Spinning Roulette wheel with
ball
Roulette is a
casino and
gambling game named after a
French diminutive
for "little wheel". In the game, players may choose to place bets
on either a number, a range of numbers, the colors red or black, or
whether the number is odd or even.To determine the winning number
and color, a
croupier spins a wheel in one
direction, then spins a ball in the opposite direction around a
tilted circular track running around the
circumference of the wheel. The ball
eventually loses
momentum and falls on to
the wheel and into one of 37 (in European roulette) or 38 (in
American roulette) colored and numbered pockets on the wheel.
History
Early roulette table, ca. 1800
The first
form of roulette was devised in 18th century France.
Blaise Pascal introduced a primitive
form of roulette in the 17th century in his search for a
perpetual motion machine. The
roulette wheel is believed to be a fusion of the English wheel
games
RolyPoly,
Reiner,
Ace of
Hearts, and
E.O., the Italian board games
of Hoca and Biribi, and "Roulette" from an already existing French
board game of that name.
The game has been played in its present form since as early as 1796
in Paris. An early description of the roulette game in its current
form is found in a French novel
La Roulette, ou le Jour by
Jaques Lablee, which describes a roulette wheel in the Palais Royal
in Paris in 1796. The description included the house pockets,
"There are exactly two slots reserved for the bank, whence it
derives its sole mathematical advantage." It then goes on to
describe the layout with, "...two betting spaces containing the
bank's two numbers, zero and double zero." The book was published
in 1801. An even earlier reference to a game of this name was
published in regulations for
New France
(Québec) in 1758, which banned the games of "dice, hoca, faro, and
roulette."
In 1843, in the German spa casino town
of Homburg, fellow Frenchmen
Françoisand
Louis
Blanc introduced the single "0" style roulette wheel in order
to compete against other casinos offering the traditional wheel
with single and double zero house pockets.
In some forms of early American roulette wheels  as shown in the
1886 Hoyle gambling books, there were numbers 1 through 28, plus a
single zero, a double zero, and an American Eagle.According to
Hoyle "the single 0, the double 0, and eagle are never bars; but
when the ball falls into either of them, the banker sweeps every
thing upon the table, except what may happen to be bet on either
one of them, when he pays twentyseven for one, which is the amount
paid for all sums bet upon any single figure."
In the 1800s, roulette spread all over Europe and the U.S.A.,
becoming one of the most famous and most popular casino games. When
the German government abolished gambling in the 1860s, the Blanca
family moved to the last legal remaining casino operation in Europe
at Monte Carlo, where they established a gambling mecca for the
elite of Europe. It was here that the single zero roulette wheel
became the premier game, and over the years was exported around the
world, except in the United States where the double zero wheel had
remained dominant.Some call roulette the "King of Casino Games",
probably because it was associated with the glamour of the casinos
in Monte Carlo.
A legend tells François Blanc supposedly bargained with the devil
to obtain the secrets of roulette. The legend is based on the fact
that the sum of all the numbers on the roulette wheel (from 1 to
36) is 666, which is the "
Number of the Beast".
In the United States, the French
double zero wheel made its way up the Mississippi from New Orleans,
and then westward. It was here, because of rampant cheating by both
operators and gamblers, the wheel eventually was placed on top of
the table to prevent devices being hidden in the table or wheel,
and the betting layout was simplified. This eventually evolved into
the American style roulette game as different from the traditional
French game. The American game developed in the gambling dens
across the new territories where makeshift games had been set up,
whereas, the French game evolved with style and leisure in Monte
Carlo. However, it is the American style layout with its simplified
betting and fast cash action, using either a single or double zero
wheel, that now dominates in most casinos around the world.
During the first part of the 20th century, the only casino towns of
note were Monte Carlo with the traditional single zero French
wheel, and Las Vegas with the American double zero wheel. In the
1970s, casinos began to flourish around the world. By 2008 there
were several hundred casinos world wide offering roulette games.
The double zero wheel is found in the U.S.A., South America, and
the Caribbean, while the single zero wheel is predominant
elsewhere.
Rules of play against a casino
Roulette with red 12 as the
winner
Players wishing to play roulette have a variety of betting options.
Placing 'inside' bets is either selecting the exact number of the
pocket the ball will land in, or a small range of pockets based on
their proximity on the layout. Players wishing to bet on the
'outside' will select bets on larger positional groupings of
pockets, the pocket color, or whether the winning number is odd or
even. The payout odds for each type of bet is based on its
probability.
The roulette table usually imposes minimum and maximum bets, and
these rules usually apply separately for all of a player's 'inside'
and 'outside' bets for each spin. For 'inside' bets at roulette
tables, some casinos may use separate roulette table chips of
various colors to distinguish players at the table. Players can
continue to place bets as the ball spins around the wheel until the
dealer announces "no more bets" or "rien ne va plus".
When a winning number and color is determined by the roulette
wheel, the dealer will place a marker also known as a dolly on that
winning number on the roulette table layout. When the dolly is on
the table, no players may place bets, collect bets, or remove any
bets from the table. The dealer will then sweep away all other
losing bets either by hand or rake, and determine all of the
payouts to the remaining inside and outside winning bets. When the
dealer is finished making payouts, the marker is removed from the
board where players collect their winnings and make new bets. The
winning chips remain on the board.
Roulette wheel number sequence
The pockets of the roulette wheel are numbered from 1 to 36.
In number ranges from 1 to 10 and 19 to 28, odd numbers are red and
even are black. In ranges from 11 to 18 and 29 to 36, odd numbers
are black and even are red.
There is a green pocket numbered 0 (zero).
In American roulette, there is a second green pocket marked
00. Pocket number order on the roulette wheel adheres to the
following clockwise sequence:
Singlezero wheel:
0321519421225173462713361130823105241633120143192218297281235326
Doublezero wheel:
028926301172032175223415324361310027102529128193118621331642335142
Roulette table layout
The cloth covering with the betting areas on a roulette table is
known as a "layout."The layout is either single zero or double
zero. The French style layout is a single zero, and the American
style layout is usually a double zero.The American style roulette
table with a wheel at one end is now used in most casinos.The
French style table with a wheel in the centre and a layout on
either side is rarely found outside of Monte Carlo.
bgcolor="#ff0000">18
bgcolor="#ff0000">19
bgcolor="#ff0000">21
bgcolor="#000000">
24
bgcolor="#228B22">3rd
12
color="#ffffff">26
bgcolor="#228B22">←
color="#ffffff">29
bgcolor="#228B22">←
color="#ffffff">31
color="#ffffff">33
bgcolor="#ff0000">36
↑
bgcolor="#228B22">↑

