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The Perso-Arabic alphabet, with names in the Devanāgarī and Roman Urdū alphabets


Roman Urdu is the name used for the Urdū language (as well as the Hindī language) written with the Roman alphabet.

According to the famous Urdū scholar Habib R. Sulemani: "Roman Urdu is strongly opposed by the traditional Arabic script lovers. Despite this opposition it is still used by most on the internet and computers due to limitations of most technologies as they do not have the Urdu script. Although, this script is under development and thus the net users are using the Roman script in their own ways. Popular websites like Jang Group have devised their own schemes for Roman Urdu. This is of great advantage for those who are not able to read the Arabic script. MSN, Yahoo and some desi-chat-rooms are working as laboratories for the evolving new script and language (Roman Urdu)."

Writing system

The following scheme is the system used to write Roman Urdu. This article will use the system described below.

Consonants
Urdu alphabet Hindi alphabet Roman alphabet Alternative Roman alphabet
ب b, B  
بھہ b, B bh, Bh
پ p, P  
پھہ p, P ph, Ph
ت t, T  
تھہ t, T th, Th
ٹ ŧ, Ŧ t', T'
ٹھہ ŧ, Ŧ ŧh, Ŧh/th', Th'
ث s, S  
ج j, J  
جھہ j, J jh, Jh
چ c, C  
چھہ c, C ch, Ch
ح h, H hh, Hh
خ ख़ ķ, Ķ k', K'
د d, D  
دھ d, D dh, Dh
ڈ đ, Đ d', D'
ڈھہ đ, Đ đh, Đh/dh', Dh'
ذ ज़ z, Z  
ر r, R  
ڑ ड़ ř, Ř r', R'
ز झ़ z, Z  
ژ ख़ x, X
س s, S  
ش ş, Ş s', S'
ص s, S  
ض z, Z  
ط t, T  
ظ ज़ z, Z  
غ ग़ ġ, Ġ g', G'
ف फ़ f, F  
ق क़ q, Q  
ک k, K

not c, C
 
کھہ k, K k', K'
گ g, G  
گھہ g, G g', G'
ل l, L  
م m, M  
ن n, N  
ں ŋ, Ŋ n, N
ھ،ہ h, H  
Vowels & diphthongs
Urdu alphabet Hindi alphabet Roman alphabet Alternative Roman alphabet
ا a, A  
آ ä, Ä/æ, Æ as in Äm/Æm: آم आम á, aa, Aa
ع
  • â, Â as in Âmmär: عمار अमार
  • ê, Ê as in Êb: عیب अब, Ênak: عینک नाक
  • î, Î as in Îmrän: عمران इम्रान , Îndiä: عنریہ इंडिया
  • ô, Ô as in Ôd: عود ओद, Ôn: عون ओन
  • û, Û as in Ûmar: عمر उमर, Ûmer: عمیر उमेर
 
و
  • Beginning of word: v, V; Middle/end of word: o, O as in dost: دوست दोस्त, g'ořä: گھوڈا गोरा
  • ö, Ö as in dör: دور दोर, döřnä: دوڑنا दोर्ना
  • ú, u, U as in durre-şahwär: درشہوار दुरे सह्वार, muřnä: مڑنا मुर्ना, g'umänä: گھمانا गुमाना
  • ü, Ü as in g'ümnä: گھومنا गुमना, dür: دور दूर
Beginning of word: w, W
ی
  • Beginning of word: y, Y; Middle/end of word: i, I as in din: دن दन
  • ï, Ï as in dïn: دین दिन
ے
  • Beginning of word: y, Y; Middle/end of word: e, E as in jäte: جاتے जाते, gäte: گاتے गाते
  • ë, Ë as in "Mëŋ dukän meŋ hün": "میں دکان میں ھوں" "मेन दुकान मेन हुन"
 


Examples

Roman Urdu Perso-Arabic Devanāgarī English Translation Notes

assalamu alaikum السلام علیکم अस्सलामु अलैकुम्। Hello lit. "Peace be upon you." (from Arabic)

آداب would generally

be used to give respect

و علیکم السلام / वअलैकुम् अस्सलाम्

is the correct response.
adáb arz hai آداب عرض ہے आदाब अर्ज़ है। Hello "Regards to you"

(lit Regards are expressed),

a very formal secular greeting.
khudá hafiz خدا حافظ ख़ुदा हाफ़िज़। Good Bye Khudá is Persian for God,

and hafiz is from Arabic hifz "protection".

