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Sabah is a Malaysianmarker state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneomarker (see map). It is the second largest state in Malaysia after Sarawakmarker, which it borders on its south-west. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantanmarker of Indonesiamarker in the south. In spite of its status as a Malaysian state, Sabah remains a disputed territory; the Philippinesmarker has a dormant claim over much of the eastern part of the territory. The capital of Sabah is Kota Kinabalumarker, formerly known as Jesseltonmarker. Sabah is known as "Sabah, negeri di bawah bayu", which means "Sabah, the land below the winds", because of its location just south of the typhoon-prone region around the Philippines.

History

The region of present-day Sabah was part of the Sultanate of Bruneimarker around the early 16th century. This was during the period when the Sultanate was at its 'golden era.' In 1658 the Sultan of Brunei ceded the northeast portion of Borneo to the Sultan of Sulu in compensation for the latter's help in settling a civil war in the Brunei Sultanate. In 1761 an officer of the British East India Company, Alexander Dalrymple, concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow him to set up a trading post in the region. This together with other attempts to build a settlement and a military station centering around Pulau Balambangan proved to be a failure. There was minimal foreign interest in this region afterward and control over most parts of north Borneo seems to have remained under the Sultanate of Brunei. Palawan, Philippines was once to be part of Sabah until Filipinos protested it last 1994 and claimed again its territory.

In 1865 the Americanmarker Consul of Brunei, Claude Lee Moses, obtained a 10-year lease over North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei. Ownership was then passed to an American trading company owned by J.W. Torrey, T.B. Harris and some Chinese merchants. They set up a base and settlement in Kimanismarker but this too failed due to financial reasons. The rights of the trading company were then sold to Baron Von Overbeck, the Austrianmarker Consul in Hong Kongmarker, and he later obtained another 10-year renewal of the lease. The rights were subsequently transferred to Alfred Dent, whom in 1881 formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd.

In the following year, the British North Borneo Company was formed and Kudatmarker was made its capital. In 1883 the capital was moved to Sandakanmarker to capitalise on its potential of vast timber resources. In 1888 North Borneo became a protectorate of the United Kingdommarker. Administration and control over North Borneo remained in the hands of the Company despite being a protectorate and they effectively ruled until 1942. Their rule had been generally peaceful except for some rebellions, including one led by the Suluk-Bajau leader Mat Salleh from 1894 to 1900, and another led by Antanum of the Murut which is known as the Rundum resistance in 1915.

Second World War and the road to independence

From 1942 to 1945 during the Second World War, Japanesemarker forces occupied North Borneo. The Japanese forces landed in Labuanmarker on January 1, 1942, and continued to invade the rest of North Borneo. Bombings by the allied forces devastated of most towns including Sandakan, which was totally razed to the ground. Resistance against Japanese occupation were concentrated on the west and north coast of North Borneo. The resistance in Jesselton was led by Albert Kwok and Jules Stephens of the Kinabalu Guerillas. Another resistance was led by Panglima Alli from Sulug Island, off the coast of Jesselton. In Kudatmarker, there were also some resistance led by Tun Datu Mustapha. On October 10, 1943, the Kinabalu Guerrillas together with followers of Panglima Alli staged a surprise attack on the Japanese. The attack however was foiled. The 324 local residents who participated in the attacks, including Albert Kwok and Panglima Alli, were detained in Petagas and later executed on January 21, 1944. The site of the execution is today known as the Petagas War Memorial.

In Sandakan there was once a brutal POW camp run by the Japanese for the prisoner British and Australian servicemen from North Borneo. They raped the locals all the time. They suffered in agony in their first year of captivity under notoriously inhuman conditions, but much worse was to come through forced marches of January, March and June 1945 ( refer to Sandakan Memorial Park WWII POW Museum Records ). Allied bombardments caused the Japanese to relocate the POW camp to inland Ranau, 260 km away. All the prisoners, who by then were thinned down to 2504 in numbers, were to be moved, but instead of transport, were forced to march the infamous "Sandakan-Ranau Death March" route. Sickness, disease, exhaustion, thirst, hunger, whipping or shooting of the failed escapees killed their lot except for the six Australians who successfully escaped, were never caught and survived to tell the horrific story of the death march. The fallen of this march are commemorated each year on Anzac Day (Memorial Day) in Australia and in Sandakan, at the original POW campsite where a POW hut style museum and a black marble memorial obelisk monument are nestling in a leafy, lilly ponded and peaceful park setting.