0 
↔ 
00 
1
18 
1st
12 
1 
2 
3 
← 
4 
5 
6 
← 
odd 
7 
8 
9 
← 
10 
11 
12 
← 
red 
2nd
12 
13 
14 
15 
← 
16 
17 

← 
blk 

20 

← 
22 
23 

← 
even 

25 

27 

28 

30 

19
36 

32 

← 
34 
35 

← 


↑ 

Types of bets
Inside bets
 Straightup: a single number bet. The chip is placed
entirely on the middle of a number square.
 Split: a bet on two adjoining numbers, either on the
vertical or horizontal (as in 1417 or 89). The chip is placed on
the line between these numbers.
 Street: a bet on three numbers on a single horizontal
line. The chip is placed on the edge of the line of a number at the
end of the line (either the left or the right, depending on the
layout).
 Corner (or square): a bet on four numbers in a square
layout (as in 11121415). The chip is placed at the horizontal
and vertical intersection of the lines between the four
numbers.
 Six Line: a bet on two adjoining streets, with the
chip placed at the corresponding intersection, as if in between
where two street bets would be placed.
 Trio: a bet on the intersecting point between 0, 1 and
2, or 0, 2 and 3.
Outside bets
Outside bets typically have smaller payouts with better odds at
winning.
 1 to 18: a bet on one of the first low eighteen
numbers coming up.
 19 to 36: a bet on one of the last high eighteen
numbers coming up.
 Red or Black: a bet on which color the roulette wheel
will show.
 Even or Odd: a bet on an even or odd number.
 Dozen Bets: a bet on the first (112), second (1324),
or third group (2536) of twelve numbers.
 Column Bets: a bet on all 12 numbers on any of the
three vertical lines (such as 14710 on down to 34). The chip is
placed on the space below the final number in this string.
It is important to note that in the UK all bets have the same play
to payout ratio, for instance putting one chip on each number 112
will yield the same outcome as 12 chips on the first dozen
(assuming the original stake is removed). The exception is the very
outside bets (red/black, odd/even, low numbers/high numbers) when
zero is the result only half of the original stake is captured by
the dealer.
Bet odds table (American roulette)
(The initial bet is returned in addition to the mentioned payout
)
Bet name 
Winning spaces 
Payout 
Odds against winning 
Expected value
(on a $1 bet)

