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The Russian Academy of Sciences ( , Rossi'iskaya akade'miya nau'k, shortened to PAH, RAN) consists of the national academy of Russiamarker and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals.

Headquartered in Moscowmarker, the Academy is incorporated as a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Russian Government. It combines members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions.


There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members (academicians), corresponding members and foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation when elected; however, some academicians and corresponding members had been elected before the collapse of the USSR and now are citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions and election to membership is considered very prestigious. As of 2005-2007 there are just under 500 full members of the academy and a similar number of corresponding members.


The RAS consists of nine specialized scientific branches, three territorial branches and 14 regional scientific centres. The Academy has numerous councils, committees and commissions, organized for different purposes.

Territorial branches

Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS)
The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with Mikhail Lavrentyev as founding chairman. Research centres are in Novosibirskmarker (Akademgorodok), Tomskmarker, Krasnoyarskmarker, Irkutskmarker, Yakutskmarker, Ulan-Udemarker, Kemerovomarker, Tyumenmarker and Omskmarker. As of 2005, the Branch employed over 33,000 employees, 58 of whom were members of the Academy.
Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (URAN)
The Ural Branch was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centres are in Yekaterinburgmarker, Permmarker, Cheliabinskmarker, Izhevskmarker, Orenburgmarker, Ufamarker and Syktyvkarmarker. As of 2007, the Branch employed 3,600 scientists, 590 of whom were full professors, 31 full members and 58 corresponding members of the Academy.
Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS)
The Far East Branch includes the Primorsky Scientific Center in Vladivostokmarker, the Amur Scientific Center in Blagoveschenskmarker, the Khabarovsk Scientific Center, the Sakhalin Scientific Center in Yuzhno-Sakhalinskmarker, the Kamchatka Scientific Center in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskymarker and the North-Eastern Scientific Center in Magadanmarker.

Regional centres


The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of a large number of research institutions, including:

Member institutions are linked by a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet (RSSI). The RSSI, starting with just 3 members, now has 3100 members, including 57 of the largest research institutions.

Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the purview of the RAS (they are subordinated to the Ministry of Education of Russian Federation), but a number of leading universities, such as Moscow Universitymarker, St.Petersburg University, Novosibirsk University, or Moscow Institute of Physics and Technologymarker, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of RAS (as well as of others research institutions); the MIPTmarker faculty refers to this arrangement as the "Phystech System".

Since 1933, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR); after 1992, it became simply Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences (Doklady Akademii Nauk).


The Academy gives a number of different prizes, medals, and awards:



The Academy was founded in Saint Petersburgmarker by Peter the Great,inspired and advised by Gottfried Leibniz, and implemented in the Senate decree of January 28, 1724. It was originally called The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences ( ). The name varied over the years, becoming The Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences (Императорская Академия наук и художеств; 1747-1803), The Imperial Academy of Sciences (Императорская Академия Наук; 1803— 1836), and finally, The Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Императорская Санкт-Петербургская Академия Наук, from 1836 and until the end of the empiremarker in 1917).

Among the foreign scholars invited to work at the academy were the mathematicians Leonhard Euler, Christian Goldbach, Georg Bernhard Bilfinger, Nicholas and Daniel Bernoulli, botanist Johann Georg Gmelin, embryologists Caspar Friedrich Wolff, astronomer and geographer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, physicist Georg Wolfgang Kraft, and historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller.

Expeditions to explore remote parts of the country had Academy scientists as their leaders or most active participants. These included Vitus Bering's Second Kamchatkamarker Expedition of 1733–43, and Peter Simon Pallas's expeditions to Siberiamarker.

The Russian Academy

A separate organization, called the Russian Academy (Академия Российская), was created in 1783 to work on the study of the Russian language. Presided over by Princess Ekaterina Dashkova (who at the same time was the Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences, i.e., the country's "main" academy), the Russian Academy was engaged in compiling the six-volume Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (1789-1794). The Russian Academy was merged into the Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1841.

USSR Academy of Sciences

In December 1917, Sergei Fedorovich Oldenburg, a leading ethnographer and political activist in the Kadet party met with Lenin to discuss the future of the Academy. They agreed that the expertise of the Academy would be applied to addressing questions of state construction, in return the Soviet regime would give the Academy financial and political support. By early 1918 it was agreed that the Academy would report to the Department of the Mobilisation of Scientific Forces of the People's Commissariat of Enlightening which replaced the Provisional Government's Ministry of Education.

