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The destroyed royal burgh of Roxburgh (or Rosbroch) was an important trading burgh in High Medieval to early modern Scotland. In the Middle Ages it had at least as much importance as Edinburghmarker, Stirlingmarker, or Berwick-upon-Tweedmarker, for a time acting as de facto capital (as royal residence of David I).

History

Its significance lay in its position in the centre of some of Lowland Scotland's most agriculturally fertile areas, and its position upon the River Tweed, which allowed river transport of goods via the main seaport of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Its position also acted as a barrier to Englishmarker invasion.

The town stood on a defensible peninsula between the rivers Tweed and Teviotmarker, with Roxburgh Castlemarker guarding the narrow neck of the peninsula. Nothing remains of the town except some ruined segments of castle ramparts. Its site lies to the south of modern Kelsomarker and Floors Castlemarker, which lie on the other side of the Tweed. The Duke of Roxburghe owns the site.

English and Scots forces repeatedly captured and recaptured the town during the Scottish Wars of Independence. Its final recapture in 1460 saw the town and castle destroyed. After this time the town never regained its importance because the final English capture of Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482 left Roxburgh with little reason to exist.

Roxburgh was superseded as the county town of the former county of Roxburghshiremarker by Jedburghmarker.

Etymology

Roxburgh probably comes from Old English *hrōcas burh, "rook's borough". However, numerous other suggestions have been offered, including Middle English rockes burh, "burgh of rocks", Rouges burh, after its ancient inhabitants , or Rokes burh, "St. Rok's borough", being dedicated to St. Rok.

Roxburgh District

Roxburgh District 1975–96


In more recent times (1975–1996), "Roxburgh" referred to a local government district in the Borders region of Scotlandmarker. Its borders broadly resembled those of the traditional county of Roxburghshiremarker. In 1996 the district of Roxburgh became part of the Scottish Borders unitary area. (See also: Subdivisions of Scotland)

Roxburgh (village)

Sunlaws Mill on the Tweed near Roxburgh
Nowadays the name Roxburgh belongs to a small village about one and a half miles southwest of the site of the historic Roxburgh.

See also








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