0 
0 
35 to 1 
37 to 1 
−$0.053 
00 
00 
35 to 1 
37 to 1 
−$0.053 
Straight up 
Any single number 
35 to 1 
37 to 1 
−$0.053 
Row 00 
0, 00 
17 to 1 
18 to 1 
−$0.053 
Split 
any two adjoining numbers vertical or horizontal 
17 to 1 
18 to 1 
−$0.053 
Basket 
0, 1, 2 or 00, 2, 3 or 0, 00, 2 
11 to 1 
11.667 to 1 
−$0.053 
Street 
any three numbers horizontal (1, 2, 3 or 4, 5, 6 etc.) 
11 to 1 
11.667 to 1 
−$0.053 
Corner 
any four adjoining numbers in a block (1, 2, 4, 5 or 17, 18,
20, 21 etc. ) 
8 to 1 
8.5 to 1 
−$0.053 
Top Line 
0, 00, 1, 2, 3 
6 to 1 
6.6 to 1 
−$0.079 
Six Line 
any six numbers from two horizontal rows (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or
28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33 etc.) 
5 to 1 
5.33 to 1 
−$0.053 
1st Column 
1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34 
2 to 1 
2.167 to 1 
−$0.053 
2nd Column 
2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, 35 
2 to 1 
2.167 to 1 
−$0.053 
3rd Column 
3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36 
2 to 1 
2.167 to 1 
−$0.053 
1st Dozen 
1 through 12 
2 to 1 
2.167 to 1 
−$0.053 
2nd Dozen 
13 through 24 
2 to 1 
2.167 to 1 
−$0.053 
3rd Dozen 
25 through 36 
2 to 1 
2.167 to 1 
−$0.053 
Odd 
1, 3, 5, ..., 35 
1 to 1 
1.111 to 1 
−$0.053 
Even 
2, 4, 6, ..., 36 
1 to 1 
1.111 to 1 
−$0.053 
Red 
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12,
14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23,
25, 27, 30, 32, 34, 36

1 to 1 
1.111 to 1 
−$0.053 
Black 
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11,
13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 24,
26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 35