So lit. "May God be your Guardian."

Standard and commonly used

by Muslims and non-Muslims OR al vida formally spoken all over
n ہاں हां yes casual
ji جی जि yes formal
ji han جی ہاں जि हां yes confident formal
نا ना no casual
nahin OR ji nahin نہیں, جی نہیں नहीं, जी नहीं no formal
meharbani مہربانی मेहर्बानी। please
shukria OR jazakallah شکریہ शुक्रीया। thank you
tashreef laie تشریف لائیے तश्रीफ़ लायीए। Please come in lit. Bring your honour
tashreef rakhie تشریف رکھیئے तश्रीफ़ रखीये। Please have a seat lit. Place your honour
áp se mil kar khvushi (khushi) hui اپ سے مل کر خوشی ہوی आपसे मिलकर बहुत ख़ूशी हुई। I am happy to meet you। lit. It is a pleasure to have met you
kya áp angrezi bolte hai? کیا اپ انگریزی بولتے ہیں؟ क्या आप अन्ग्रेज़ी बोलते हैं? Do you speak English?
main Urda nahin bolta (male) bolti (female) میں اردو نہیں بولتا मै ऊर्दू नहीं बोलता। I do not speak Urdu.
mera nám .... hai میرا نام ۔۔۔ ہے मेरा नाम ___ है। My name is ...
Lahaur kis taraf hai? لاھور کس طرف ہے؟ लाहौर किस तरफ़ है? Which way to Lahoremarker?
Lakhnau kahan hai لکھنو کہاں ہے؟ लख्नौ कहां है? Where is Lucknowmarker?
Urdu ek acchi zabaan hai اردو ایک اچھی زبان ہے ऊर्दू एक अच्छी ज़बान है। Urdu is a good language.


Sample texts

Ibtidäi Hisäb

Roman Urdü

Hisäb ke chär baře qäide hëŋ: jama, tafrïq, zarb, taqsïm

Pehla qäida: Jama

Jama ke qäide par amal karna äsän nahïŋ.

Ķusüsan mehŋgai ke dinoŋ meŋ.

Sab kuch ķarc ho jäta he.

Kuch jama nahïŋ ho päta.

Jama ka qäida muķtalif logoŋ ke lie muķtalif hë.

Âäm logöŋ ke lie 1+1=1½.

Kiüŋke ½ incam tex (income tax) wäle le jäte hëŋ.

Tijärat ke qäide se jama kareŋ to 1+1 ka matlab hë giära.

Rişwat ke qäide se häsile-jama ör ziäda ho jäta hë.

Qäida wohi acha jis meŋ häsile-jama ziäda se ziäda äe, başart-yeke pölïs (police) mänê na ho.

Ek qäida zubäni jama ķarc ka hota hë.

Ye mulk ke masäil hal karne ke käm äta hë.

Äzmüda hë.

(Urdü ki Äķri Kitäb az Ibne Inşä)

Perso-Arabic script

ابتدائ حساب



حساب کے چار بڑے قاعدے ہیں:

جمع، تفریق، ضرب، بقسیم


پہلا قاعدہ: جمع

جمع کے قاعدے پر عمل کرنا آسان نہیں

خصوصاً مہنگائ کے دنوں میں

سب کچﻬ خرچ ہو جاتا ہے

کچھ جمع نہیں ہو پاتا

جمع کا قاعدہ مختلف لوگوں کے لۓ مختلف ہے

عام لوگوں کے لۓ 1+1=½1

کیونکہ ½ انکم ٹیکس والے لے جاتے ہیں

تجارت کے قاعدے سے جمع کریں تو 1+1 کا مطلب ہے گیارہ

رشوت کے قاعدے سے حاصل جمع اور زیادہ ہو جاتا ہے

قاعدہ وہی اچھا جس میں حاصل جمع زیادہ سے زیادہ آۓ بشرطیکہ پولیس مانع نہ ہو

ایک قاعدہ زبانی جمع خرچ کا ہوتا ہے

یہ ملک کے مسائل حل کرنے کے کام آتا ہے

آزمودہ ہے

اردو کی آخری کتاب از ابنِ انشا صفحہ 84 تا 85

Devanāgarī script

इब्तिदा-ए हिसाब


हिसाब के चार बड़े क़ाइदे हैं:

