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A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is what Roman Catholics believe to be "a rite in which God is uniquely active." Augustine of Hippo defined a Christian sacrament as "a visible sign of an invisible reality." The Anglican Book of Common Prayer speaks of them as "an outward and visible sign of an inward and invisible Grace." Examples of sacraments would be Baptism and the Eucharist." Therefore a sacrament is a religious symbol or often a rite which conveys divine grace, blessing, or sanctity upon the believer who participates in it, or a tangible symbol which represents an intangible reality. As defined above, an example would be baptism in water, representing (and conveying) the grace of the gift of the Holy Spirit, the Forgiveness of Sins, and membership into the Church. Anointing with holy anointing oil is another example which is often synonymous with receiving the Holy Spirit and salvation as explicitly described in Mark 1:14-15. Another way of looking at Sacraments is that they are an external and physical sign of the conferral of Sanctifying Grace.

Throughout the Christian faith views concerning which rites are sacramental, that is conferring sanctifying grace, and what it means for an external act to be sacramental vary widely. Other religious traditions also have what might be called "sacraments" in a sense, though not necessarily according to the Christian meaning of the term.

General definitions and terms

In the majority of Western Christianity, the generally accepted definition of a sacrament is that it is an outward sign that conveys an inward, spiritual grace through Christ. Christian churches, denomination, and sects are divided regarding the number and operation of the sacraments. Sacraments are generally held to have been instituted by Jesus Christ, although in some cases this point is debated. They are usually administered by the clergy to a recipient or recipients, and are generally understood to involve visible and invisible components. The invisible component (manifested inwardly) is understood to be brought about by the action of the Holy Spirit, God's grace working in the sacrament's participants, while the visible (or outward) component entails the use of such things as water, oil, and bread and wine that is blessed or consecrated; the laying-on-of-hands; or a particularly significant covenant that is marked by a public benediction (such as with marriage or absolution of sin in the reconciliation of a penitent).

As defined by the Roman Catholic Church, recognised by the Eastern Orthodox churches, Oriental Orthodox, (though these two do not categorically define the number), and Independent Catholic and Old Catholic Church.

The Orthodox Churches (Eastern and Oriental) typically do not limit the number of sacraments, viewing all encounters with reality in life as sacramental in some sense, and their acknowledgement of the number of sacraments at seven as an innovation of convenience not found in the Church Fathers. It came into use, although infrequently, later on from later encounters with the West and its Sacramental Theology. Other denominations and traditions, both in eastern and western Christianity may affirm only Baptism and Eucharist as sacraments, these include many of the Protestant denominations and some of the Old Believers in the Orthodox communion, some of whom reject all sacraments except Baptism.

Some post-Reformation denominations (including Protestants and other Christian denominations who reject that label) do not maintain a sacramental theology, although they may practice the rites themselves. These rites may be variously labelled "traditions" or – in the case of Baptism and the Eucharist ("the Lord's Supper") – "ordinances," since they are seen as having been ordained by Christ to be permanently observed by the church. Protestant denominations, both sacramental and non-sacramental, almost invariably affirm only these two as sacraments, traditions, or ordinances; although they may also practice some or all of the other traditional sacraments as well whilst not acknowledging the action of divine grace in the external form.

Catholic teaching

Enumeration

The following are the Seven Sacraments of the Catholic Church:

Traditionally the Catholic Church defined sacraments as "An outward sign of inward grace, a sacred and mysterious sign or ceremony, ordained by Christ, by which grace is conveyed to our souls." Regarding the validity of the sacraments, however, The Catholic church teaches that:

All sacraments must have proper matter, form, and intention.
The form is the sacramental sign, the verbal and physical liturgical action, e.g. the "this is my body" spoken during communion.
The matter is the part of the sacrament to which something is done, the physical objects, e.g. the waters of baptism (although not all physical objects used in administering a sacrament are considered essential matter).
Intention means that the priest or minister must have the willful intention to do what the Church does (facere quod facit ecclesia).
Note that a minister does not have to believe personally all that the Church believes for the sacraments to be valid; he simply has to intend to do what the Church does.
This means that if a person pours water over your head, reciting the words spoken at baptism, but is doing so only to demonstrate how to baptize, that baptism is not valid.
Also, a child who is pretending to baptize another child would not confer a valid baptism upon that child, because his intention is to play, not to baptize.
The importance of intention also shows that while the sacraments are effectual in and of themselves, they are not magic whereby God works against our will.