1 to 1 
1.111 to 1 
−$0.053 
1 to 18 
1, 2, 3, ..., 18 
1 to 1 
1.111 to 1 
−$0.053 
19 to 36 
19, 20, 21, ..., 36 
1 to 1 
1.111 to 1 
−$0.053 
Note also that 0 and 00 are neither odd nor even in this
game.
House edge
In the early frontier gambling saloons, the house would set the
odds on roulette tables at 27 for 1. This meant that on a $1 bet
you would get $27 and the house would keep your initial dollar.
Today most casino odds are set by law, and they have to be either
34 to 1 or 35 to 1. This means that the house pays you $34 or $35
and you get to keep your original $1 bet.
The
house average or
house edge
(also called the
expected value) is
the amount the player loses relative to any bet made, on average.
If a player bets on a single number in the American game there is a
probability of 1/38 that the player wins 35 times the bet, and a
37/38 chance that the player loses their bet. The expected value
is:
 −1×37/38 + 35×1/38 = −0.0526 (5.26% house edge)
For European roulette, a single number wins 1/37 and loses
36/37:
 −1×36/37 + 35×1/37 = −0.0270 (2.70% house edge)
The presence of the green squares on the roulette wheel and on the
table are technically the only house edge. Outside bets will always
lose when a single or double zero come up. However, the house also
has an edge on inside bets because the pay outs are always set at
35 to 1 when you mathematically have a 37 to 1 chance at winning a
straight bet on a single number. To demonstrate the house edge on
inside bets, imagine placing straight $1 wagers on all inside
numbers on a roulette table (including 0 and 00) to assure a win.
You would only get back 36 times your original bet having spent
$38. The only exception are the five numbers bet where the house
edge is considerably higher (7.89% on an American wheel), and the
'even money' bets in some European games where the house edge is
halved because only half the stake is lost when a zero comes
up.
The house edge should not be confused with the
hold. The hold is the average percentage of the
money originally brought to the table that the player loses before
he leaves  the actual "win" amount for the casino. The Casino
Control Commission in Atlantic City releases a monthly report
showing the win/hold amounts for each casino. The average win/hold
for double zero wheels is between 2130%, significantly more than
the 5.26% house edge. This reflects the fact that the player is
'churning' the same money over and over again. A 26.3% hold, for
example, would imply that on average, the player bets the total he
brought to the table five times, as 26.3% is approximately equal to
100%  (100%  5.26%)^5. For example, a player with $100 making $10
bets on red (which has a near 50/50 chance of winning) is highly
unlikely to lose all his money after only 10 bets, and will most
likely continue to bet until he has lost all of his money or
decides to leave. A player making $10 bets on a single number (with
only 1/38 chance of success) with a $100 bankroll is far more
likely to lose all of his money after only 10 bets. Despite being
more likely to lose, the casino's
average hold
from this type of player would be significantly lower than the
evenmoney bettor, because the single number player will on average
bet less money (at 5.26% expected loss per dollar bet).
Mathematical model
As an example, we can examine the European roulette model (roulette
with one zero). Since this roulette has 37 cells with equal odds of
hitting, it is clear that this is a final model of field
probability (\Omega, 2^\Omega, \mathbb{P}), where \Omega = \{0,
\ldots, 36\}, \mathbb{P}(A) = \frac{A}{37} for all A \in
2^\Omega. We'll call the bet S a three (A, r, \xi), where A for a
certain random eventevent r \in \mathbb{R}_+, and \xi: \Omega \to
\mathbb{R} = random size. The event A naturally leads to a winning
event, r to the size of the bet (in dollars, for example), \xi to
the bet rule, and the mathematical expectation M[\xi] relates to
the bet profitability.
The rules of European roulette have 10 types of bets. First we can
examine the 'Straight Up' bet. It's clear that in this case, S =
(\{\omega^\prime\}, r, \xi), where \omega^\prime \in \Omega, and
\xi is determined by this law
\xi(\omega) =
\begin{cases}
r, &\omega \ne \omega^\prime\\
35 \cdot r, &\omega = \omega^\prime
\end{cases}.
The bet's probability is equal to
M[\xi] =
\frac{1}{37} \sum_{\omega \in \Omega} \xi(\omega) =
\frac{1}{37} \left(\xi(\omega^\prime) +
\sum_{\omega \ne \omega^\prime} \xi(\omega)\right) =
\frac{1}{37} \left(35 \cdot r  36 \cdot r \right) = \frac{r}{37}
\approx 0.027r.
Without details, for a bet, red or black, the rule is determined
as
\xi(\omega) =
\begin{cases}
r, &\omega \; is \; red\\
r, &\omega = zero\\
r, &\omega \; is \; black
\end{cases},
and the profitability M[\xi] = \frac{1}{37}(18 \cdot r  18 \cdot r
 r) = \frac{r}{37}.For similar reasons it is simple to see that
the profitability if also equal for all remaining types of bets.
\frac{r}{37}.
In reality this means that, the more bets a player makes, the more
he is going to lose independent of the strategies (combinations of
bet types or size of bets) that he employs:
\sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}M[\xi_n] = \frac{1}{37}\sum_{n =
1}^{\infty}r_n = \infty.
Here, the profit margin for the roulette owner is equal to
approximately 2.7%. Nevethless, several roulette strategy systems
have been developed despite the losing odds.
It's worth noting that the odds for the player in American roulette
are even worse, as the bet profitability is \frac{3}{38}r \approx
0.0789r, and the rest are \frac{r}{19} \approx 0.0526r.
Called (or call) bets or Announced Bets
Traditional roulette wheel
sectors
Although most often named "Call Bets" technically these bets are
more accurately referred to as "announced bets". The legal
distinction between a "Call Bet" and an "Announced Bet" is that a
"Call Bet" is a bet called by the player without him placing any
money on the table to cover the cost of the bet. In many
jurisdictions (most notably the United Kingdom and Nevada USA) this
is considered gambling on credit and is illegal. An "Announced Bet"
is a bet called by the player for which he immediately places
enough money to cover the amount of the bet on the table, prior to
the outcome of the spin / hand in progress being known.
There are different number series in roulette that have special