जमा, तफ़्रीक़, ज़र्ब, तक़्सीम


पेहला क़ाइदा:जमा

जमा के क़ाइदे पर अमल करना आसान नहीं

ख़सूसन मेहन्गाई के दिनों मैं

सब कुच्छ ख़रच हो जाता है

कुच्छ जमा नहीं हो पाता

जमा का क़ाइदा मुख़्तलिफ़ लोगों के लीये मुख़्तलिफ़ है

आम लोगों के लीये 1+1=1½

क्योंके ½ इन्कम टैक्स वाले लै जाते हैं

तिजारत के क़ाइदे से जमा करें तो 1+1 का मत्लब है ग्यारा

रिश्वत के क़ाइदे से हासिल जमा और ज़ियादा हो जाते है

क़ाइदा वही अच्छा जिस मैं हासिल जमा ज़ियादा से ज़ियादा आये बशर्तेके पोलीस मानि ना हो

एक क़ाइदा ज़बानी जमा ख़रच का होता हे

यह मुल्क के मसाइल हल करने के काम आता है

आज़्मूदा है


"उर्दू की आख़्री किताब" अज़ इब्न-ए इन्शा, सफ़्हा 84 ता 85।

Zabu'r 23 Dáúd ká Mazmúr

Roman Urdū

1KHUDÁWAND merá chaupán hai; mujhe kamí na hogí. 2Wuh mujhe harí harí charágáhon men bithátá hai: Wuh mijhe ráhat ke chashmon ke pás le játá hai. 3Wuh merí ján ko bahál kartá hai: Wuh mujhe apne nám kí khátir sadáqat kí ráhon par le chaltá hai. 4Balki khwáh maut ke sáye kí wádí men se merá guzar ho, Main kisí balá se nahín darúngá; kyúnknki tú mere sáth hai: Tere 'asá aur terí láthí se mujhe tasallí hai. 5Tú mere dushmanon ke rúbarú mere áge dastarkhwán bichhátá hai: Tú ne mere sir par tel malá hai, merá piyála labrez hotá hai. 6Yaqínan bhalái aur rahmat 'umr bhar mere sáth sáth rahengí: Aur main hamesha KHUDÁWAND ke ghar men sukúnat karúngá.

(Kita'b I Muqaddas: Zabu'r 23 az Dáúd)

Perso-Arabic script

خداوند میرا چوپان ہے؛ مجھے کمی نہ ہوگی۔ 1

وہ مجھے ہری ہری چراگاہوں میں بٹھاتا ہے: وہ مجھے راحت کے چشموں کے پاس لے جاتا ہے۔ 2

وہ میری جان بحال کرتا ہے: وہ مجھے اپنے نام کی خاطر صداقت کی راہوں پر چلتا ہے۔ 3

بلکہ خواہ موت کے سایے کی وادی میں سے میرا گزر ہو، میں کسی بلا سے نہیں ڈروں گا؛ کیونکہ تو میرے ساتﻬ ہے: تیرے عصا اور تیری لاٹھی سے مجھے تسلی ہے۔ 4

تو میرے دشمنین کے روبرو میرے آگے دسترخوان بچھاتا ہے: تو نے میرے سر پر تیل ملا ہے، میرا پیالہ لبریز ہوتا ہے۔ 5

یقیناً بھلائ اور رحمت عمر بھر میرے ساتﻬ ساتﻬ رہیں گی: اور میں ہمیشہ خداوند کے گھر میں صکونت کروں گا۔ 6