When Japan surrendered at the end of the war, North Borneo was administered by the British Military Administration and in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. Jesselton was chosen to replace Sandakan as the capital. The Crown continued to rule North Borneo until 1963. On August 31, 1963 North Borneo attained self-government. There was a call for complete independence on that date by it was denied by the British Governor who remained in power until Malaysia Day. The intention had been to form Malaysia on August 31 but due to objection from the Philippines and Indonesia, the formation had to be postponed to September 16. On September 16, 1963, North Borneo together with Malayamarker, Sarawakmarker and Singaporemarker formed the Federation of Malaysiamarker and from then on, it became known as Sabah and declared independent from British sovereignty. To safeguard the interest of North Borneo in the new federation, a 20-point agreement was entered into between the federal and the state government.

Philippine claim

The Sultanate of Sulu was granted the north-eastern part of the territory as a prize for helping the Sultan of Brunei against his enemies and from then on that part of Borneomarker was recognized as part of the Sultan of Sulu's sovereignty. In 1878, Baron Von Overbeck, an Austrian partner representing The British North Borneo Company and his British partner Alfred Dent, leased the territory of Sabah. In return, the company was to provide arms to the Sultan to resist the Spaniards and 5,000 Malayan dollars annual rental based on the Mexican dollar's value at that time or its equivalent in gold. This lease was continued until the independence and formation of the Malaysian federation in 1963 together with Singaporemarker, Sarawakmarker and the states of Malayamarker. As of 2004, the Malaysian Embassy to the Philippines had been paying cession/rental money amounting to US$1,500 per year (about 6,300 Malaysian Ringgits) to the heirs of the Sultanate of Sulu.

The contract between Sri Paduka Maulana Al Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam, representing the sultanate as owner and sovereign of Sabah on one hand, and that of Gustavus Baron de Overbeck and Alfred Dent representing the North Borneo Company, on the other as lessees of Sabah, was executed on January 22, 1878. The Lease prohibits the transfer of Sabah to any nation, company or individual without the consent of His Majesty’s Government (“Government of the Sultan of Sulu”). Although it is mentioned to be a permanent lease, it is contrary to international law, which states that the terms for a lease contract can be for only 99 years, as in the case of Hong Kongmarker and Macaumarker when these were leased to United Kingdommarker and Portugalmarker respectively, by Chinamarker and subsequently returned after the expiration of the lease. This would make the lease on Sabah overdue by 130 years.

Less than a decade later, the Sultanate of Sulu came under the control of Spain and in 1885, Spain relinquished all of its claim to Borneo to the British in the Madrid Protocol of 1885. In spite of that, in 1906 and 1920 the United Statesmarker formally reminded United Kingdommarker that Sabah did not belong to them and was still part of the Sultanate of Sulu on the premise that Spain never acquired sovereignty over North Borneo to transfer all its claims of sovereignty over North Borneo to the United Kingdom on the Madrid Protocol of 1885. This is so because the Sultan of Sulu did not include his territory and dominion in North Borneo in signing the treaty of 1878 recognizing the Spanish sovereignty over “Jolo and its dependencies.” North Borneo was never considered a dependency of Jolo. However, the British Government ignored the reminder and still annexed the territory of North Borneo as a Crown Colony on July 10, 1946. This was in spite of the fact that the British Government was aware of the decision made by the High Court of North Borneo on December 19, 1939, that the successor of the Sultan in the territory of Sabah was the Government of the Philippine Islandsmarker and not United Kingdommarker.

On September 12, 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagal's administration, the territory of North Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory were ceded by the then reigning Sultan of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. Kiram I, to the Republic of the Philippinesmarker. The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to pursue their claim in international courts. The Philippinesmarker broke diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had included Sabah in 1963. It was revoked in 1989 because succeeding Philippine administrations have placed the claim in the back burner in the interest of pursuing cordial economic and security relations with Kuala Lumpurmarker.