names attached to them.Most commonly these bets are known as "the
French bets" and each covers a section of the wheel. For the sake
of accuracy, and at risk of being called pedantic, Zero spiel
although explained below is not a French bet, it is more accurately
"the German bet".Players at a table may bet a set amount per series
(or multiples of that amount). The series are based on the way
certain numbers lie next to each other on the roulette wheel. Not
all casinos offer these bets, and some may offer additional bets or
variations on these.
Voisins du zero ("neighbors of zero")
This is a name, more accurately Grand Voisins du Zero, for the
seventeen numbers which lie between 22 and 25 on the wheel
including 22 and 25 themselves. The series is
22,18,29,7,28,12,35,3,26,0,32,15,19,4,21,2,25 (on a single zero
wheel).
9 chips or multiples thereof are bet. 2 chips are placed on the
0,2,3 trio; 1 on the 4/7 split; 1 on 12/15; 1 on 18/21; 1 on 19/22;
2 on 25/26/28/29 corner; and 1 on 32/35.
The bet on this section is very popular in Eastern Europe, most
notably in the Czech Republic.
Jeu zero ("zero game")
Zero game, also known as zero spiel (spiel is German for game), is
the name for the numbers closest to zero. All numbers in the zero
game are included in the big series, but are placed differently.
The numbers are as follows: 12, 35, 3, 26, 0, 32, 15.
The bet consists of 4 chips or multiples thereof. 1 chip on 0/3
split, 1 on 1215 split, 1 on 26 straight up and 1 on 3235
split.Popular bet in Germany and many European casinos.This bet is
also offered as a 5 piece bet in many Eastern European casinos. As
a 5 piece bet it is known as zero spiel naca and includes, in
addition to the chips placed as noted above, a straightup on
number 19.
Tier ("the third")
This is the name for the twelve numbers which lie on the opposite
side of the wheel between 27 and 33 including 27 and 33 themselves.
The series is 27,13,36,11,30,8,23,10,5,24,16,33 (on a single zero
wheel).The full name (although very rarely used  most players just
call it as "tier") for this bet is la tier du cylindre (translated
from French into English means one third of the wheel) because it
covers twelve numbers (placed as 6 splits), which is as close to
1/3rd of the wheel as one can get.Very popular bet in British
casinos. Tier bets out number Voisin and Orphans bets by a massive
margin.
6 chips or multiples thereof are bet. 1 chip is placed on each of
the following splits: 5/8; 10/11; 13/16; 23/24; 27/30; 33/36.
The Tier bet is also called the "Small Series" and in some casinos
(most notably in South Africa) "Series 5/8" It includes the
following wagers which are all splits
 5/8, 10/11, 13/16, 23/24, 27/30, 33/36
A variant known as "Tier 5,8,10,11" has an additional chip placed
straight up on 5, 8, 10 and 11; and so is a 10piece bet.
Orphelins ("orphans")
These numbers make up the two slices of the wheel outside the Tiers
and Voisins. They contain a total of eight numbers, the Orphans
comprising 17,34,6 and the Orphelins being 1,20,14,31,9.
5 chips or multiples thereof are bet. 1 chip is placed straightup
on 1 and 1 chip on each of the splits: 6/9; 14/17; 17/20 and
31/34.
"xx and the neighbors"
A number may be backed along with the 2 numbers on either side of
it in a 5 piece bet. For example, "0 and the Neighbors" is a 5
piece bet with 1 piece straightup on 3, 26, 0, 32 and 15.
Neighbors bets are often put on in combinations, for example "1, 9,
14 and the neighbors" is a 15 piece bet covering 18, 22, 33, 16
with 1 piece; 9, 31, 20, 1 with 2 pieces and 14 with 3
pieces.
Any of the above bets may be combined, eg "Orphelins by 1 and Zero
and the Neighbors by 1." The "...and the Neighbors." is often
assumed by the croupier.
Final Bets
Another bet offered on the single zero game is "finals".Most often
pronounced finaal, but also finale (common with Italian speakers),
and finals.
Finaal 6, for example, is a 4 piece bet and consists of 1 piece
placed on each of the numbers ending in 4, that is 4, 14, 24 and
34.Finaal 7 is a 3 piece bet, 1 piece each on 7, 17 and 27.
Finaal bets from finaal 0 (zero) to finaal 6 cost 4 pieces.Finaal
bets 7, 8 and 9 cost 3 pieces.
Some casinos also offer splitfinaal bets, for example finaal 5/8
would be a 4 piece bet, 1 piece each on the splits 5/8, 15/18 and
25/28.
Full Completes / Maximums
Please note : at this level of roulette play the correct
terminology for dealer is croupier.
In the single zero version of the game (known as European roulette
in the United States) a system of progressive betting is used.For
example, put simply, if the casino allows a maximum bet of $1000 on
a 351 straightup, then on each 171 split connected to that
straightup $2000 may be wagered. Each 81 corner (covers four
numbers) may have $4000 wagered on it. Each 111 street (covers
three numbers) may have $3000 wagered on it. Each 51 sixline may
have $6000 wagered on it.
Using the above figures it can be seen that a set number of chips
will "complete" a number.Most often these full completes are bet by
high rollers (known as whales in Las Vegas) as "Maximum
Bets".
Inside column numbers, that is number 5 through number 32 working
down the middle column each cost 40 pieces to complete.Most often
when working with these bets everything is done, and referred to,
in pieces.
On a $1000 maximum table this bet would cost $40,000, and would be
called as (for example) "17 to the maximum".The payout for this bet
if the chosen number wins is 392 pieces, in the case of a $1000
straightup maximum, $40,000 bet, a payout of $392,000. The
player's wagered 40 pieces, as with all winning bets in roulette,
are still his property and in the absence of a request to the
contrary are left up to possibly win again on the next spin.
The player calls his bet to the croupier (most often after the ball
has been spun) and places enough chips to cover the bet on the
table within reach of the croupier. The croupier will immediately
announce the bet (repeat back what the player has just said),
ensure that the correct monetary amount has been given whilst
simultaneously placing the chips either on the rim of the wheel, a
"full complete" or "maximum" button being placed on top of them and
another "full complete" or "maximum" button of the same colour
being placed on the chosen number on the layout (most common in
Europe), or placing the chips given for the bet on the chosen
