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is the fourth-largest city in Austriamarker and the capital of the federal state of Salzburgmarker. Salzburg's "Old Town" (Altstadt) with its world famous baroque architecture is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, and was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The city is noted for its Alpine setting. It is the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and the setting for parts of the musical and film The Sound of Music, which features famous landmarks in Austria, but focuses mainly on Salzburg. Salzburg is a student city, with three universities.

Geography

Salzburg is on the banks of the Salzachmarker river, at the northern boundary of the Alps. The mountains to Salzburg's south contrast with the rolling plains to the north. The closest alpine peak– the 1972 m Untersbergmarker– is only a few kilometers from the city center. The Altstadt, or "old town", is dominated by its baroque towers and churches and the massive Festung Hohensalzburgmarker. This area is surrounded by two smaller mountains, the Mönchsbergmarker and Kapuzinerbergmarker as the green lung of the city. Salzburg is approximately 150 km east of Munichmarker, 281 km northwest of Ljubljanamarker, and 300 km west of Viennamarker.

Population development

In 1935 the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers, and could be used for refugees when they left. In around 1950 Salzburg passed the mark of 100,000 citizens, and in 2006 it reached the mark of 150,000 citizens. In the agglomeration, about 210,000 are residing as of 2007.

History

Antiquity to Early Modern period

Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first settlements at Salzburg were apparently begun by the Celts. Around 15 BC the separate settlements were merged into one city by the Romans. At this time the city was called Juvavummarker and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD.Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. Juvavum declined sharply after the collapse of the Norican frontier, such that by the late 7th century it had become a "near ruin".

The Life of Saint Rupert credits the saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", and then left to evangelise among the pagans.

The name Salzburg literally means "Salt Castle", and derives its name from the barges carrying salt on the Salzachmarker river, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century, as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers.

The Festung Hohensalzburgmarker, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 and expanded during the following centuries.

Independence of Salzburg

Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire.

Modern Era

Religious conflict

On October 31, 1731, the 214th anniversary of Martin Luther's nailing of his 95 Theses to the Wittenbergmarker School door, Roman Catholic Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed his Edict of Expulsion (not to be confused with many similar edicts of expulsion issued against the Jews in various cities in Europe), the Emigrationspatent, declaring that all Protestants recant their non-Catholic beliefs or be banished.

Landowners were given two days to sell their lands and leave. Cattle, sheep, furniture and land all had to be dumped on the market, and the Salzburgers received little money from the well-to-do Catholic allies of Von Firmian. Von Firmian himself confiscated much of their land for his own family, and ordered all Protestant books and Bibles burned. Many children aged 12 and under were seized to be raised as Roman Catholics. Yet those who owned land benefited from one key advantage: the three-month deadline delayed their departure until after the worst of winter.

Tenant farmers, tradesmen, labourers and miners were given only eight days to sell what they could and leave. The first refugees marched north in desperately cold temperatures and snow storms, seeking shelter in the few cities of Germany controlled by Protestant princes, while their children walked or rode on wooden wagons loaded with baggage.

As they went, the exiles' savings were quickly drained as they were set upon by highwaymen, who seized taxes, tolls and payment for protection by soldiers from robbers.

The story of their plight spread quickly as their columns marched north. Goethe wrote the poem Hermann and Dorothea about the Salzburg exiles' march. Protestants and even some Catholics were horrified at the cruelty of their expulsion in winter, and the courage they had shown by not renouncing their faith. Slowly at first, they came upon towns that welcomed them and offered them aid. But there was no place where so many refugees could settle.

Finally, in 1732 King Frederick William I of Prussia accepted 12,000 Salzburger Protestant emigrants, who settled in areas of East Prussia that had been devastated by the plague twenty years before. Other smaller groups made their way to Debrecenmarker and the Banat regions of the Kingdom of Hungary, to what is now Slovakiamarker, to areas near Berlinmarker and Hanovermarker in Germany, and to the Netherlandsmarker.

On March 12, 1734, a small group of about sixty exiles from Salzburg who had travelled to Londonmarker arrived in the British American colony of Georgia seeking religious freedom. Later in that year, they were joined by a second group, and, by 1741, a total of approximately 150 of the Salzburg exiles had founded the town of Ebenezermarker on the Savannah River (see John A. Treutlen).

The Protestant Salzburgers settled in Prussian Lithuania kept a distinct identity over the following centuries, up to and after being expelled after 1945 as part of the general expulsion of Germans after World War II and later formed a specific association in West Germanymarker, still retaining their specific identity as Salzburgers.

Illuminism

In 1772-1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism.

The Electorate of Salzburg

In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon and handed over to Ferdinand III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg.

Austrian Annexation of Salzburg

In 1805 Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empiremarker together with Berchtesgadenmarker.