Geography



The western part of Sabah is generally mountainous, containing the three highest mountains in Malaysia. The most prominent range is the Crocker Rangemarker which houses several mountains of varying height from about 1,000 metres to 4,000 metres. At the height of 4,095 metres, Mount Kinabalumarker is the highest mountain in Malaysia . The jungles of Sabah are classified as rainforests and host a diverse array of plant and animal species. Kinabalu National Parkmarker was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2000 because of its richness in plant diversity combined with its unique geological, topographical, and climatic conditions.

Lying nearby Mount Kinabalu is Mount Tambuyukon. At a height of 2,579 metres, it is the third highest peak in the country. Adjacent to the Crocker Range is the Trus Madi Range which houses the second highest peak in the country, Mount Trus Madimarker, at a height of 2,642 metres. There are lower ranges of hills extending towards the western coasts, southern plains, and the interior or central part of Sabah. These mountains and hills are traversed by an extensive network of river valleys and are in most cases covered with dense rainforest.

The central and eastern portion of Sabah are generally lower mountain ranges and plains with occasional hills. Kinabatangan Rivermarker begins from the western ranges and snakes its way through the central region towards the east coast out into the Sulu Seamarker. It is the second longest river in Malaysia after Rejang River at a length of 560 kilometres. The forests surrounding the river valley also contains an array of wildlife habitats, and is the largest forest-covered floodplain in Malaysia.



Other important wildlife regions in Sabah include Maliau Basinmarker, Danum Valleymarker, Tabin, Imbak Canyon and Sepilokmarker. These places are either designated as national parks, wildlife reserves, virgin jungle reserves, or protection forest reserve.

Over three quarters of the human population inhabit the coastal plains. Major towns and urban centers have sprouted along the coasts of Sabah. The interior region remains sparsely populated with only villages, and the occasional small towns or townships.

Beyond the coasts of Sabah lie a number of islands and coral reefs, including the largest island in Malaysia, Pulau Banggimarker. Other large islands include, Pulau Jambongan, Pulau Balambangan, Pulau Timbun Matamarker, Pulau Bumbun, and Pulau Sebatikmarker. Other popular islands mainly for tourism are, Pulau Sipadanmarker, Pulau Selingan, Pulau Gaya, Pulau Tigamarker, and Pulau Layang-Layangmarker.

Government

State government structure



Sabah has a democratic political system with universal suffrage. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri sits at the top of the hierarchy followed by the state legislative assembly and the state cabinet. The Yang di-Pertuan Negeri is officially the head of state however its functions are largely ceremonial. The chief minister is the head of government and is also the leader of the state cabinet. The member of the legislature who commands the majority of support in the house may be appointed as chief minister. A general election for state and federal level officials is held every five years. The state parliament or the state legislative assembly meets at the state capital, Kota Kinabalu. The state is divided into 25 parliamentary constituencies and 60 state assembly districts where each is represented by an elected Member of Parliament (MP) and Member of the State Legislative Assembly respectively.

The present elected state and federal government posts are held by Barisan Nasional (BN), a coalition of parties which includes United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP), United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO), Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS), Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), and Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA).

The last state election was in 2004 and as of 2006, the state legislature has 60 members. It comprises 59 BN state legislature members (Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri) and a single independent. Of this, 32 are from UMNO, 13 from PBS, 5 from UPKO, 4 from the SAPP, 3 from LDP, and one each from MCA and PBRS.

See also: Breakdown of state seats representatives in Sabah elected 2008


The political climate

Prior to the formation of Malaysia in 1963, the then North Borneo interim government submitted a 20-point agreement to the Malayan government as conditions before Sabah would join the Federation. Sabah entered Malaysiamarker as an autonomous state with a Christian Kadazan-Dusun chief minister, but soon succumbed to Kuala Lumpur's vision of a one-party unitary Islamic state dominated by the indigenous Muslim Bajau and Brunei Malay people. This has created considerable friction and even occasional calls for secession. These tensions are further inflamed by Kuala Lumpur's colonial mentality towards Sabah, wherein 95% of the profits from Sabah's immense natural resources are taken by the federal government, leaving the state government with only 5%. Aside from nominally separate immigration controls, little evidence remains of Sabah's theoretical autonomy.