number on the layout with a "full complete" marker button on top of
them (most common in Las Vegas).
The 2nd column is often referred to as the inside column.Numbers 5
to 32 in this column cost 40 pieces each to complete.The payout for
a win on these numbers is 392 pieces.
The 1st and 3rd columns are referred to as outside columns.1st
column numbers 4 to 31 and 3rd column numbers 6 to 33, cost 30
pieces each to complete.The payout for a win on these 30 piece bets
is 294 pieces.
Zero costs 17 pieces to complete and pays 235 pieces.Number 1 and
number 3 each cost 27 pieces and pay 297 pieces.Number 2 is a 36
piece bet and pays 396 pieces.Numbers 34 and 36 each cost 18 pieces
and pay 198 pieces.Number 35 is a 24 piece bet which pays 264
pieces.
Most typically (Mayfair casinos in London and other top class
European casinos) with these "maximum" or "full complete" bets
nothing (except the aforementioned maximum button) are ever placed
on the layout even in the case of a win.Experienced gaming staff,
and the type of customers playing such bets, are fully aware of the
payouts and so the croupier simply makes up the correct payout,
announces it's value to the table inspector (floor person in the
USA) and the customer, and then passes it to the customer, but only
after a verbal authorisation from the inspector has been
received.Also typically at this level of play (house rules
allowing) the experienced croupier caters to the needs of the
customer and will most often add the customer's winning bet to the
payout, as the type of player playing these bets very rarely bets
the same number two spins in succession.For example the winning 40
piece / $40,000 bet on "17 to the maximum" pays 392 pieces /
$392,000.The experienced croupier would pay the player 432 pieces /
$432,000, that is 392 + 40, with the announcement that the payout
"is with your bet down Sir".
Experienced single zero croupiers learn and remember all of the
above information.
There are also several methods to determine the payout should a
number adjacant to a chosen number be the winner, for example
player bets 40 pieces on "23 to the maximum" and number 26 is the
winning number. The most notable method is known as the "station"
system or method, roulette dealing at this level is very complex
and the exact methods are beyond the scope of this article, suffice
to say a "good experienced croupier" would have no problem working
with "stations".
In some casinos player's may bet these completes for less than the
table straightup maximum, for example, "number 17 full complete by
$25" would cost $1000, that is 40 pieces each at $25 value.
Betting strategies and tactics
Albert Einstein is reputed to have
stated, "You cannot beat a roulette table unless you steal money
from it." This does not mean that you cannot win at a roulette
table, but rather that more players will walk away with less money
than their buyin.
Over the years, many people have tried to beat the casino, and turn
roulette  a game designed to turn a profit for the house  into
one on which the player expects to win. Most of the time this comes
down to the use of betting systems, strategies which say that the
house edge can beaten by simply employing a special pattern of
bets, often relying on the 'gambler's fallacy', the idea that past
results are any guide to the future (for example, if a roulette
wheel has come up 10 times in a row on red, that red on the next
spin is any more or less likely than if the last spin was
black).
All betting systems when employed on casino edge games will result,
on average, in the player losing money. In practice, players
employing betting systems may win, and may indeed win very large
sums of money, but the losses (which, depending on the design of
the betting system, may occur quite rarely) will outweigh the wins.
Certain systems, such as the Martingale, described below, are
extremely risky, because the worst case scenario (which is
mathematically certain to happen, at some point) may see the player
chasing losses with ever bigger bets until he runs out of
money.
Biased wheels
Whereas
betting systems are essentially an attempt to beat the fact that a
geometric series with initial value of 0.95 (American roulette) or
0.97 (European roulette) will inevitably over time tend to zero,
engineers instead attempt to overcome the
house edge through predicting the mechanical performance of the
wheel, most notably by Joseph Jagger
at Monte
Carlo in 1873. These schemes work by determining
that the ball is more likely to fall at certain numbers, and if
sufficiently good will raise the return of the game above 100%,
defeating the betting system problem.
Edward O. Thorp (the developer of card counting and an
early hedgefund pioneer) and
Claude
Shannon (a mathematician and computer scientist best known for
his contributions to
information
theory) built arguably the first wearable computer to do so in
1961. This system worked by timing the ball and
wheel, and therefore predicting the most likely octant where the
ball would fall. This could be countered simply by closing the
table for betting before beginning the spin.
To try to prevent exploits like these, the casinos monitor the
performance of their wheels, and rebalance and realign them
regularly to try to keep the result of the spins as random as
possible.
At least in the 1930s, some professional gamblers were able to
consistently gain an edge in roulette by seeking out rigged wheels
(not difficult to find at that time) and betting opposite the
largest bets.
In 1982, several casinos in England began to lose large sums of
money at their roulette tables to teams of gamblers from the USA.
Upon investigation by the police, it was discovered they were using
a legal system of biased wheelsection betting. As a result of
this, the English roulette wheel manufacturer John Huxley
manufactured a roulette wheel to counteract the problem.
The new wheel, designed by George Melas, was called "low profile"
because the pockets had been drastically reduced in depth, and
various other design modifications caused the ball to descend in a
gradual approach to the pocket area. In 1986, when a professional
gambling team headed by Billy Walters won $3.8 million using the
system on an old wheel at the Golden Nugget in Atlantic City, every
casino in the world took notice, and within one year had switched
to the new lowprofile wheel.
Thomas Bass, in his book
The Eudaemonic Pie 1991 (published
as
The Newtonian Casino in
Britain), has claimed to be able to predict wheel performance in
real time. The book describes the exploits of a group of computer
hackers, who called themselves
the Eudaemons, who in the late 1970s used
computers in their shoes to win at roulette by predicting where the
ball would fall.
In the early 1990s,
Gonzalo
GarciaPelayo believed that casino roulette wheels were not
perfectly
random, and that by recording the
results and analysing them with a computer, he could gain an edge
on the house by predicting that certain numbers were more likely to
occur next than the 1in36 odds offered by the house suggested.
This he did at the Casino de Madrid in Madrid, Spain, winning
600,000 euros in a single day, and one million euros in total.
Legal action against him by the casino was unsuccessful, it being
ruled that the casino should fix its wheel. .
In 2004 it was reported that a group of two Serbs and one Hungarian
in London had used a
laser scanner
hidden inside a mobile phone linked to a computer to predict the
sector of the wheel where the ball was most likely to drop. They
were arrested, but released without charge as there was no proof
they had technically interfered with casino equipment.
Specific betting systems
The numerous evenmoney bets in roulette have inspired many players
over the years to attempt to beat the game by using one or more
variations of a
Martingale
betting strategy, wherein the gamer doubles the bet after every
loss, so that the first win would recover all previous losses, plus
win a profit equal to the original bet. The problem with this
strategy is that, remembering that past results do not affect the
future, it is possible for the player to lose so many times in a
row, that the player, doubling and redoubling his bets, either runs
out of money or hits the table limit. A large financial loss is
certain in the long term if the player continued to employ this
strategy. Another strategy is the Fibonacci system, where bets are
calculated according to the
Fibonacci
sequence. Regardless of the specific progression, no such
strategy can statistically overcome the casino's advantage, since
the
expected value of each allowed
bet is negative.
While not
a strategy to win money, former Los Angeles Times editor Andrés Martinez described a
betting method in his book on Las Vegas titled "24/7". He called it the "dopey
experiment". The idea is to divide one's roulette session bankroll
into 35 units. This unit is bet on a particular number for 35
consecutive spins. Thus, if the number hits in that time, the
gambler wins back the original bankroll and can play subsequent
spins with house money. However, there is only a (1  (37/38)^{35})
* 100 = 60.68% probability of winning within 35 spins (assuming a
doublezero wheel with 38 pockets).
There is a common misconception that the green numbers are "house
numbers" and that by betting on them one "gains the house edge." In
fact, it is true that the house's advantage comes from the
existence of the green numbers (a game without them would be
statistically fair); however, they are no more or less likely to
come up than any other number.
Labouchere System
The Labouchere System is a progression betting strategy like the
Martingale but does not
require the gambler to risk his stake as quickly with dramatic
doubleups. The Labouchere System involves using a series of
numbers in a line to determine the bet amount, following a win or a
loss. Typically, the player adds the numbers at the front and end
of the line to determine the size of the next bet. When he wins, he
crosses out numbers and continues working on the smaller line. If
he loses, then he adds his previous bet to the end of the line and
continues to work on the longer line. This is a much more flexible
progression betting system and there is much room for the player to
design his initial line to his own playing preference.
This system is one that is designed so that when the player has won
over a third of his bets (less than the expected 18/38), he will
win. Whereas the Martingale will cause ruin in the event of a long
sequence of successive losses, the Labouchere system will cause bet
size to grow quickly even where a losing sequence is broken by
wins. This occurs because as the player loses, the average bet size
in the line increases.
As with all other betting systems, the average value of this system
is negative.
D'Alembert System
The system, also called
montant et demontant (upwards and
downwards), is often called a pyramid system. It is based on a
mathematical equilibrium theory devised by a French mathematician
of the same name. Like the Martingale, this system is mainly
applied to the evenmoney outside bets, and is favored by players
who want to keep the amount of their bets and losses to a minimum.
The betting progression is very simple: After each loss, one unit
is added to the next bet, and after each win, one unit is deducted
from the next bet. Starting with an initial bet of, say, 10 units,
a loss would raise the next bet to 11 units. If this is followed by
a win, the next bet would be 10 units. Another win would lower the
next bet to 9 units.
This betting system relies on the gambler's fallacy  that the
player is more likely to lose following a win, and more likely win
following a loss.
Other systems
There are numerous other betting systems that rely on this fallacy,
or that attempt to follow 'streaks' (looking for patterns in
randomness), varying bet size accordingly.
Many betting systems are sold online, and may make outlandish
promises that the player can 'beat' the system by following them.
One such
system was advertised by Jason Gillon of Rotherham, UK, who claimed you could 'earn £200 daily' by
following his betting system, described as a 'loophole'. As
the system was advertised in the UK press, it was subject to
Advertising
Standards Authority regulation, and following a complaint, it
was ruled by the ASA that Mr. Gillon had failed to support his
claims you could earn £200 daily, and that he had failed to show
that there was any loophole.
Using the dozen bet
There are two versions to this system, singledozen bets and
doubledozen bets. In the singledozenbet version, the player uses
a progressively incrementing stake list starting from the casino
table minimum, to the table maximum. The aim here is to use a
singledozen bet to win before the stake list ends. Many techniques