Sacraments are effective ex opere operato, i.e. effective on account of the work itself.
As expressed by professors of sacred theology, the phrase conveys the fact that the sacrament signifies what it accomplishes, and it accomplishes by signifying.
During the 4th century some otherwise orthodox Christians asserted that the effectiveness of the sacraments depended on the holiness of the minister.
In other words, if the presbyter baptizing was in a state of sin, his baptisms didn't "take."
These Christians eventually broke off from the wider Catholic Church, and were called "Donatists."
The Donatists, situated primarily in North Africa, asserted that bishops consecrated by sinful bishops weren't really bishops at all.
St. Augustine and others spilled a lot of ink to refute this position regarding sacraments, which is characterized in the Latin as ex opere operantis, i.e. sacraments are effective on account of the one doing the work.
While the Church calls her priests (and all Christians) to high standards of holiness, the sacraments are effective independent of a minister's holiness because a perfect God is ultimately providing the sacramental grace, not the imperfect human minister.
2

St. Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas Aquinas was one of the great Scholastic thinkers of the Middle Ages, who provided the backbone of The Catholic Churches sacramental theology.

Eastern and Oriental Orthodox teaching

See also: Eastern Orthodoxy — Mysteries


The seven sacraments are also accepted by Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy, but these traditions do not limit the number of sacraments to seven, holding that anything the Church does as Church is in some sense sacramental. Some lists of the sacraments taken from the Church Fathers include the Consecration of a Church, Monastic Tonsure, and the Burial of the Dead. More specifically, for the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Christian the term sacrament is a term which seeks to classify something that may, according to Orthodox thought, be impossible to classify. The Orthodox communion's preferred term is Sacred Mystery. While the Catholic Church has attempted to dogmatically define the sacraments, and discover the precise moment when the act results in the manifestation of the grace of God, the Orthodox communion has refrained from attempting to determine absolutely the exact form, number and effect of the sacraments, accepting that simply that these elements are unknowable to all except God. According to Orthodox thinking God touches mankind through material means such as water, wine, bread, oil, incense, candles, altars, icons, etc. How God does this is a mystery. On a broad level, the mysteries are an affirmation of the goodness of created matter, and are an emphatic declaration of what that matter was originally created to be.

Despite this broad view, Orthodox divines do write about there being seven "principal" mysteries. On a specific level, while not systematically limiting the mysteries to seven, the most profound Mystery is the Eucharist or Synaxis, in which the partakers, by participation in the liturgy and receiving the consecrated bread and wine (understood to have become the body and blood of Christ itself) directly communicate with God. In this sense, there is no substantial difference from the practice of other churches of the Catholic patrimony. The emphasis on mystery is, however, characteristic of Orthodox theology, and is often called apophatic, meaning that any and all positive statements about God and other theological matters must be balanced by negative statements. For example, while it is correct and appropriate to say that "God exists", or even that "God is the only Being which truly exists", such statements must be understood to also convey the idea that God transcends what is usually meant by the term "to exist."

Anglican teaching

As befits its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as a church in the Catholic tradition, and a church of the Reformation. With respect to sacramental theology, that Catholic heritage is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace, sanctification, and salvation as expressed in the church's liturgy. Anglican and Roman Catholic theologians participating in an Anglican/Roman Catholic Joint Preparatory Commission declared that they had "reached substantial agreement on the doctrine of the Eucharist".

Anglicans recognise the seven sacraments, however, two of them — Baptism and the Holy Eucharist — are seen as having been ordained by Christ ("sacraments of the Gospel," as Article XXV of the Thirty-Nine Articles describes them). In this sense, Baptism and Eucharist are the "precepted, primary, and principal sacraments ordained for our salvation. " and the other five sacraments are lesser, deriving their efficacy from the former.