Salzburg under Bavarian rule

In 1809 the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagrammarker.

The division of Salzburg and the annexation by Austria and Bavaria

At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which passed to Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Salzach province and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linzmarker. In 1850 Salzburg's status was once more restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empiremarker. The city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland into the Austrian Empire.

Shoppers on Getreidegasse.


20th Century

World War I

Salzburg, as a capital of an Austro-Hungarian territory, was defeated in 1918.

German Austria and the Republic of Austria

With the fall of the House of Habsburg resulting from World War I, Salzburg became part of German Austriamarker in 1918 and the First Austrian Republic in 1919. In 1921, in an unofficial poll, 99% of citizens voted for annexation to the German Reich.

Germany

After the Referendum of March 13, 1938 Salzburg, as a component of Austria, was a part of Germany during the Anschluss and German troops were moved to the city. Political opponents and Jewish citizens were subsequently arrested, and the synagogue was destroyed. Several POW camp for prisoners from the Soviet Unionmarker and other nations were organized in the area.

World War II

During World War II, the KZ Salzburg-Maxglan concentration camp was located here. It was a Roma camp and provided slave labour to local industry.

Allied bombing destroyed 7,600 houses and killed 550 inhabitants. Although the town's bridges and the dome of the cathedralmarker were demolished, much of its Baroque architecture remained intact. As a result, it is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style. American troops entered Salzburg on May 5, 1945.

In the city of Salzburg there were several DP Camp following World War II. Among these were Riedenburgmarker, Camp Herzl (Franz-Josefs-Kaserne), Camp Mülln, Bet Bialik, Bet Trumpeldor, and New Palestine. Salzburg was the centre of the American-occupied area in Austria.

Nowadays

After World War II Salzburg became the capital city of the State of Salzburg (Land Salzburg).

On January 27, 2006, the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Mozart, all 35 churches of Salzburg rang their bells a little after 8PM (local time) to celebrate the occasion.Major celebrations took place throughout the year.

Districts

Districts of Salzburg


Salzburg has 24 urban districts and 3 extra-urban populations.

  • Aigen
  • Altstadt
  • Andrä Viertel
  • Elisabeth Vorstadt
  • Gneis
  • Gnigl
  • Herrnau
  • Itzling
  • Langwied
  • Lehen
  • Leopoldskron-Moos
  • Liefering
  • Maxglan
  • Morzg
  • Neustadt
  • Nonntal
  • Parsch
  • Riedenburg
  • Sam
  • Schallmoos
  • Taxham


Main sights

Gardens in Mirabell Palace
The famous fountain in Mirabell Gardens (seen in the Do-Re-Mi song from Sound of Music)
Salzburg is a tourist favourite, with the number of tourists outnumbering locals by a large margin in peak times. In addition to Mozart's birthplace noted above, other notable places include:

Old Town

  • The whole Old Town of Salzburg was nominated as a World Heritage Site in 1996.
  • The baroque architecture including the many churches are world famous.
  • The Salzburg Cathedralmarker (Salzburger Dom)
  • The Hohensalzburg Castlemarker (Festung Hohensalzburg) on a hill dominating the old town is one of the largest castles in Europe, with views over Salzburg.
  • The Franziskanerchurch
  • The St.Peter cemetery
  • The Nonnberg Abbeymarker a Benedictine monastery
  • The "Residenz" Palace (the magnificent former Prince-Archbishop's residence)
  • Mozart's Birthplace
  • Mozart's Residence
  • The University Church
  • The Siegmundstor (or Neutor)
  • The Getreidegassemarker


Outside the Inner Old Town



Within the greater Salzburg area

  • Anifmarker Castle
  • The Basilika Maria Plain on the Calvary Hill, a late Baroque church, on the northern edge of Salzburg.
  • Salzburger Freilichtmuseum Großgmain, an open-air museum containing old farmhouses/farm buildings from all over the state assembled in historic setting.
  • The Schloss Klessheimmarker Palace (today a Casino) was formerly used by Adolf Hitler
  • The Berghofmarker, Hitler's mountain retreat of which only the Eagle's Nestmarker remains, was in nearby Berchtesgadenmarker
  • The Salzkammergutmarker is an area of lakes in the Salzburg statemarker, east of the city and further on into the provinces of Upper Austria and Styriamarker.
  • The Untersbergmarker mountain is next to the city, straddling the Germanmarker-Austrian border, and on a clear day provides panoramic views of the city and the Alps.
  • Skiing is an attraction during winter. Salzburg itself has no skiing facilities, but it acts as a gateway to skiing areas to the south. During the winter months its airport receives charter flights from around Europe.