are employed such as: betting on the same dozen to appear after two
consecutive appearances, betting on the dozen that has appeared
most in the last 15, 9, or 5 spins, betting on the dozen that,
after a long absence of 7 or more spins, appears for the first
time. The doubledozen bet version uses two dozen bets and half the
stake list size of the singledozenbet version.
Famous bets
 In 1873, the Englishman Joseph Jaggers made the first famous
roulette biased wheel attack. Mr. Jaggers with a team of six
clerks, clocked all the wheels at the Monte Carlo casino and found
one wheel to show significant bias. In their attack exploiting this
flaw they won over $325,000, an astronomical sum in 1873.
 In the summer of 1891 at the Monte Carlo casino, a parttime
swindler and petty crook from London named Charles Wells, broke the bank at
each table he played over a period of several days. Breaking the
bank meant he won all the available money in the table bank that
day, and a black cloth would be placed over the table until the
bank was replenished. In song and life he was celebrated as "The
Man That Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo."
 In the 1942 film Casablanca, Rick's Café
Americain has a trick roulette wheel. The croupier can cause
it to land on 22 at will. Rick (Humphrey Bogart) urges a Bulgarian
refugee with whose case he becomes sympathetic to put his last
three chips on 22 and motions to the croupier to let him win. After
the man's number dramatically comes up, Rick tells him to let it
all ride on 22 and lets him win again. Although the details are not
mentioned in the film (the croupier only notes that they are "a
couple of thousand" down), it appears that Rick has given the man
3885 ((3*36*36)3) francs.Three on any
number would pay 35 to 1, "letting it ride" would result in a bet
of 108(105+3)pieces, which would yield a payoff of 3780, or 3888 if
he took his bet down.
 Near the beginning of the 1973 film The Sting, Johnny Hooker (Robert Redford)
takes his share of the money conned from a numbers runner and loses
nearly all of it on a single bet against a rigged roulette
wheel.
 In the third part of the 1998 film Run, Lola, Run, Lola uses all her money
to buy a 100mark chip. (She is actually just short of 100 marks,
but gains the sympathy of a casino employee who gives her the chip
for what money she has.) She bets her single chip on 20 and wins.
She lets her winnings ride on 20 and wins again, making her total
winnings 129,600 marks (29,600 more than her smuggler boyfriend
owed his boss, Ronnie). The odds of two consecutive wins on a
European roulette wheel are exactly 1368to1 against.On a European
roulette table, 1 chip would pay 35. Letting it ride would yield a
payoff of(36*35)1260 pieces, or in this case 126,000 marks. It
should also be noted that the odds of "any" number repeating is
exactly 36to1 (37to1 on a 00 wheel).
 In
2004, Ashley Revell of London sold all
of his possessions, clothing included, and brought US$135,300 to
the Plaza Hotel in Las Vegas and put it all on "Red" at the roulette table in a
doubleornothing bet. The ball landed on "Red 7" and Revell
walked away with his networth doubled to $270,600.
 In 2009 on friday 2nd of October, Derren Brown (as part of his controversial
"the events" series) bet
£5000 of a members of the public's money on a single number of a
roulette wheel somewhere in Europe. This was shown live across the
UK using a hidden camera in Derren's sleeve. His plan was to use
the laws of physics to predict where the ball would end up, based
upon what speed the wheel and ball are spinning. Derren took
approximately 3 seconds after the wheel started spinning to place
his £5000 bet on number 8, only to see it land on number 30  just
one number out.
Etiquette
Besides the rules of the actual game, certain unwritten rules of
etiquette exist while playing roulette and are expected to be
followed. Many consider these guidelines as important as the actual
rules themselves. New players should familiarize themselves with
them before approaching a roulette table. Tipping etiquette may
vary by location, but it is generally considered polite to tip your
croupier when you leave the table.
Rules related to casino security
 Players are not to collect their winnings and betting chips on
the outside chances until all of the winnings in the same box (e.g.
all bets and winnings on 'red') have been paid. This is to avoid
confusion and minimize the chance for players to steal other
players' chips.
 Players must not touch chips after the dealer gives the hand
signal or announces "no more bets". Players are not allowed to
remove, change or add bets past this point.
 When the dealer has placed the "dolly" (the plastic marker used
to mark the winning number) it is strictly prohibited to touch any
chips on a winning chance.
 Dealers are not allowed to take money to change for chips from
a player's hand. If you wish to change you must place the money on
the layout of the table.
 The use of electronic equipment at the table such as mobile
phones and cameras is also prohibited.
Commonly observed etiquette
 It is generally preferable to place chips on the board rather
than tossing them. Tossed chips may roll on to displace other bets
or roll down to the "chipping machine". If the player cannot reach
to place a bet himself he should announce the bet to the dealer.
This will be treated as any other call bet.
 Changes for cash or color chips are supposed to be done in
between spins. If the dealer has time he will make changes during
the spin but he will most likely prioritize call bets before
changes.
 All call bets are considered courtesy bets and are only placed
if the dealer has time to change and place the bets. The bet is
considered taken only if the dealer and the inspector dealer has
repeated the bet. If the dealer does not take the bet he will
announce "no bet". To argue with the dealer about which bets have
been taken is considered extremely impolite and will most likely
render a warning from the inspector dealer or pit boss.
 No food or drink is allowed over the table. Most casinos have a
"table fee" that you are forced to pay if you spill on the table
layout.
 Upon leaving the table it is considered polite to leave a tip
for the dealer, although some Casinos prohibit employees from
accepting tips. Australia Network  Wrest Point Casino
See also
Notes
External links