In the Anglican tradition, the sacerdotal function is assigned to clergy in the three orders of ministry: bishops, priests and deacons. Anglicans hold to the principle of ex opere operato with respect to the efficacy of the sacraments vis-a-vis the presider and his or her administration thereof. Article XXVI of the Thirty-nine Articles (entitled Of the unworthiness of ministers which hinders not the effect of the Sacrament) states that the "ministration of the Word and Sacraments" is not done in the name of the one performing the sacerdotal function, "neither is the effect of Christ's ordinance taken away by their wickedness," since the sacraments have their effect "because of Christ's intention and promise, although they be ministered by evil men."

Lutheran teaching

Lutherans hold that sacraments are sacred acts of divine institution. Whenever they are properly administered by the use of the physical component commanded by God along with the divine words of institution, God is, in a way specific to each sacrament, present with the Word and physical component. He earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament forgiveness of sins and eternal salvation. He also works in the recipients to get them to accept these blessings and to increase the assurance of their possession.

Martin Luther defined a sacrament as an act or rite:
  1. instituted by God;
  2. in which God Himself has joined His Word of promise to the visible element;
  3. and by which He offers, gives and seals the forgiveness of sin earned by Christ.


This strict definition narrowed the number of sacraments down to two or three: Holy Baptism, the Eucharist, and for some, Holy Absolution, with the other four rites eliminated for not having a visible element or the ability to forgive sin. Lutherans do not dogmatically define the exact number of sacraments. In line with Luther's initial statement in his Large Catechism some Lutherans speak of only two sacraments, Baptism and the Eucharist, although later in the same work he calls Confession and Absolution John 20:23, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 112-3, Part XXVI "The Ministry", paragraph 156. "the third sacrament." The definition of sacrament in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession lists Absolution as one of them. It is important to note that although Lutherans do not consider the other four rites as sacraments, they are still retained and used in the Lutheran church. Within Lutheranism, the sacraments are a Means of Grace, and, together with the Word of God, empower the Church for mission.

Teachings of other Christian traditions



The enumeration, naming, understanding, and the adoption of the sacraments vary according to denomination. Many Protestants and other post-Reformation traditions affirm Luther's definition and have only Baptism and The Lord's Supper as sacraments, while others see the ritual as merely symbolic, and still others do not have a sacramental dimension at all .

In addition to the traditional seven sacraments, other rituals have been considered sacraments by some Christian traditions. In particular, foot washing as seen in Anabaptist and Brethren groups, and the hearing of the Gospel, as understood by a few Christian groups (such as the Polish National Catholic Church of America), have been considered sacraments by some churches .

Since some post-Reformation denominations do not regard clergy as having a classically sacerdotal or priestly function, they avoid the term "sacrament," preferring the terms "sacerdotal function," "ordinance," or "tradition." This belief invests the efficacy of the ordinance in the obedience and participation of the believer and the witness of the presiding minister and the congregation. This view stems from a highly developed concept of the priesthood of all believers. In this sense, the believer himself or herself performs the sacerdotal role .

Baptists and Pentecostals, among other Christian denominations, use the word ordinance, rather than sacrament because of certain sacerdotal ideas connected, in their view, with the word sacrament. . These churches argue that the word ordinance points to the ordaining authority of Christ which lies behind the practice.

Latter Day Saints

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)

For members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Sacrament is the Lord's Supper, in which participants eat bread and drink wine (or water, since the late 1800s). It is essentially the same as the Eucharist or Holy Communion in other Christian denominations. In Mormon congregations, the Sacrament is normally provided every Sunday as part of the Sacrament meeting. In LDS teachings however, the word ordinance is used approximately as the word Sacrament is used in Christianity in general. . In terms of Ordinances which roughly equate to Christian sacraments in terms of conferring an invisible form of grace the LDS have several which are of a saving nature and are required for "exaltation". These are:
  1. baptism,
  2. confirmation,
  3. Ordination to the Aaronic and Melchizedek Priesthoods (in the case of men),
  4. The temple Endowment, and
  5. Celestial Marriage.


