholic Reporter
24 July, 2009, 3.
- Michael Paulson, "US religious identity is rapidly changing,"
Globe, February 26, 2008, 1
- Ted Olsen, "Go Figure," Christianity Today, April,
- Dennis Sadowski, "When parishes close, there is more to deal
with than just logistics," National Catholic Reporter 7
July, 2009, 6.
- See each state's Religious Demographic section
- Thomas E. Buckley, "A Mandate for Anti-Catholicism: The Blaine
Amendment," America 27 September, 2004, 18-21.
- Michael Paulson, "Obama nomination would boost ranks of
Catholics on court," The Boston Globe, 30 May, 2009,
- William Saletan: The political advantages of Catholic justices.,
slate.com, Nov. 1,
- Alan Taylor, American Colonies (New York: Viking,
- Taylor, 363-395
- Emily Clark, Masterless Mistresses: The New Orleans
Ursulines and the Development of a New World Society (Chapel
Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).
- Thomas J. Shelley, "Lessons From Early Maryland Catholics,"
America 22 June, 1996, 9-13.
- Paul S. Boyer, ed. The Oxford Companion to United States
History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 405, 8,
- By 1843, for example, William Tecumseh Sherman could
write to his wife, Ellen, a Catholic, that there was a "sizable
proportion of Catholics" in St. Louis. Lee Kennett, Sherman: A
Soldier's Life (Perennial/HarpersCollins, 2001), 55.
- Tom Roberts, "After Four Centuries, the Flavor of Spanish
Catholicism Lingers," National Catholic Reporter 2
October, 2009, 16.
- John R. Dichtl, Frontiers of Faith: Bringing Catholicism to
the West in the Early Republic (Lexington: University Press of
- James M. O'Toole, The Faithful, A History of Catholics in
America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008).
- Nicolas Kanellos, Thirty Million Strong: Reclaiming the
Hispanic Image in American Culture (Golden, Colorado: Pulcrum
Publishing, 1998), 24-25.
- Tyler Anbinder, Nativism and Slavery (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1994).
- "Battle of Religious Tolerance," The World Almanac,
- Patrick W. Carey, Catholics in America. A History,
Westport, Connecticut and London: Praeger, 2004, p. 141
- Paul Philibert, "Living the Catholic faith," National
Catholic Reporter, 1 May, 2009, 1A.
- Austin Ivereigh, "God Makes a Comeback: An Interview with John
Micklethwait, America, 5 October, 2009, 13-14.
- The Official Catholic Directory Pilgrimage Guide (New
Providence, N.J.: Kenedy and Sons, 2003), 61-69.
- Chmiel, David, "His Heart Belongs to Jersey", New Jersey
Monthly, June 9, 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
- Abell, Aaron. American Catholicism and Social Action: A
Search for Social Justice, 1865-1950 (Garden City, NY: Hanover
- Bales, Susan Ridgley. When I Was a Child: Children's
Interpretations of First Communion (Chapel Hill: University of
North Carolina, 2005).
- Carroll, Michael P. American Catholics in the Protestant
Imagination: Rethinking the Academic Study of Religion
(Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).
- Christiano, Kevin. "The Catholic Church and Recent Immigrants
to the United States: A Review of Research," in Helen Rose Ebaugh,
ed., Vatican II and American Catholicism: Twenty-five Years
Later (Greenwich, Ct.: JAI Press, 1991).
- D'Antonio, William V., James D. Davidson, Dean R. Hoge, and
Katherine Meyer. American Catholics: Gender, Generation, and
Commitment (Huntington, Ind.: Our Sunday Visitor Visitor
Publishing Press, 2001).
- Deck, Allan Figueroa, S.J. The Second Wave: Hispanic
Ministry and the Evangelization of Cultures (New York:
- Dolan, Jay P. The Immigrant Church: New York Irish and
German Catholics, 1815-1865 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1975).
- Donovan, Grace. "Immigrant Nuns: Their Participation in the
Process of Americanization," in Catholic Historical Review
77, 1991, 194-208.
- Ellis, John Tracy. Documents of American Catholic
History 2nd ed. (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1956).
- Ellis, J.T. American Catholicism 2nd ed.(Chicago:
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- Fialka, John J. Sisters: Catholic Nuns and the Making of
America (New York: St. Martin Press, 2003).
- Finke, Roger. "An Orderly Return to Tradition: Explaining
Membership Growth in Catholic Religious Orders," in Journal for
the Scientific Study of Religion , 36, 1997, 218-230.
- Fisher, James T. On the Irish Waterfront: The Crusader, the
Movie, and the Soul of the Port of New York (Ithaca: Cornell
University, 2009) ISBN 9780801448041.
- Fogarty, Gerald P., S.J. Commonwealth Catholicism: A
History of the Catholic Church in Virginia, ISBN
- Galloway, Patricia K., ed., La Salle and His Legacy:
Frenchmen and Indians in the Lower Mississippi Valley
(Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1982).
- Garraghan, Gilbert J. The Jesuits of the Middle United
States Vol. II (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1984).
- Greeley, Andrew. "The Demography of American Catholics,
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