In 1925 the Sovietmarker government recognized the Russian Academy of Sciences as the "highest all-Union scientific institution" and renamed it the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. However starting in 1928 the Politburo started to interfere in the affairs of the Academy. By the summer of 1929, Yuri Petrovich Figatner headed a special government commission to investigate the academy and purge it of "counter-revolutionaries" turning it into a Marxist-Leninist organization. Figatner's commission originally included Sergey Oldenburg, but he was sacked for "obstructing the reconstruction of the Academy of Sciences. By the end of 1929 its had sacked 128 members of staff out of 960 with a further 520 supernumeraries from 830 also being dismissed. In the following year over 100 people (mainly scholars and humanists, including many historians) were charged in what is called the Academics' Case. Former Academicians such as G.S. Gabaev, A.A. Arnoldi, N.P. Antsiferov, had already been exiled or imprisoned, but were also put on trial. On 8 August 1931 the Collegium of Joint State Political Administration Board condemned 29 people, including S.V. Bakhrushin, V.N. Beneshevich, D.N. Egorov, Y.V. Gautier, N.V. Izmaylov, N.P. Likhachev, M.K. Lyubavsky, A.M. Mervart, Sergey Platonov, S.V. Rozhdestvensky, Yevgeny Tarle. In 1931 the Joint State Political Administration Board imposed another wave of punishments on research officers of various establishments of the Academy of Sciences, Russian Museum, Central Archives and others. This included A.A. Byalynitsky-Birulya, A.A. Dostoevsky, B.M. Engelgardt, N.S. Platonova, M.D. Priselkov, A.A. Putilov, S.V. Sigrist, F.F. Skribanovich, S.I. Tkhorzhevsky and A.I. Zaozersky). Some former Guards officers, who worked for the Academy of Sciences such as A.A. Kovanko and Y. A. Verzhbitsky, were executed by shooting. N.V. Raevsky, P.V. Wittenburg and D.N. Khalturin who had organized various expeditions, the priests A.V. Mitrotsky, M.V. Mitrotsky, and M.M. Girs (the church group), Professor E.B. Furman, Pastor A.F. Frishfeld (the German group) and F.I. Vityazev-Sedenko, S.S. Baranov-Galperson and E.G. Baranov-Galperson (the publishers group) were also punished.

Smaller commissions investigated institutions, thus the Commission for the Reorganisation of KIPS and the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnographymarker subjected these organisations to "socialist criticism".

In 1934 the Academy headquarters moved from Leningradmarker (formerly Saint Petersburgmarker) to the Russian capital, Moscowmarker, together with a number of academic institutes.

During the Cold War the Academy acted as the KGBmarker's strategic think tank.

The USSR Academy of Sciences helped to establish national Academies of Sciences in all Soviet republics (with the exception of the Russian SFSR), in many cases delegating prominent scientists to live and work in other republics. These academies were:

Republic Local Name Established successor
Ukrainian SSR Академія наук Української РСР 1918 National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Byelorussian SSR Акадэмія Навукаў Беларускай ССР 1929 National Academy of Sciences of Belarusmarker
Uzbek SSR Ўзбекистон ССР Фанлар академияси 1943 Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan
Kazakh SSR Қазақ ССР Ғылым Академиясы 1946 National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Georgian SSR საქართველოს სსრ მეცნიერებათა აკადემია 1941 Georgian Academy of Sciences
Azerbaijan SSR Азәрбајҹан ССР Елмләр Академијасы 1935 National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan
Lithuanian SSR Lietuvos TSR Mokslų akademija 1941 Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Moldavian SSR Академия де Штиинце а РСС Молдовенешть 1946 Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Latvian SSR Latvijas PSR Zinātņu akadēmija 1946 Latvian Academy of Sciencesmarker
Kirghiz SSRmarker Кыргыз ССР Илимдер академиясы 1954 National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic
Tajik SSRmarker Академияи Фанҳои РСС Тоҷикистон 1953 Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan
Armenian SSR Հայկական ՍՍՀ գիտությունների ակադեմիա 1943 National Academy of Sciences of Armeniamarker
Turkmen SSRmarker Түркменистан ССР Ылымлар Академиясы 1951 Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan
Estonian SSRmarker Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia 1946 Estonian Academy of Sciences

Post-Soviet period

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, by decree of the President of Russia of December 2, 1991, the institute once again became the Russian Academy of Sciences, inheriting all facilities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the territory of Russia.

Presidents of the USSR and Russian Academies of Sciences

Еhe following persons occupied the position of the Academy's President (or, sometimes, Director):

See also


  1. General information about the Academy (in Russian)
  2. Academy membership (in Russian)
  3. Academy structure (in Russian)
  4. RAS Siberian Branch general information
  5. RAS Far Eastern Branch Scientific Centers and Institutes
  6. Regional departments of RAS (in Russian)
  7. Именные премии и медали
  8. Academics' Case, accessed 13 July 2008
  9. Hirsch, Francine. 2005. “Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union.” Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press ISBN 0-8014-4273-7
  10. [1]
  11. [2]
  12. Президенты Российской академии наук за всю историю Presidents of the Russian Academy of Sciences throughout its history - at the Academy's official site
  13. Алексей Торгашев Академия наук, которой не было ("The Academy which wasn't")
  14. Орлов Владимир Григорьевич
  15. ДОМАШНЕВ Сергей Герасимович
  16. ДАШКОВА Екатерина Романовна

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