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Sardinian (Sardu, Limba Sarda) is, after Italian, the main language spoken on the island of Sardinia, Italymarker. It is considered the most conservative of the Romance languages in terms of phonology and is noted for its Paleosardinian substratum.

Linguistics

Dialects

The Sardinian language can be divided into the following main subregional language groups clearly identified by isogloss bundles:

  • Sardinian proper, characterised by a plural in -s and definite articles derived from the Latin IPSUM
    • Northern, the most conservative dialect
      • sas limbas — 'the languages'
      • sas abbas — 'the waters'
    • Central, considered to be a transitional dialect between Northern and Southern Sardinian
      • is limbas — 'the languages'
      • is abbas — 'the waters'
    • Southern, more influenced by continental Italian dialects:
      • is linguas — 'the languages'
      • is acuas — 'the waters'
  • Corso-Sardinian dialects, spoken in the extreme north of Sardinia, are sometimes considered as independent languages or to be part of the Corsican language rather than Sardinian. They are characterised by a plural in -i and definite articles derived from the Latin ILLUM
    • Sassarese (G-shape)
      • eba — 'water'
      • garri — 'meat'
      • eu digu — 'I say'
    • Gallurese (C-shape)
      • e'a — 'water'
      • carri — 'meat'
      • eu dicu — 'I say'


The survival of a dialect of Catalan in the town of Algheromarker is a consequence of the domination of Cataloniamarker over Sardinia as part of the Catalan-Aragonese empire. (Spain did not exist at the time and only came into existence after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabel of Castile in the XV Century). The Sardinian language is mainly based on Latin, Italian, and Castilian, although you may find German and English routest throughout the language.

Phonology

All dialects of Sardinian feature archaic phonetic features when compared to other Romance languages. The degree of archaism varies, with Nuorese considered the most conservative. The examples listed below are from the northwestern Logudorese dialect:
  • The Latin short vowels and have preserved their original sound (in Italian and Spanish they became and , respectively; in Portuguese and Catalan the was also kept but written as an 'o'). For example: siccus > sicu 'dry' (Italian secco, Spanish seco).
  • Preservation of the plosive sounds and before front vowels and in many (though not all) words. For example: centum > kentu 'hundred'; decem > dèke 'ten' or gener > gheneru 'son in law' (Italian cento, dièci, genero with and ).
  • Absence of diphthongizations found in other Romance languages. For example: potest > podet 'he can' (Italian può, Spanish puede); bonus > bónu 'good' (Italian buono, Spanish bueno).


Sardinian also features numerous phonetic innovations, including the following:
  • The transformation of Latin -ll- into a retroflex . For example: bellus > bellu 'pretty', villa > villa 'villa'.
  • The consonant clusters -ld- and -nd- were similarly affected: soldus > 'money'; abundantia > 'abundance'.
  • The evolution of pl-, fl, cl- into pr-, fr, cr- as in Portuguese and Galician; for example: platea > pratza 'plaza' (Portuguese praça, Galician praza, Italian piazza), fluxus > frúsciu 'flabby' (Port. and Gal. frouxo), ecclesia > crexia 'church' (Port. igreja, Gal. igrexa, It. chiesa).
  • Transformations like abb'ratzare > abbaltzare 'to embrace'.
  • Vowel prothesis before an initial r in Campidanese like in Basque or Gascon: regem > urrei = re, gurrèi 'king'; rotam > arroda 'wheel' (Gascon arròda); rivum > Sard. and Gasc. arríu 'river'.
  • Vowel prothesis in Logudorese before an initial s followed by consonant, like in Western Romance: scriptum > iscrítu (Spanish escrito, French écrit), stellam > 'star' (Spanish estrella, French étoile).
  • Except for the Nuorese dialects, Latin single voiceless plosives in intervocalic position became voiced approximants, and single voiced plosives were lost:  > (or rather its soft counterpart ): locum > (It. luògo), caritatem > (It. carità). Note that these processes also apply across word boundaries: porku (pig) but su borku (the pig); domo (house) but sa omo (the house).


While the latter two features were acquired during the Spanish domination, the others reveal deeper relations between ancient Sardinia and the Iberiamarker world. Note that retroflex d, l and r are found not only in southern Italy and Tuscany but also in Asturiasmarker. They were probably involved in the palatalization process of the Latin clusters -ll-, pl-, cl- (-ll- > Cast. and Cat. -ll- , Gasc. -th ; cl- > Old Port. ch- , Ital. chi- ).

Sardinian has the following phonemes (according to Blasco Ferrer):

Vowels

The five vowels (without length differentiation).

Consonants

Consonants of Sardinian
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n gn
Plosive p b t d dh k g
Affricate tz z ch, qu, c g
Fricative b f v, ff th d s, ss s sc x g
Tap r
Trill rr
Lateral l
Approximant j


The following three series of plosives or corresponding approximants:
  • Voiceless stops derive from their Latin homologue in composition after another stop; they are reinforced (double) in initial position but this reinforcement is not written since it does not produce a different phoneme.
  • Double voiced stops (after another consonant) derive from their Latin homologue in composition after another stop;
  • Weak voiced "stops", sometimes transcribed , which are in fact approximants after vowels, as in Spanish. They derive from single Latin stops either voiced or not.
In Cagliarimarker the soft can be assimilated to a flap (evoking Basque irudi = iduri 'to seem', ideki 'to take out' > ireki 'to open'): digitus > didu = diru 'finger'.

Articulation point labio-dental dentoalveolar retroflex palatal velar from Latin
voiceless p t     k double voiceless
double voiced bb dd ɖɖ   ɡɡ kw > bb, bd > dd, etc.
approximants b [β] d [ð]     ɡ [ɣ] single stops


  • Retroflex (written dh) derives from a former retroflex lateral .
  • A former voiced palatal plosive (like the Hungarian gy) > (to be confirmed).


Fricatives

  • The labiodental (sometimes pronounced or in initial position) and ;
    • some mutations from to can be observed (vipera > bibera 'viper'). In central Sardinian the sound disappears: a behavior that evokes the transformation  > known in Gascon and Castilian.
  • written th (like in English thing), the voiceless dental fricative, is a dialectal variant of the phoneme .


  • e.g. ipsa > íssa
  • the voiced corresponding consonant that was introduced during the 1st century B.C. through Greek loanwords such as Zmirne, gaza, etc.
and, as in Italian:
  • pronounced or = , written sc before i or e. This phoneme also has a voiced allophone which is often spelled with the letter x.


Affricates

  • (or ) a denti-alveolar affricate written tz, that corresponds to Italian z or ci-, natural evolution of before .
  • (or ), written z, corresponds to Italian gi- (ggi-, respectively).
and from Italian:
  • written c before e or i.
  • written g before e or i.


Nasals



Liquids

  • (or ), double when initial
  • a retroflex l that was used in Old Sardinian in place of Latin double -ll-, and became a retroflex d (Blasco Ferrer 69).
  • a flap written r
  • a trill written as in Spanish, Catalan or Basque rr.
Some permutations of l and r can be observed: marralzu = marrarzu 'rock'.In palatal context, