Rotterdam ( ; Dutch ); is a
city and municipality in the Dutch province of
Holland, situated in the west of the Netherlands.
The municipality is the second
in the country, with a population of 584,046 as of
January 2007. It forms the southern part of the Randstad, the
metropolitan area in Europe, with a population of 6.7
The port of Rotterdam
largest in Europe
. From 1962 to 2004, it was
the world's busiest port
was then superseded by Shanghai
is on the banks of the river Nieuwe Maas ('New Meuse'), one of the channels in the delta
formed by the Rhine and Meuse rivers.
The name Rotterdam
from a dam
in the Rotte
On 1 January 2007 (source: Statistics Netherlands
), the municipality
covered an area of
of which is
land) with a population of 584,046. It is part of a larger metropolitan area
with a total population (including Dordrecht and surrounding cities) of approximately 1.6
In 1965, the municipal
population of Rotterdam reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it
had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization
consists of 11 submunicipalities: Charlois (including
Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord, Hillegersberg-Schiebroek, Hoek van
Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde, Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord, Overschie, and Prins Alexander (the most populous submunicipality with around
85,000 inhabitants). Two other areas, Centrum ('Center') and
Pernis, do not have official submunicipality
is in the Zuidvleugel ('South Wing') of the Randstad ('Rim City')
conurbation, with 6.7 million inhabitants, the sixth largest
metropolitan area in Europe (after Moscow, London, the Ruhr Area,
Istanbul, and Paris). The Zuidvleugel includes Leiden, The Hague, Zoetermeer, Delft, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Capelle aan den IJssel, Spijkenisse and Dordrecht, and has a population of around 3
The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of
the amalgamation of the following former municipalities, some of
which now are a submunicipality:
- For the destruction of the city center in 1940, see
Bombing of Rotterdam
Rotterdam, by Johan Barthold
Rotterdam, by James Webb (before
Rotterdam centre after the 1940 aerial
The ruined Laurens Church has been restored.
Settlement at the lower end of the fen
, as it was then known, from
, 'muddy' and a
, 'water', thus 'muddy water')
dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150
, large floods
in the area ended development, leading to the
construction of protective dikes
including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk
('Schieland’s High Sea
Dike') along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A
dam on the Rotte or 'Rotterdam' was built in the 1260s and was
located at the present-day Hoogstraat
On 7 June 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland
granted city rights
to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2000 inhabitants.
1350 a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was
completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in
the north, allowing it to become a local transshipment center
between Holland, England and Germany, and to urbanize.
The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of
importance, becoming the seat of one of the six 'chambers' of the
Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie
(VOC), the Dutch East India Company
The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population,
followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg
The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the
river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired
by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French
Chateau-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and
When completed, it was the tallest office building
in Europe, with a height of 45 m.
During World War II
, the German army
invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler
had hoped to conquer the country
in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
The Dutch army was finally forced to capitulate on 14 May 1940,
following Hitler's bombing Rotterdam
and threatening to bomb other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam
was almost completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe
; 800 civilians were killed and 80,000
made homeless. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine
later strikingly captured the
event with his statue Stad zonder hart
('City without a
heart'). The statue stands near the
Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of
the river Nieuwe Maas.
Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through the 1970s.
It remained quite windy
and open until the city
councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural
policy. Daring and new styles of apartments
, office buildings and recreation
facilities resulted in a more 'livable
' city center with a new skyline. In
the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid
was built on the south bank of
the river as a new business center.
With 55% of the inhabitants earning a low income, Rotterdam has its
fair share of typical urban problems, such as dilapidated inner
Figures are from 2008:
In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of
foreigners from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part
of Rotterdam´s multiethnic and multicultural diversity. Nearly 50%
of the population are of non Dutch origins or have at least one
parent born outside the country. Recent figures show that Muslims
comprise close to 25% of the city's population. The current mayor
of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb
, is of
Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is also home
to the largest Cape Verdean
communities in the Netherlands, as well as the largest Dutch
- 1796: 53,200 inhabitants
- 1830: 72,300
- 1849: 90,100
- 1879: 148,100
- 1899: 318,500
- 1925: 547,900
- 1965: 551,000
- 1984: 555,000
- 2005: 596,407
- 2006: 588,576
- 2007: 584,046
A satellite image of Rotterdam and its
is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river
Maas, connected by (from west to east): the
Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug ('Erasmus
Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel
('Willems railway tunnel'); the Willemsbrug ('Willems
Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the
Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge').
former railway lift bridge De Hef
('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between
('North Island') and the south of
The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas,
although recent urban development has extended the center to parts
of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid
of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam).
inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbor
Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below
sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the
northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 meters below sea level, or rather
below Normaal Amsterdams
(NAP) or 'Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in
the Netherlands ( below NAP) is situated just to the east of
Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel
The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the
early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway
line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been
pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.
Commerce and industry
Rotterdam is home to the Dutch half of consumer goods giant
, and Mittal Steel Company N.V.
of Luxembourg-based Arcelor Mittal
the world's largest steel company.
University has a strong focus on research and education in
management and economics.
The University is located on the
east side of the city and is surrounded by numerous multinational
firms. On Brainpark I, Brainpark II, Brainpark III and Het
are located offices of major multinationals. In the
center of the city are the above-mentioned Unilever
offices, but also Robeco, Fortis
(including Mees Pierson and Stad
Rotterdam Verzekeringen), ABN AMRO
(Nationale Nederlanden), and the
The Waalhaven by night
has the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing
excellent access to the hinterland
upstream reaching to Basel,
Switzerland and into France. In 2003 Singapore took over, and in 2005 Shanghai, as the world's busiest port.
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at
Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal
operator in Europe.
Rotterdam was the world's seventh largest container port
in terms of Twenty-foot equivalent units
The port's main activities are petrochemical
industries and general cargo
handling and transshipment
. The harbour functions as an
important transit point for bulk
materials and between the
European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are
transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the
Betuweroute, a new fast freight
railway from Rotterdam to Germany, has been completed.
Waterway') opened, a ship canal constructed to
keep the city and port of Rotterdam accessible to seafaring vessels
as the natural Meuse-Rhine channels silted up. The canal proper
measures approximately from the western tips of its protruding dams
to the Maeslantkering ('Maeslant Barrier').
Many maps, however,
include the Scheur
as part of the Nieuwe
Waterweg, leading to a length of approximately .
first half of the twentieth century, the port's center of gravity
shifted westward towards the North Sea.
Covering , the port of Rotterdam now
stretches over a distance of . It consists of the city center's historic
harbor area, including Delfshaven; the Maashaven/Rijnhaven/Feijenoord complex; the harbors around Nieuw-Mathenesse;
Waalhaven; Vondelingenplaat; Eemhaven; Botlek; Europoort, situated along the Calandkanaal, Nieuwe
Scheur (the latter two being
continuations of the Nieuwe Maas); and the reclaimed Maasvlakte area, which projects into the North
The construction of a second Maasvlakte received initial political
approval in 2004, but was stopped by the Raad van State (the
Dutch Council of State
advises the government and parliament on legislation and
governance) in 2005, because the plans did not take enough account
of environmental issues. On 10 October 2006, however, approval was
acquired to start construction in 2008, aiming for the first ship
to anchor in 2013.
has one major university, the Erasmus
University Rotterdam, named after one of the city's famous former
The Woudestein campus houses (among others) the
Rotterdam School of
. In Financial Times'
2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the
2006 rankings of European Masters of Management, the school reached
a second place with the
Master in Management and a thirteenth place with its RSM
Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's
largest student association, STAR Study
Association RSM Erasmus University
The Willem de Kooning
Rotterdam's main art school, which is part of the
Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious
art schools in the Netherlands and the number 1 in Advertising and
Copywriting. Part of the Willem de Kooning Academy
Piet Zwart Institute
postgraduate studies and research in Fine Art, Media Design and
Retail Design. The Piet Zwart Institute boasts a selective roster
of emerging international artists.
The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital,
the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of
the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus
Medical Center, which is ranked third worldwide for medical
research, behind the Harvard University and Johns
The Erasmus Medical Center ranks as
the top European institution in clinical medicine according to the
Times Higher Education
rankings. As a combined medical treatment and research center it is
particularly noted for its patient cohort studies in which large
numbers of patients are followed for long periods of time.
There are also three Hogescholen
applied sciences) in Rotterdam. These schools award their students
a professional Bachelor's degree
and postgraduate or Master's degree
The three Hogescholen
are Hogeschool Rotterdam
and Hogeschool voor Muziek en
(uni for music and dance) which is also known as
Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was European Capital of Culture
city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam Philharmonic
Orchestra with its world famous musical director Valery Gergiev, a large congress and concert
building called De
Doelen, plus many theatres (including the new
Luxor theatre) and movie theatres.
complex in the south of the city is used for pop
concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments and other activities.
zoo called Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam,
complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium.
The city is home to the Willem
de Kooning Academy
Rotterdam is currently going through somewhat of a renaissance,
with some urban renewal projects featuring ambitious architecture,
an increasingly sparkling nightlife, and a host of summer festivals
celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such
as the Caribbean-inspired 'Summer
', the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop
festival and the World Harbor days. The city has a few venues for
like Rotown, WATT
, Exit. The venue WORM focuses on experimental music
and related cutting edge
subcultural music.There are also
the International Film
in January, the Poetry International Festival in June,
the North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in
September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de
With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured
, The Byrds
, Canned Heat
It's a Beautiful Day
) was held and filmed at the
Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam.
The self-image of the city is that of a no-nonsense workers' city.
In that sense, there is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which
is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There
is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live,
Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is
"Money is earned in Rotterdam, divided in The Hague and spent in
Amsterdam". Another saying that reflects both the rivalry between
Rotterdam and Amsterdam is "Amsterdam has it, Rotterdam doesn't
Rotterdam has had a rich hiphop music
scene since the early 1980s. It is also the home of Gabber
, a type of hardcore electronic music popular
in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like Neophyte
and Rotterdam Terror Corps
organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw and Holland
Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in
Rotterdam, via A'R'dam.
In 2007 these organisations
published with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to
strengthen the international position of culture and art in the
Netherlands in the international context.
Rotterdam has many museums.Well known museums are
the Boijmans-van Beuningen Museum, the NAi (Netherlands
Architecture Institute), the Volkenkundig Museum (foreign peoples
and cultures), the Kunsthal (design by Rem
Koolhaas),the center for contemporary art Witte de With, the Maritiem Museum and the
Brandweermuseum (Fire brigade museum).
Historisch Museum 
(Historical museum) has two buildings:
the Dubbelde Palmboom and the Schielandshuis.Other museums include
the tax museum and the nature historical museum. At the historical
shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft the reconstruction of
Ship of the Line
'De Delft' can be
Architecture and skyline
the 45 meter high-rise office building the White House (or in
official Dutch Witte
Huis) was completed, at that time the tallest office
building in Europe.
Modern residential architecture (cube
houses) in the city centre of Rotterdam.
In the first decades of the 20th century,
some influential architecture in the modern style was built in
Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by
Brinkman en Van der Vlugt,
the Jugendstil clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by
Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium de
Kuip (1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt.
The architect J. J. P. Oud
was a famous Rotterdammer in those
days.During the early stages of World War
the center of Rotterdam was bombed
by the Germans, destroying many of
the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis
re-construction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of
ambitious new architecture.
is also famous for its Kubuswoningen or cube houses built by architect Piet
Blom in 1984.
In addition to that there are many
international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A
, Neutelings & Riedijk
Erick van Egeraat
to name a
Rotterdam houses several of the tallest structures in the
has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development
and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate
laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands
Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of
good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning
is standing in the best European SkylineTop together with Frankfurt, London, Paris, Brussels, Moscow, and
Bridge (1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable stayed
bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held
up by a tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge
its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan').
- Rotterdam has the tallest residential
building in the Netherlands: the Montevideo Tower (160 m (524 ft)).
- Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building 'Delftse
Poort' (160 m (520 ft)) which houses
Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of ING Group.
city also houses the tall Euromast, which has long been a major tourist attraction. It was built in 1960,
initially reaching a height of ; in 1970, the Euromast was extended
by to its current height.
Over 30 new highrise projects are being
developed at the moment, including the high 'Maas Tower', the 'New
Orleans Tower', which will be about and the Zalmhaven Urban Tower
Rotterdam is the home of two Eredivisie
('Honorary Division', or Dutch Premier League) football
, and one Eerste Divisie
. Rotterdam also has three Hoofdklasse
(main class) clubs, SC Feijenoord
(Feyenoord Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR.
Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three, has won
fourteen national titles since the introduction of professional
football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup as the first
Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the
same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the
and in 2002, Feyenoord won the
UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary,
Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup. Feyenoord also has the biggest
supporter group in the Netherlands.
51,480, its 1931 stadium, called Stadion Feyenoord but
popularly known as De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country,
after the Amsterdam
De Kuip, located in the southeast of the
city, has hosted many international football games, including the
final of Euro 2000
and has been
awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. There are concrete plans to build a
new stadium with a capacity of at least 80,000 seats. If the
football worldchampionship in 2018 will go to the Netherlands and
Belgium, the stadium is supposed to host the final of the
Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam,
won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the
northeast, has never won any. Nowadays Rotterdam is the only city
with two (and with Excelsior sometimes even three) teams in the
Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon
, which offers one of the fastest
courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record
was set in
Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes
later in 1988 by Belayneh Dinsamo
The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel
heart of Rotterdam.
Since 1972, Rotterdam hosts the ABN AMRO World Tennis
, part of the ATP
Members of the student rowing club Skadi
were part of the 'Holland Acht
', winning a gold medal at the
In field hockey
, Rotterdam has the
largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC
, with its own stadium in the north of the city and
nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play
on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse
Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball
, winning the most European Cups
Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and
team at the Rotterdam
Sports Awards Election
, held in December.
Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the
second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known
as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some
English and Australian riders.
Tour De France
In November 2008 it was announced that Rotterdam will host the
Grand Depart of the 2010 Tour De France.
"Rotterdam is a great metropolis and (as the start venue) is sure
to be a big popular success – it does all it can to enable people
to get around by bike," said Tour de France Director Christian
Prudhomme according to the AFP.
won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht.
Germany's Dusseldorf had previously also
expressed interest in hosting.
The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizers of the Tour de
France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam
because in addition to it being another big city, like London, to
showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a
location well positioned considering the rest of the route
envisioned for the 2010 edition.
The start in Rotterdam will mark the fifth time The Netherlands
kicks off the Tour de France. More details about the Grand Départ
will be announced on December 11 in a press conference at the
Nieuwe Luxor Theater in Rotterdam
Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the shopping
center the Lijnbaan (the first set of
of the country,
opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall,
and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein
(square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ('Stock
Exchange Traverse), better known by the informal name 'Koopgoot
' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its
low-lying position, crossing Rotterdam's main street Coolsingel
below street level).
shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies
close to Ahoy'
accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events,
concerts and congresses.
The Blaak open market of
Another prominent shopping center,
called Alexandrium (sometimes still called by its former name
), lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a
large kitchen and furniture center.
- January: International Film
- August: Pleinbioscoop
- June till September: the Rotterdam Summer festivals, including
- World Port Days (2006: 1, 2 and 3 September)
Rotterdam is well connected in international, national, regional
and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch
The 'Ring' (ring road) of Rotterdam is
displayed in darker red.
There are several motorways which run to/from Rotterdam. The
following four are part of its 'Ring' (ring
The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:
smaller than the international hub Schiphol
airport, Rotterdam Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the
third largest airport in the country.
Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over
the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier
market. For business
travelers Zestienhoven Airport offers advantages due to rapid
handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make
further growth uncertain.
Rotterdam Central Station, built in
1953, demolished in 2008.
The modular, temporary station at
Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railroad system, and has
several international connections. The train system hosts:
- Direct international services to Belgium and France via high
speed train system: Thalys
- Frequent international trains to Antwerp and Brussels, Belgium
- Frequent services within the Netherlands:
- Intercity line to The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol
airport and Amsterdam (north)
- Intercity line to Utrecht and on to Deventer or Enschede (the east), Leeuwarden (north-west) or Groningen (north-east)
- Intercity line to Dordrecht, Roosendaal and on to Vlissingen (south west)
- Intercity line to Dordrecht, Breda, Tilburg, Eindhoven and Venlo (south
- Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to
Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a
detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services
(either direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg,
- Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call
at Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda.
- Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch
the gap between national train services and local public
transportation the Dutch Randstad has developed a regional lightrail system called Randstad Rail.
First trains ran in
In 1968 Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a subway
system. Currently the system consists
of two main lines, each of which has some variants.
- Erasmus Line: Rotterdam Central station -
Albrandswaard (Rhoon, Poortugaal) - Hoogvliet - Spijkenisse
- Caland Line: two lines from the northeast of
Rotterdam (Ommoord and since September 2005 to the new constructed
neighborhood Nesselande (before it ended at Zevenkamp which is one
stop before Nesselande), both in Prins Alexander) and one from Capelle aan den IJssel join; the combined line terminated in the west of
Rotterdam, but on 4 November 2002, an extension was opened: the
line now connects to the main railway network at Schiedam railway station, has a stop in Pernis and joins the Erasmus Line in Hoogvliet; trains on
the Caland Line, like those on the Erasmus Line, terminate in
- The eastern parts of the Caland Line have some level crossings (with priority), and could
therefore be called light rail instead of
metro; however, they are integrated in the system; these parts have
overhead wires, while the rest has a
third rail, the vehicles can handle
Rotterdam offers 10 tramlines with a total length of 93.4
Rotterdam offers 38 buslines with a total length of 432.7
Every half hour a water bus
route 1) goes from Rotterdam to Dordrecht and vice versa. The trip
takes an hour, inclusive stops along the way. The ferry can carry
about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles
. The stops are:
Since the summer of 2003 an artificial beach
is created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the
Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming
was not possible, digging pits
was limited to the height of the layer of sand
, ca. 50 cm. Alternatively people go the beach of
Holland (which is still a Rotterdam district) or one of the
beaches in Zeeland or the Zuid
Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne, Renesse.
- Pierre Bayle, enlightenment
- Edsger Dijkstra, Computer
- Louis Davids, composer,
- Royston Drenthe, Real Madrid
C.F. defender/midfielder and Dutch international footballer.
- Francisco Elson, NBA player for the Milwaukee
- Desiderius Erasmus,
philosopher and humanist.
- Pim Fortuyn, politician,
assassinated in 2002.
- Piet Heyn, naval fleet
- Leo Fuld, singer.
- Willem de Kooning,
- Rem Koolhaas, internationally
- Coen Moulijn, football player of
- Johan van Oldebarnevelt,
statesman of the Dutch Revolt.
- Robin van Persie, Arsenal F.C.
forward and Dutch international footballer.
- Marten Toonder, comic
- Abraham Icek Tuschinski,
businessman and movie theatre owner.
Rotterdam has the following city and port connections throughout
- 14 Sister Cities
- 13 Partner Cities
- 4 Sister Ports
Twin towns - sister cities
Rotterdam is twinned
- Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, "Repertorium van Nederlandse
gemeenten", KNAW, 2006. 
- Europe works to assimilate Muslims, Atlanta
- Top European institutions in clinical
- Turin City Hall - International Affairs Retrieved on
- Granma - En La Habana vicealcalde de la ciudad de
Rotterdam -La delegación visitante hará la entrega oficial de
una donación de implementos deportivos, en momentos en que se
celebra el aniversario 25 de las relaciones entre ambas urbes
- Partners - Oslo kommune
- City of Kobe - "Sister City, Friendly City,
Friendship & Cooperation City". Retrieved February 15,
- Port of Busan, Sister Ports, Busan