Until the Malaysian general election, 2008, Sabah, along with the states of Kelantanmarker and Terengganumarker, are the only three states in Malaysia that had ever been ruled by opposition parties not part of the ruling BN coalition. Led by Datuk Seri Joseph Pairin Kitingan, PBS formed government after winning the 1985 elections and ruled Sabah until 1994. Due to certain internal troubles, BN took over the government in 1994 despite PBS winning the elections. PBS subsequently joined the BN coalition in 2002.

A unique feature of Sabah politics was a policy initiated by the BN in 1994 whereby the chief minister's post is rotated among the coalition parties every 2 years regardless of the party in power at the time, thus theoretically giving an equal amount of time for each major ethnic group to rule the state. This extremely weakens the executive branch of the state government, which was formerly much at odds with the federal government in Kuala Lumpurmarker. It also serves to give a disproportionate power to the indigenous Muslim Bajau ethnic group, at the expense of the mainly Christian indigenous Kadazan-Dusun, the largest ethnic group. This practice has since stopped with power now held by majority in the state assembly by the UMNO party, which also holds a majority in the national parliament.

There has been a conspiracy theory that the chief minister post rotation system was implemented to allow UMNO to control the post permanently by abolishing the whole system once it was UMNO's turn to hold the post. It has never been proven but it is considered impossible for UMNO to get a hold of the post through any other method. The conspiracy theory was brought up once again when a division from UMNO proposed to implement the same rotation system in Penang, one of the two states which is currently not controlled by UMNO but is under BN rule (the other state being Sarawakmarker). The proposal was raised even though UMNO abolished the system in Sabah by declaring it a failure.

UMNO had a quick rise to power since its entry into Sabah in 1991 where before that both eastern Malaysian states were not penetrated by the party, whose president is the de facto leader of the ruling coalition BN and automatically the Prime Minister of Malaysia. This has given rise to dissent as the chief minister rotation system was halted just as UMNO was holding the post. Thus the 2004 general elections saw widespread disillusionment, coupled with an ineffectual opposition. The state assembly is now dominated by the ruling party BN with only one seat held by an opposition politician who is an independent candidate. This was caused by a general sentiment where a number of voters were reluctant to cast votes for BN whose victory was almost assured but did not trust the opposition parties, most of which were not vigorously active before the election. Therefore many cast votes for independent candidates.

Sabah politics, as are Malaysia's, is very much based upon party lines. An effort by PBS, a component party of BN, to hatch a co-operation with the one opposition candidate within the state assembly, who conversely was a former UMNO member competing independently because he was not nominated for the constituency by his party, in an unprecedented attempt at bipartisanship, was harshly criticized by UPKO, another component party of BN.

Chief Ministers of Sabah

Year Chief Minister Party
1963-1964 Tun Fuad Stephens United National Kadazan Organization (UNKO)
1965-1967 Datuk Peter Lo Sui Yin Sabah Chinese Association (SCA)
1967-1975 Tun Mustapha Datu Harun United Sabah National Organization (USNO) - BN
1975-1976 Tun Said Keruak USNO - BN
1976 (44 days) Tun Fuad Stephens Berjaya - BN
1976-1985 Datuk Harris Mohd Salleh Berjaya - BN
1985-1994 Datuk Seri Joseph Pairin Kitingan PBS - Opposition (In partnership with BN in 1986-1990)
1994-1995 Tun Sakaran Dandai UMNO - BN
1995-1996 Datuk Salleh Tun Said Keruak UMNO - BN
1996-1998 Datuk Yong Teck Lee SAPP - BN
1998-1999 Tan Sri Bernard Dompok (now UPKO) Parti Demokratik Sabah (PDS) - BN
1999-2001 Datuk Seri Osu Haji Sukam UMNO - BN
2001-2003 Tan Sri Chong Kah Kiat LDP - BN
2003-present Datuk Seri Musa Aman UMNO - BN


Administrative divisions

Sabah consists of five administrative divisions, which are in turn divided into 24 districts.

These administrative divisions are, for all purposes, just for reference. During the British rule until the transition period when Malaysia was formed, a Resident was appointed to govern each division and provided with a palace (Istana). This means that the British considered each of these divisions equivalent to a Malayan state. The post of the Resident was abolished in favour of district officers for each of the district.



