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Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, gray and white. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions.

Some sandstones are resistant to weathering, yet are easy to work. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. However, some that have been used in the past, such as the Collyhurst sandstonemarker used in North West England, have been found less resistant, necessitating repair and replacement in older buildings. Because of the hardness of the individual grains, uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure, some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstone, for sharpening blades and other implements. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain, e.g., gritstone.

Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity.

Origins

Millet-Seed sandstone macro (size: ~4 cm or ~1.6 in).


Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to either organic, like chalk and coal, or chemical, like gypsum and jasper).They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, clays and silica. Grain size in sands are defined (in geology) within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm (0.002-0.079 inches). Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are typically called argillaceous sediments; rocks with larger grain sizes, including breccias and conglomerate are termed rudaceous sediments.


The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water (as in a river, lake, or sea) or from air (as in a desert). Typically, sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension; i.e., ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water (e.g., seas or rivers) or ground surface (e.g., in a desert or erg). Finally, once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains.

The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terracotta), with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of Englandmarker and Walesmarker, as well as central Europe and Mongoliamarker. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other construction.

The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size, sorting and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings:

  • Terrestrial environments
  1. Rivers (levees, point bars, channel sands)
  2. Alluvial fans
  3. Glacial outwash
  4. Lakes
  5. Deserts (sand dunes and erg)


  • Marine environments
  1. Deltas
  2. Beach and shoreface sands
  3. Tidal flats
  4. Offshore bars and sand waves
  5. Storm deposits (tempestites)
  6. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans)


Types

Sandstone composed mainly of quartz grains
Sandstones fall into several major groups based on their mineralogy and texture. Below is a partial list of common sandstone types.
  • quartz arenites are made up almost entirely of quartz grains, usually well sorted and rounded. These pure quartz sands result from extensive weathering that occurred before and during transport and removed everything but quartz, the most stable mineral. They are common in beach environments.
  • arkoses are more than 25 percent feldspar. The grains tend to be poorly rounded and less well sorted than those of pure quartz sandstones. These feldspar-rich sandstones come from rapidly eroding granitic and metamorphic terrains where chemical weathering is subordinate to physical weathering.
  • lithic sandstones contain many lithic fragments derived from fine-grained rocks, mostly shales, volcanic rocks, and fine-grained metamorphic rocks.
  • graywacke is a heterogeneous mixture of lithic fragments and angular grains of quartz and feldspar, and/or grains surrounded by a fine-grained clay matrix. Much of this matrix is formed by relatively soft fragments, such as shale and some volcanic rocks, that are chemically altered and physically compacted after deep burial of the sandstone formation.
  • Eolianite is a term used for a rock which is composed of sand grains that show signs of significant transportation by wind. These have usually been deposited in desert environments. They are commonly extremely well sorted and rich in quartz.
  • Oolite is more a limestone than a sandstone, but is made sand-sized carbonate ooids, and is common in saline beaches with gentle wave action.


Sandstone composition is (generally) based on the make up of the framework, or sand-sized grains in the sandstone. This is typically done by point-counting a thin section of the sandstone using a method like the Gazzi-Dickinson Method. The composition of a sandstone can have important information regarding the genesis of the sediment when used with QFL diagrams.

According to the USGS, U.S. sandstone production in 2005 was 192,000 metric tons worth $24.3 million, the largest component of which was the 121,000 metric tons worth $9.75 million of flagstone or dimension stone.

Gallery

Image:SandstoneUSGOV.jpg|Sandstone with iron oxide bandsImage:Sandstone Quarry Jodhpur.jpg|A sandstone quarry at Jodhpurmarker, IndiaImage:Sandstone Concretion.jpg|A natural sandstone formation composed of cemented quartz sandImage:Wall Patterns.jpg|Sandstone patterns on a chamber wall in PetramarkerImage:Arbroath_Abbey1.jpg|Arbroath Abbeymarker, showing distinctive sandstone coloringImage:Sandstone Landscape.jpg|Arches National Parkmarker Sandstone landscapeImage:Parus rock.jpg|Sail Rockmarker in Russia.Image:AmramColumns.jpg|Sandstone formation, Eilat Massif, IsraelImage:Coxfront.jpg|A modern residence with sandstone external veneerImage:A fossil shells in sandstone.jpg|Fossil shells in sandstoneImage:Sand stone.JPG|Sandstone-based building architecture, Hawa Mahalmarker in Jaipurmarker, IndiamarkerImage:ChiefSecBldgMacqEnt231.JPG|A sandstone building (with granite columns) in Sydneymarker, AustraliaImage:Richmond Bridge Panorama Restitch.jpg|Richmond Bridge, Sandstone, AustraliaImage:Wapakoneta-ohio-courthouse.jpg|Berea sandstone Auglaize Countymarker courthouse in Wapakonetamarker, OhiomarkerImage:SaintAnnesManchester.jpg|St Ann's Church, Manchestermarker: Originally built in 1712 with Collyhurst sandstonemarker, much of which has required repair or replacement.Image:Bibi-ka-maqbara.jpg|Bibi Ka Maqbaramarker: Known as the Poor Man's Taj Mahal, this tomb is made of sandstone except for the marble dome.Image:Tuscarora1.jpg|Outcrop of the Silurian Tuscarora Formation, Centre Countymarker, Pennsylvaniamarker, a ridge-forming sandstone in the Appalachian Mountainsmarker.File:Fed square tiles.jpg|Sandstone pavers with iron oxide patterns mined from the Kimberleymarker cover the large area of Federation Squaremarker in Melbournemarker.File:Humayun's Tomb from the entrance, Delhi.jpg|Humayun's Tombmarker made with red sandstone, in 1571, Delhimarker, IndiamarkerFile:Bet Giyorgis church Lalibela 01.jpg|Bete Giyorgismarker, among many monolithic churches carved from red sandstone during the 12th and 13th centuries in Lalibelamarker, Ethiopiamarker.


See also



Notes

References

  • Boggs, J.R., 2000, Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, 3rd ed. Toronto: Merril Publishing Company. ISBN 0-13-099696-3.
  • Folk, R.L., 1965, Petrology of sedimentary rocks PDF version. Austin: Hemphill’s Bookstore. 2nd ed. 1981, ISBN 0-914696-14-9.
  • Pettijohn, F.J., P.E. Potter and R. Siever, 1987, Sand and sandstone, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-96350-2.
  • Scholle, P.A., 1978, A Color illustrated guide to constituents, textures, cements, and porosities of sandstones and associated rocks, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir no. 28. ISBN 0-89181-304-7.
  • Scholle, P.A., and D. Spearing, 1982, Sandstone depositional environments: clastic terrigenous sediments , American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir no. 31. ISBN 0-89181-307-1.
  • USGS Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Dimension, Thomas P. Dolley, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 2005 (format: PDF).



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