کتاب مقدس کے زبور 23 از داؤد

Devanāgarī script

1ख़ुदावन्द मेरा चौपान है; मुझे कमी ना होगी।2वह मुझे हरी हरी चिरागाहों मैं बिठाता है: वह मुझे राहत के चश्मों के पास लै जाता है।3वह मेरी जान बहाल करता है: वह मुझे अपने नाम की ख़ातिर सदाक़त की राहों पर चलता है।4बलके ख़ाह मौत के साये की वादी मैं से मेरा गुज़र हो, मैं किसी बला से नहीं ढरूंगा; क्योंके तू मेरे साथ है: तेरे अला और तेरी लाठी से मुझे तसल्ली है।5तू मेरे दुश्मनीन के रूबरू मेरे आगे दस्तरख़ान बिछाता है: तू ने मेरे सर पर तैल मला है, मेरा पियाला लब्रीज़ होता है।6यक़ीनन भलाइ और रेह्मत उमर भर मेरे साथ साथ रहैंगी: और मैं हमेशा ख़ुदावन्द के घर मैं सकूनत करूंगा।



(किताब-ए मुक़द्दस के ज़ुबूर 23 अज़ दाऊद)



Roman Urdu amongst Pakistani & Indian Christians

Urdu was the dominant native language among Christians of Karachimarker, Madhya Pradeshmarker, Uttar Pradeshmarker, and Rajasthanmarker in the 20th century and is still used today by some people in these Pakistani and Indian states. Pakistani and Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdu. Thus Roman Urdu was a common way of writing among the Christians in these states up to the 1960s. The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdu Bibles, which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today). Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdu. However, the usage of Roman Urdu in Christian contexts is declining in India with the wider use of Hindi and English in the states.

Roman Urdu and Lollywood + Bollywood

Bollywood, India's major film industry, uses a version of Roman Urdu as the main script for its film titles. This is because Bollywood films have an appeal for viewers across South Asia and even in the Middle East. The Devanāgarī script is used mostly by Hindi speakers while the Perso-Arabic script is used primarily by Urdu speakers. The language used in Bollywood films is often called Hindi, but most dialogues are actually written in Hindustani—they can be understood by Urdu and Hindi speakers alike. Because the film industry wants to reach the largest possible audience, just using the Devanāgarī or Perso-Arabic script would be unfavorable for the Bollywood industry as few individuals are literate in both scripts. In addition to this situation, a significant number of Indians cannot read the Devanāgarī script as India has a diverse linguistic landscape and some people still resist learning Hindi even though it is an official language of India. English, which is written in the Roman script, often becomes the way to communicate among Indians who speak different languages. For these reasons, the neutral Roman script is used for Bollywood film titles, though some films include the Hindi and Urdu scripts as well.

The similar circumstances are also applied with Pakistan's Lollywood filming industry, where, along with the Urdu name or title of the movie, a Roman Urdu title is always provided for viewers.

Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization

The Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization scheme is another system of Romanization for Urdu-Hindustani. It was proposed by Syed Fasih Uddin (late) and Quader Unissa Begum (late). As such is adopted by The First International Urdu Conference 1992, as "The Modern International Standard Letters of Alphabet for URDU-(HINDUSTANI) - The INDIAN Language script for the purposes of hand written communication, dictionary references, published material and Computerized Linguistic Communications (CLC)".

There are significant advantages to this scheme of writing system which are noted as follows:

  • This scheme does provide a standard which is based on the original works undertaken at the Fort William College, Calcuttamarker, Indiamarker (established 1800), under John Borthwick Gilchrist (1789-1841), which has become the de facto standard for the Hindustani during the late 1800.
  • There is a one-to-one representation for each of the original traditional Urdu and classical Hindi characters.
  • Vowel sounds, rather than being assumed, are represented in written scheme, thereby uniquely tying the written form of the language to spoken form of the language.
  • Unlike Gilchrist’s scheme which used many special non-ASCII characters, the proposed scheme only utilizes the ASCII characters.
  • Since it is ASCII based, all of the resources and tools could be used for Urdu–Hindustani language.
  • Liberate Urdu–Hindustani language to be written and communicated utilizing all of the available standards and free us from Unicode conversion drudgery.
  • Urdu–Hindustani with the proposed character set would allow its users to utilize paper and electronic print media.


See also



Footnotes

  1. The News International, September 8, 2003, [1]
  2. World Bible Translation Center (pdf file)


Bibliography

  • Dua, Hans R. (1994b). Urdu. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 4863-4864).
  • Insha, Ibn e. (2002) Urdu Ki Aakhri Kitab. New Delhi: Kitab Wala. ISBN 81-85738-57-2.
  • B.S.I. Kita'b I Muqaddas. Bangalore: The Bible Society of India, 1994. ISBN 81-221-3230-8.


External links




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