There are other Ordinances which are performed, but which are not required for salvation, these are "Sacrament" or the Lord's Supper, ministering to the sick, the blessing of a child, and various other blessings.

Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints)

The Community of Christ holds that the sacraments express the continuing presence of Christ through the Church. They help believers establish and continually renew their relationship with God. Through them believers establish or reaffirm their covenant with God in response to God’s grace. They denomination recognizes eight sacraments:
  1. Baptism,
  2. Confirmation,
  3. The Blessing of Children,
  4. The Lord's Supper,
  5. Marriage,
  6. Administration to the sick,
  7. Ordination, and
  8. The Evangelist's blessing.


Non-sacramental churches

Some denominations do not have a sacramental dimension (or equivalent) at all. The Salvation Army does not practice formal sacraments for a variety of reasons, including a belief that it is better to concentrate on the reality behind the symbols; however, it does not forbid its members from receiving sacraments in other denominations

The Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) also do not practice formal sacraments, believing that all activities should be considered holy. Rather, they are focused on an inward transformation of one's whole life. Some Quakers use the words "Baptism" and "Communion" to describe the experience of Christ's presence and his ministry in worship.[Eden Grace: Reflection on what Quakers bring to the ecumenical table]

References

  1. Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion "Sacrament" obtained at http://www.ucalgary.ca/~nurelweb/concise/WORDS-S.html
  2. Catholic Encyclopaedia: "Sacraments" http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
  3. See Augsburg Confession, Article 7, Of the Church
  4. The Sacraments http://www.oca.org/QA.asp?ID=122&SID=3
  5. Here listed in the traditional order (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1210)
  6. Catholic Encyclopedia. The Sacraments. Obtained online at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
  7. Bennet, D. (2008). The Sacraments: Meeting God in our own world. Obtained Online from http://www.ancient-future.net/sacraments.html on 25/08/2008
  8. Meyendorff, J. (1979). The Sacraments in the Orthodox Church, in Byzantine Theology. Obtained online at http://www.lasvegasorthodox.com/library/Orthodox_Practices/The_Sacraments.htm
  9. Holy Eucharist obtained online at http://www.orthodoxy.org.au/eng/index.php?p=74
  10. See Windsor Statement on Eucharistic Doctrine from the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Consultation and Elucidation of the ARCIC Windsor Statement. Accessed 2007-10-15.
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  19. Luther's Small Catechism with Explanation, St. Louis: Concordia, 1991, 236
  20. The Apology of the Augsburg Confession XIII, 2: "We believe we have the duty not to neglect any of the rites and ceremonies instituted in Scripture, whatever their number. We do not think it makes much difference if, for purposes of teaching, the enumeration varies, provided what is handed down in Scripture is preserved" (cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 211).
  21. Luther's Large Catechism IV, 1: "We have now finished the three chief parts of the common Christian doctrine. Besides these we have yet to speak of our two Sacraments instituted by Christ, of which also every Christian ought to have at least an ordinary, brief instruction, because without them there can be no Christian; although, alas! hitherto no instruction concerning them has been given" (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 733).
  22. Luther's Large Catechism IV, 74-75: "And here you see that Baptism, both in its power and signification, comprehends also the third Sacrament, which has been called repentance, as it is really nothing else than Baptism" (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 751).
  23. The Apology of the Augsburg Confession XIII, 3, 4: "If we define the sacraments as rites, which have the command of God and to which the promise of grace has been added, it is easy to determine what the sacraments are, properly speaking. For humanly instituted rites are not sacraments, properly speaking, because human beings do not have the authority to promise grace. Therefore signs instituted without the command of God are not sure signs of grace, even though they perhaps serve to teach or admonish the common folk. Therefore, the sacraments are actually baptism, the Lord’s Supper, and absolution (the sacrament of repentance)" (cf. Tappert, 211). Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article 13, Of the Number and Use of the Sacraments
  24. Use and Means of Grace, Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1997, 56
  25. Gospel Topics: Ordinances. Obtained online at http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=bbd508f54922d010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=13bb9daac5d98010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____
  26. The Salvation Army: Why does The Salvation Army not baptise or hold communion?.

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