Division Name Districts Area (km²) Population (2006)
1 West Coast Divisionmarker Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalumarker, Paparmarker, Penampangmarker, Putatanmarker, Ranau, Tuaranmarker 7,588 953,900
2 Interior Division Beaufortmarker, Nabawanmarker, Keningaumarker, Kuala Penyu, Sipitangmarker, Tambunanmarker, Tenommarker 18,298 420,800
3 Kudat Division Kota Marudumarker, Kudatmarker, Pitas 4,623 189,500
4 Sandakan Division Beluran, Kinabatanganmarker, Sandakanmarker, Tongodmarker 28,205 676,000
5 Tawau Division Kunakmarker, Lahad Datumarker, Sempornamarker, Tawaumarker 14,905 756,800


Local Government

As in the rest of Malaysia, local government comes under the purview of state governments. However, ever since the suspension of local government elections in the midst of the Malaysian Emergency, which was much less intense in Sabah than it was in the rest of the country, there have been no local elections. Local authorities have their officials appointed by the executive council of the state government.

Demographics

The population of Sabah was 2,449,389 in 2000 and was the third most populous state in Malaysia after Selangormarker and Johormarker. It is estimated that Sabah's population has exceeded that of Johor with an estimated population of 3,400,000 in 2007. Sabah indeed has one of the highest population growth rates in the country.

Ethnicities and Religion

Statistics of religion by state are not provided by the Department of Statistics Malaysia. Sabah has one of the highest populations of Christians (Roman Catholic and Protestant) living in Malaysia but this proportion is believed to have fallen due to Muslim immigration from Malaya and Indonesia. Religious breakdown (2000): Islam 63.7%, Christianity 27.8%, Buddhism 12%, No Religion 1.0%, Taoism/Confucianism 0.4%, Others 0.3%, Hinduism 0.1%, Unknown 0.3%.[4845]

The people of Sabah are divided into 32 officially recognised ethnic groups. The largest immigrant ethnic group is the Chinese. Most Chinese people in Sabah are concentrated primarily at Kota Kinabalumarker, Sandakanmarker, and Tawaumarker. Kota Kinabalu has the highest concentration of Chinese people in Sabah, followed by Sandakan (second highest) and Tawau (third highest). The largest indigenous ethnic group is Kadazan-Dusun, followed by Bajau, and Murut. There is a very small number and proportion of Indians and other South Asians in Sabah compared to other parts of Malaysia. Collectively, all persons coming from Sabah are known as Sabahans and identify themselves as such.

Malay is the national language spoken across ethnicities, although the spoken Sabahan dialect of Malay differs much in inflection and intonation from the West Malaysian version, having more similarity in pronunciation to Indonesian. English, Mandarin as well as Hakka and Cantonese are widely understood. In addition, Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau, Murut and other smaller groups also have distinct ethnic languages. Sabah also has its own unique Sabahan-slangs for many words in Malay.

The federal government of Malaysia officially recognizes 28 ethnic groups as being indigenous or bumiputra in Sabah:





Other inhabitants:



Economy

Sabah's economy was traditionally heavily lumber dependent, based on export of tropical timber, but with increasing depletion of the natural forests and ecological efforts to save remaining natural rainforest areas, palm oil has emerged. Other agricultural products important in the Sabah economy include rubber and cacao. Tourism is currently the second largest contributor to the economy. There are other exports like seafood and vegetables.

In 1970, Sabah ranked as one of the richest states in the federation, with a per capita GDP second only to Selangor (which then included Kuala Lumpur). However, despite its vast wealth of natural resources, Sabah is currently the poorest of Malaysia's states. Average incomes are now among the lowest in Malaysia, and with a considerably higher cost of living than in West Malaysia. In 2000 Sabah had an unemployment rate of 5.6 per cent, the highest of any Malaysian state and almost twice the national average of 3.1 per cent. The state has the highest poverty level in the country at 16 per cent, more than three times the national average. Part of the problem is the inequitable distribution of wealth between state and federal governments, and large numbers of illegal immigrants from Indonesia, the Philippines, even East Timor, whose population was estimated to be in the region of half a million people. In 2004 the poverty level worsened to 22 per cent.

The recent tabling of the Ninth Malaysia Plan has allocated RM16.908 billion for Sabah, the second highest state allocation after Sarawak's but it is still only 8% of the total national budget for a population of Sabah of more than 13%, and an area of more than 25%. This is clearly discriminatory and has contributed to the State of Sabah having the largest number of people below the poverty line in Malaysia, and lower than the Indonesian national poverty rate and in the same level as Aceh and Myanmar based on 2004 United Nations figures.

The fund is pledged to improve the state's rural areas, improve the state's transportation and utilities infrastructures, and boost the economy of Sabah. The government has placed its focus on three major areas of the economy which have the potential to be Sabah's growth engine. These are agriculture, manufacturing and tourism.

When this discriminatory budget against Sabah and Sarawak was pointed out, the allocation for Sabah was increased from the earlier figure of 15.7 billion RM while there is none for Sarawak. The reason given to Sarawak's Chief Minister, as reported by Borneo Post (11 November 2007) is that it is not economical to develop Sarawak. Sarawak is to be the source of renewable resources for Malaya. This situation applies to Sabah as well except that Sarawak's renewable resources are not even meant for Sabah. The percentage of the total budget is still much less than Sabah's population and area burdens.

Urban centers and ports

There are currently 7 ports in Sabah: Kota Kinabalu Port, Sepanggar Bay Container Port, Sandakan Port, Tawau Port, Kudat Port, Kunak Port, and Lahad Datu Port. These ports are operated and maintained by Sabah Ports Authority. The major towns and city are:

Kota Kinabalu City
Sandakan City
Rank City Population
1 Kota Kinabalumarker 532,129
2 Sandakanmarker 448,074
3 Tawaumarker 349,962
4 Lahad Datumarker 119,938
5 Keningaumarker 97,152
6 Sempornamarker 71,157
7 Kudatmarker 34,481


Tourism

Tourism, particularly eco-tourism, is a major contributor to the economy of Sabah. In 2006, 2,000,000 tourists visited Sabah and it is estimated that the number will continue to rise following vigorous promotional activities by the state and national tourism boards and also increased stability and security in the region. Sabah currently has six national parks. One of these, the Kinabalu National Parkmarker, was designated as a World Heritage Site in 2000. It is the first of two sites in Malaysia to obtain this status, the other being the Gunung Mulu National Parkmarker in Sarawak. These parks are maintained and controlled by Sabah Parks under the Parks Enactment 1984. The Sabah Wildlife Department also has conservation, utilization, and management responsibilities.

National Parks



Notable Sabahans

Politics and governance

Mat Salleh was a Suluk-Bajau who led a rebellion against British North Borneo Company administration in North Borneo. Under his leadership, the rebellion which lasted from 1894 to 1900 razed the British Administration Centre on Pulau Gaya and exercised control over Menggatal, Inanam, Ranau and Tambunan. The rebellion was by Bajaus, Dusuns and Muruts.

Another notable Sabahan is Donald Stephens who helped form the state of Sabah under the UN appointed Cobbold commission. He was an initial opponent of Malaysia but was persuaded by Lee Kuan Yew with an offer of 8 university places for Sabahan students at the University of Malaya, Singapore .

Donald Stephens was the first Huguan Siou or paramount leader of the Kadazan-dusun and Murut people.

Tun Datu Mustapha was a Suluk-Kagayan Muslim political leader in Sabah through the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) party. He was a vocal supporter of Malaysia but fell out of favor with Malayan leaders despite forming UMNO branches in Saba and deregistering USNO. Efforts to reregister USNO have not been allowed, unlike UMNO that was allowed to be reregistered under the same name.

Former Chief Minister Joseph Pairin Kitingan is the current Huguan Siou and the President of Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS). Pairin, the longest serving chief minister of the state and one of the first Kadazandusun lawyers, was known for his defiance of the federal government in the 1980s and 90s in promoting the rights of Sabah and speaking out against the illegal immigration problems. Sabah was at the time one of only two states with opposition governments in power, the other being Kelantan. PBS has since rejoined BN and Datuk Pairin is currently the Deputy Chief Minister of Sabah.

The 8th and current Attorney General of Malaysia, Abdul Gani Patail, comes from Sabah.

In 2006, Penampangmarker-born Richard Malanjum was appointed Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak and became the first Kadazandusun to hold such a post.

Arts

Sabah has produced a fair number of well-known media figures. With the advent of reality TV in Malaysia, Sabah produced more breakthrough artist compared to 4 decades before.

  • Movies & TV: Tony Francis Gitom (filmmaker), Daphne Iking (NTV7 host), Farid Amirul Hisham (actor : 'Gerak Khas', Lim), Kamaruddin Mape (TV3 Newscaster), Farish Aziz (Astro TV host), actress Fung Bo Bo & Chung Shuk Wai


  • Radio Disc Jockey: Maryanne Raymond (a.k.a. DJ Mary of TraxxFm), Constantine Anthony(a.k.a. DJ Constantine of TraxxFm), Shahrizan Ferouz(a.k.a. DJ The Shaz of TraxxFm), Fadhil bin Luqman (a.k.a. DJ Fad Da Dillio on TraxxFm) (To know more about TRAXXfm, Log on to http://www.traxxfm.net or listen live at http://bkj-station1.jaring.my/traxxfm) DJ Johnboy Lee of Hitz. FM & Bigfish Radio, DJ othoe (Suria.FM)


  • 1st Sabahan Online Radio: (Sabahan.FM) DJ AbgLang, DJ KiNaBaLu, DJ si_jason, DJ Black, DJ Saliparjipun, DJ Iter, DJ markiekadus, DJ sumandak, DJ ayustitch, DJ lordYork, DJ Langau (http://www.sabahan.net/ http://sabahan.FM/listen.pls)




  • Musicians & Composers: Guitarist Roger Wang, composer Julfekar and Asmin Mudin


  • Singers: Nazrey Johani (ex- nasyid group Raihan), Azharina Azhar, Winner of the Evergreen Singer Award Peter Dicky Lee, Pete Teo, Jerome Kugan, Mia Palencia, Yan Qing, Gary Cao, Dyg Noraini Hj. Shaari (Sinaran Pasport Kegemilangan Winner)


  • Band & Groups: JIAJA (Blast Off! Season 2 Champion), E-Voke (Gang Starz 1), One Nation Emcees (Gang Starz Season 2 Winner), B.A.D. Boys (Adam's artists), Lotter & Divine Masters, Richael Gimbang of Estranged


  • Reality TV stars (non-finalist): Nikki Palikat (Malaysian Idol), Mas (AF2), Yazer (AF3), Nora (AF4), Farha (AF5), Noni (AF5), Rubisa (AF7), Zizi (AF7), AB (OIAM2), Mark Malim (OIAM2), Shone (OIAM2)


  • International Artists: Che'nelle


Sports

Matlan Marjan is a former football player for Malaysia. He scored two goals against England in an international friendly on June 12, 1991. The English team included Stuart Pearce, David Batty, David Platt, Nigel Clough, Gary Lineker, was captained by Bryan Robson and coached by Bobby Robson. No other Malaysian player managed to achieve this. In 1995, he along with six other Sabah players, were arrested on suspicion of match-fixing. Although the charges were dropped, he was prevented from playing professional football and was banished to another district. He was punished under the Internal Security Act (which allows for indefinite detention without any trial, despite being proven innocent, and even on non-security related issues).

Business

Arts and entertainment

Sabahan contestants attained many finalist spots and even won major reality TV show contests. This phenomenon is probably due to many hidden Sabahan talents finally uncovered through Reality TV.
  • One in a Million: Ayu (OIAM2 winner), Esther (1st runner-up OIAM3)
  • Akademi Fantasia finalist: Norlinda Nanuwil & Adam from AF2, Felix Agus & Marsha Milan Londoh from AF3, Velvet & Lotter from AF4, Candy & Ebi from AF5, Stacy the AF6/1st Sabahan/2nd female champion
  • Gang Starz: E-Voke (season 1 semi-finalist), One Nation Emcees (season 2 winner)
  • Blast-Off: Jiaja (season 2 winner)
  • Mentor: Pija (winner season 1), Fiq (winner season 2)


Sabah's first homegrown film was Orang Kita, starring Abu Bakar Ellah.

Some films and TV shows filmed in Sabah include the first season of reality show Survivor, The Amazing Race, Eco-Challenge Borneo, films Bat*21, as well as a number of Hong Kong production films such as Born Rich. Sabah was also featured in Sacred Planet, a documentary hosted by Robert Redford.

