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The Royal Victorian Order ( ) is a dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry recognizing distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign, the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, any members of her family, or any of her viceroys. Established in 1896, the order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel, its official day is 20 June, and its motto is Victoria, alluding to the society's founder, Queen Victoria. There are no limits on the number of inductees, and admission remains the personal gift of the monarch, with each of the organization's five hierarchical grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service. While all members receive the ability to use the prescribed styles of the order the top two levels grant titles of knighthood, and all accord distinct post-nominal letters the Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm, and admission to some grades may be barred by government policy. Though similarly named, the Royal Victorian Order is not related to the Royal Victorian Chain.

Creation

Prior to the close of the 19th century, most general honours within the British Empire were bestowed by the sovereign on the advice of his or her British ministers, who sometimes forwarded advice from ministers of the Crown in the Dominions and colonies. The then most senior orders of chivalry were the Most Noble Order of the Garter and the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, and were within the sovereign's personal gift, as had been since Mediæval times, but were limited to a combined 40 common-members. Queen Victoria thus established on 21 April 1896 the Royal Victorian Order as a junior and personal order of knighthood that allowed her to bestow directly to an empire-wide community honours for personal services. The organization was founded a year preceding Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The order's official day was made 20 June of each year, marking the anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne.

After 1931, when the Commonwealth of Nations came into being and the former Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to the UK, the Royal Victorian Order remained an honour open to all the King's realms; thus, as with the monarch who conferred it, the order ceased to be purely British. The order was also open to foreigners since its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimesmarker and the Mayor of Nicemarker being the first to receive the honour in 1896.

Officers and grades

The reigning monarch of each of the Commonwealth realms is at the apex of the Royal Victorian Order as its Sovereign, followed by the Grand Master; the latter position was created in 1937, and was occupied by Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother) from that date until her death in 2002. Queen Elizabeth II then in 2007 appointed her daughter, Anne, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007. Succeeding these two individuals are the five officials of the organization: the Chancellor, occupied by the Lord Chamberlain; the Secretary, occupied by the Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the Queen; the Registrar, occupied by the Secretary to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood; the Chaplain, occupied by the Chaplain of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy; and the Genealogist.

Thereafter follows the members of the order, who are divided into five hierarchical grades the highest two conferring accolades of knighthood and all having accordant post-nominal letters and, lastly, the holders of the Royal Victorian Medal in either gold, silver, or bronze. Foreigners may be admitted as honorary members, there are no limits to the population of any grade, and promotions are possible. The styles of knighthood are not used by princes, princesses, or peers in the upper most ranks of the society, save for when their names are written in their fullest forms for the most official occasions. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St. George's Chapelmarker at Windsor Castlemarker and Westminster Abbeymarker are customarily inducted as Knights Commander; clergymen appointed to the higher levels of the Royal Victorian Order do not use the associated styles, however, and honorary members are not permitted to hold them at all.

Prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members (fourth class) and Members (fifth class), respectively, but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member (fourth class) would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO.

Grades of the Royal Victorian Order:
Grade (English) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Commander Commander Lieutenant Member Medal
Grade (French) Commandeur Lieutenant Membre Medaille
Prefix Sir/Dame Sir/Dame
Post-nominal letters GCVO KCVO/DCVO CVO LVO MVO RVM
Insignia


Insignia and vestments

Mantle of the order bearing the star of a Knight Grand Cross.
Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are gifted various insignia of the organization, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes. Common for all members is the badge, which is a maltese cross with a central medallion depicting on a red background the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria surrounded by a blue ring bearing the motto of the order VICTORIA and surmounted by a tudor crown. However, there are variations on the badge for each grade of the order: Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the badge on a sash passing from the right shoulder to the left hip; Knight Commanders wear the badge on a ribbon at the neck; male Commanders, Lieutenants, and Members wear the badge from a ribbon on the left chest; and women in all grades below Dame Grand Cross wear the badge on a bow pinned at the left shoulder. For Knights and Dames Grand Cross, Commanders, and Lieutenants, the Maltese cross is rendered in white enamel with gold edging, while that for Knights and Dames Commander and Members is in silver. Further, the size of the badge varies by rank, that for the higher classes being larger, and Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commander have their crosses surrounded by a star: for the former, an eight-pointed silver star, and for the latter, an eight-pointed silver Maltese cross with silver rays between each arm. The medal bears the effigy and name of the reigning sovereign at the time of its awarding, as well as the phrase DEI • GRATIA • REGINA (or REX) • F.D. (by the grace of God, Queen (or King), Defender of the Faith), and on the reverse is the Royal Cypher upon an ornamental shield within a laurel wreath. Bars may be awarded to each class of medal for further services, and should recipients be awarded a higher level of medal or be appointed to a grade of the order itself, they may continue to wear their original medal along with the new insignia.