Zoo Salzburg



Notable citizens

Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9
  • The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born and raised in Salzburg and worked for the archbishops from 1769 to 1781. His house of birth and residence are tourist attractions. His family is buried in a small church graveyard in the old town, and there are many monuments to "Wolferl" in the city.
  • Christian Doppler, an expert on acoustic theory, was born in Salzburg. He is most known for his discovery of the Doppler effect.
  • Josef Mohr was born in Salzburg. Together with Franz Gruber, he composed and wrote the text for "Silent Night". As a priest in neighbouring Oberndorf he performed the song for the first time in 1818.
  • King Otto of Greece was born Prince Otto Friedrich Ludwig of Bavaria at the Palace of Mirabell, a few days before the city reverted from Bavarian to Austrian rule.
  • Noted writer Stefan Zweig lived in Salzburg for about 15 years, until 1934.
  • Maria Von Trapp (later Maria Trapp) and her family lived in Salzburg until they fled to the USA following the Nazi takeover.
  • Salzburg is the birthplace of Hans Makart, a 19th-century Austrian painter-decorator and national celebrity. Makartplatz (Makart Square) is named in his honour.
  • Writer Thomas Bernhard was raised in Salzburg and spent part of his life there.
  • Herbert von Karajan was a notable musician and conductor. He was born in Salzburg and died in 1989 in neighbouring Anifmarker.
  • Anthropologist Udo Ludwig was born here.
  • Roland Ratzenberger, Formula One driver, was born in Salzburg. He died in practice for the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix.
  • Joseph Leutgeb, French horn virtuoso
  • Klaus Ager, the distinguished contemporary composer and Mozarteum professor, was born in Salzburg on 10 May 1946.
  • Alex Jesaulenko, Australian rules footballer and AFL Hall of Fame player with "Legend" status was born in Salzburg on 2 August 1945.
  • Georg Trakl is one of the most important voices in German literature and he was also born in Salzburg.
  • Theodor Herzl worked in the courts in Salzburg during the year after he earned his law degree in 1884.


Events



Transportation

The city is serviced by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent east-west trains servicing Viennamarker, Munichmarker, Innsbruckmarker, and Zürichmarker, including daily high-speed ICE services. The city acts as a hub for south-bound trains through the Alps into Italymarker.

Salzburg Airportmarker has scheduled flights to European cities such as Frankfurtmarker, Viennamarker, Londonmarker, Rotterdammarker, Amsterdammarker, Brusselsmarker, Dusseldorfmarker and Zürichmarker, as well as Hamburgmarker and Dublinmarker. In addition to these, there are numerous charter flights.

In the main city there is a trolleybus and bus system with more than 20 lines, and service every 10 minutes. Salzburg has an S-Bahn system with four Lines (S1, S2, S3, S11), trains depart from the main station every 30 minutes, and they are in the ÖBB net. Suburb line number S1 reaches the world famous Silent Night chapel in Oberndorfmarker in about 25 minutes.

Popular culture

In the 1960s, the movie The Sound of Music was filmed in Salzburg and the state of Salzburgmarker. The movie was based on the true story of Maria von Trapp, a Salzburg-based nun who took up with an aristocratic family and fled German occupation. Although the film is not particularly popular among Austrians, the town draws many visitors who wish to visit the filming locations, alone or on tours.

Salzburg is the setting for the Austrian crime series Stockinger.

Language

Austrian German is widely written. Austro-Bavarian is the German dialect of this territory and widely spoken.

Sports

The former SV Austria Salzburg reached the UEFA Cup final in 1994. On April 6, 2005 Red Bull bought the club and changed the name into FC Red Bull Salzburg. The club's future plans are to be among the 10 best European football clubs. The home Stadium of Red Bull Salzburg is the Wals Siezenheim Stadiummarker in a suburb in the agglomeration of Salzburg, was one of the venues for the 2008 European Football Championship.



International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities



See also



Gallery

File: Untersberg (16).JPG|The Salzburg basinFile: Salzburg (34).JPG|Salzburg seen on takeoff from Salzburg AirportFile: Salzburg (16).JPG|The fortress (background), Salzburg Cathedral (middle), River Salzach (foreground)File:The_fortress_at_day.JPG| A sunny day on the fortressFile: Salzburg (4).JPG|Festung Hohensalzburg (background), Kapitel Square with the "Pferdeschwemme", (foreground)File:Feb20532.JPG|ÖBB rail connection to Salzburg in InnsbruckFile:Untersberg_Feb20522.jpg|Untersbergmarker mountainFile:Feb20516.JPG|Mozart MonumentFile:salzburg.fountain.jpg|Fountain in the ResidenzplatzmarkerFile:P1060482.JPG|Palace of Mirabell.File:mozart.birth.500pix.jpg|Mozart's birthplaceFile:SalzburgerAltstadt02.JPG|View of the old town and fortress, seen from Kapuzinerbergmarker


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