There are many types of traditional dances in Sabah, most notably:
  • Daling-daling: Danced by Suluks and Bajaus. In its original form, it was a dance which combined Arabic belly dancing and the Indian dances common in this region, complete with long artificial finger nails and golden head gear accompanied by a Suluk song called daling-daling which is a love story. Its main characteristic is the large hip and breast swings but nowadays it is danced with a faster tempo but less swings, called Igal-igal.
  • Sumazau: Kadazandusun traditional dance which performed during weddings and Kaamatan festival. The dance form is akin to a couple of birds flying together.
  • Magunatip: Famously known as the Bamboo dance, requires highly skilled dancers to perform. Native dance of the Muruts, but can also be found in different forms and names in South East Asia.


Sabah's first established newspaper was the New Sabah Times. The newspaper was founded by Tun Fuad Stephens, who later became the first Chief Minister of Sabah.

American author Agnes Newton Keith lived in Sandakan between 1934-1952 and wrote several books about Sabah. Sabah was also the main location for the filming of the 1937 American documentary based on the adventures of Martin and Osa Johnson titled Borneo.

In the Earl Mac Rauch novelization of Buckaroo Banzai (Pocket Books, 1984; repr. 2001), and in the DVD commentary, Buckaroo's archenemy Hanoi Xan is said to have his secret base in Sabah, in a "relic city of caves."

References

  • Gudgeon, L. W. W. 1913. British North Borneo. Adam and Charles Black, London.
  • Chin, Ung-Ho. 1999. 'Kataks', Kadazan-Dusun Nationalism and Development: The 1999 Sabah State Election (Regime Change And Regime Maintenance In Asia And The Pacific Series No 24, Department Of Political And Social Change, Research School Of Pacific And Asian Studies, Australian National University) (ISBN 0-7315-2678-3)
  • Urmenyhazi, Attila (2007) DISCOVERING NORTH BORNEO, a travelogue on Sarawak & Sabah by the author-graphic designer-publisher, National Library of Australia, Canberra, Record ID: 4272798.

Footnotes

  1. C.Buckley: A School History of Sabah, London, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1968
  2. Johan M. Padasian: Sabah History in pictures (1881-1981), Sabah State Government, 1981
  3. "Sabah's Heritage: A Brief Introduction to Sabah's History", Muzium Sabah, Kota Kinabalu. 1992
  4. Ramlah binti Adam, Abdul Hakim bin Samuri, Muslimin bin Fadzil: "Sejarah Tingkatan 3, Buku teks", published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2005)
  5. [1], The Deed of Sabah Lease of 1878 Accessed March 1, 2008.
  6. Protocol of 1885. Sabah Law. Extracted June 3, 2008
  7. [2], Instrument of Cession of the Territory of North Borneo to the Republic of the Philippines. (7th "whereas" clause). Accessed March 1, 2008.
  8. [3], Sabah Transfer of Sovereignty From the Sultanate of Sulu to the Republic of the Philippines. Accessed March 1, 2008.
  9. [4], Come clean on Sabah, Sulu sultan urge gov't. Accessed March 1, 2008.
  10. Kinabalu Park - Justification for inscription, UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Accessed June 24, 2007.
  11. About the Kinabatangan area, WWF. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  12. Senarai ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri Sabah, sabah.gov.my. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  13. "Monthly Statistical Bulletin, January 2007: Sabah", Department of Statistics Malaysia, Sabah.
  14. "Housing Census of Malaysia, 2000", Department of Statistics, Malaysia
  15. Malaysia: Administrative Divisions (population and area), World Gazetteer. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  16. Languages of Malaysia (Sabah). Ethnologue. Retrieved on May 4, 2007
  17. "Outline Perspective of Sabah", Institute for Development Studies (Sabah). URL accessed May 7, 2006
  18. "UN Sabah Poverty Statistics, 2004". URL accessed January 13, 2008
  19. "Indonesian Poverty Statistics, 2004". URL accessed January 13, 2008
  20. UN World Poverty Statistics 2005". URL accessed January 13, 2008
  21. "The Edge Daily". URL accessed January 13, 2008
  22. Sabah Ports Authority
  23. Malaysia: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population, World Gazetteer. August 4, 2007.
  24. Sabah: Visitors Arrival by Nationality 2006, Sabah Tourism Board. Accessed August 4, 2007.
  25. "M.G.G. Pillai". URL last accessed on January 13, 2008
  26. EnglandFC Match Data


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