The order's ribbon is blue with red-white-red stripe edging, the only difference being that for foreigners appointed into the society, their ribbon bearing an additional central white stripe. For Knights Grand Cross, the ribbon is wide, for Dames Grand Cross , for Knights and Dames Commander , and for all other members .

At formal events, or collar days, of which there are 34 throughout the year, such as New Year's Day and royal anniversaries, Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the Royal Victorian Order's livery collar, consisting of an alternating string of octagonal gold pieces depicting a gold rose on a blue field and gold oblong frames within which are one of four inscriptions: Victoria, Britt. Reg. (Queen of the Britains), Def. Fid. (fidei defensor, or Defender of the Faith), and Ind. Emp. (Empress of India). The chain supports a larger octagonal medallion with a blue enamel surface edged in red and charged with a saltire, over which is an effigy of Queen Victoria; members of the order suspend from this medallion their insignia as a badge apendant. Though after the death of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross their insignia may be retained by their family, the collar must be returned. Knights and Dames Grand Cross also wear a mantle of dark blue satin edged with red satin and lined with white satin, bearing a representation of the order's star on the left side.

Chapel

Since 1938, the chapel of the Royal Victorian Order has been the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, in central Londonmarker, Englandmarker. However, the population of the order has grown to the point that the Savoy chapel can no longer accommodate the gathering of members held every four years, and St. George's Chapelmarker at Windsor Castlemarker is now employed for the event.

The Sovereign and Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the order are allotted stalls in the Savoy chapel's choir, and on the back of each stall is affixed a brass plate displaying the occupant's name, coat of arms, and date of admission into the organization. Upon the occupant's death, the plate is retained, leaving the stalls festooned with a record of the order's Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1938. There is insufficient space in the chapel for the display of knights' and dames' banners and other heraldic devices.

Eligibility and appointment

Membership in the Royal Victorian Order is conferred by the reigning monarch without ministerial advice on those who have performed personal service for the sovereign, any member of his or her family, or any of his or her viceroys. All living citizens of any of the Commonwealth realms, including women since 1936, are eligible for any of the five levels of the order, save for Canadiansmarker: As admission to the top two levels of the organization provide for an honorary prefix, Canadians are not normally appointed to these levels as long as the monarch's Canadian ministry adheres to the Nickle Resolution of 1919. The appointment of Canadians to the order resumed in 1972, and eligibility has been extended to those who render services to the monarch's representatives in the country. Some in the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hallmarker wish to eliminate the Royal Victorian Order from the Canadian honours system, and sometimes contest when a Canadian is appointed; however, no changes are planned. In Canada, the order has come to be colloquially dubbed as the "Royal Visit Order", as the majority of appointments are made by the sovereign during her tours of the country. Similarly, foreign members will generally be admitted as honorary members of the Royal Victorian Order when the Queen is making a state visit to the individual's country or a head of state is paying a state visit to one of the Queen's realms.

Persons may, and have been, removed from the order at the monarch's command. Anthony Blunt, a former surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, was in 1979 stripped of his knighthood, after it was revealed that he had been a spy. Also, William Pottinger, a senior civil servant, in 1975 lost his membership in both the Order of the Bath and the Royal Victorian Order when he was jailed for corruptly receiving gifts from the architect John Poulson.

Precedence in each realm

As the Royal Victorian Order is open to the citizens of sixteen different countries, each with their own system of orders, decorations, and medals, the RVO's place of precedence varies from country to country. Some are as follows:

Country Preceding RVO grade Following
Australia
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG/DCMG) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) Commander Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Member of the Order of Australia (AM) Lieutenant Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Companion of the Imperial Service Order (ISO) Member Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
Queen's Gallantry Medal (QGM) Medal British Empire Medal (BEM)
Canadamarker
Order of precedence
Commander of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces (COM) Commander Officer of the Order of Military Merit (OMM)
Officer of the Order of Military Merit (OMM) Lieutenant Member of the Order of Military Merit (MMM)
Member of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces (MOM) Member Venerable Order of Saint John (GC/K/D/C/O/M/SB/SSStJ)
Meritorious Service Medal (MSM) Medal Sacrifice Medal
New Zealandmarker
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (K/DCMG) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) Commander Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Lieutenant Companion of the Queen's Service Order (QSO)
Companion of the Imperial Service Order (ISO) Member Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit (MNZM)
New Zealand Bravery Medal (NZBM) Medal Queen's Service Medal (QSM)
United Kingdommarker Englandmarker and
Walesmarker

Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE/DCIE) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) Commander Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Lieutenant Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Eldest son of Knight Bachelor Member Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
Scotlandmarker
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE/DCIE) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Sheriffs Commander Companion of the Order of the Bath (COB)
Commanders of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) Lieutenant Companions of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO)
Eldest son of Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire Member Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
Northern Irelandmarker
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE/DCIE) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) Commander Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Lieutenant Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Eldest son of Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire Member Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)


In the United Kingdom, the wives of male members of all classes also feature on the order of precedence, as do sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders; relatives of Dames, however, are not assigned any special precedence. As a general rule, individuals can derive precedence from their fathers or husbands, but not from their mothers or wives.

Current Knights and Dames Grand Cross

Knights and Dames Grand Cross:
  1. The Duke of Kent , appointed 1960
  2. Princess Alexandra of Kent , appointed 1960
  3. The Earl of Snowdon , appointed 1969
  4. King Michael I
  5. The Princess Anne, Princess Royal , appointed 1974
  6. The Duke of Gloucester , appointed 1974
  7. The Duchess of Kent , appointed 1977
  8. Sir John Oliver Wright , appointed 1978
  9. Sir Zelman Cowen , appointed 1980
  10. The Duchess of Grafton , appointed 1980
  11. Sir Ninian Martin Stephen , appointed 1982
  12. Grand Chief Sir Tore Lokoloko , appointed 1985
  13. Sir Clement Athelston Arrindell , appointed 1985
  14. Sir Paul Alfred Reeves , appointed 1986
  15. The Duchess of Gloucester , appointed 1989
  16. Sir Antony Arthur Acland , appointed 1991
  17. Sir Clifford Darling , appointed 1991
  18. Sir Ewen Alastair John Fergusson , appointed 1992
  19. Sir Christopher Mallaby , appointed 1992
  20. Sir Howard Felix Hanlan Cooke , appointed 1994
  21. The Lord Waddington , appointed 1994
  22. Sir Robert Corbett , appointed 1994
  23. Sir Brian Fall , appointed 1994
  24. Sir Matthew Farrer , appointed 1994
  25. Dame Catherine Tizard , appointed 1995
  26. Sir Geoffrey de Bellaigue , appointed 1996
  27. The Lord Fellowes , appointed 1996
  28. Sir Shane Blewitt , appointed 1996
  29. Sir Alastair Sturgis Aird , appointed 1997
  30. Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah, appointed 1998
  31. Sir Simon Cooper , appointed 2000
  32. The Lord Luce , appointed 2000
  33. Sir Brian Henry McGrath , appointed 2000
  34. Sir Hew Fleetwood Hamilton-Dalrymple , appointed 2001
  35. The Lord Sterling of Plaistow , appointed 2002
  36. The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres , appointed 2002
  37. Prince Michael of Kent , appointed 2003
  38. Sir John Eaton Holmes , appointed 2004
  39. Sir Peter James Torry , appointed 2004
  40. Sir Walter Hugh Malcolm Ross , appointed 2005
  41. The Earl Peel , appointed 2006
  42. The Lord Janvrin , appointed 2007
  43. Sir Donald Charles McKinnon , appointed 2009
  44. King Harald V


See also



Notes



References



Further reading



External links




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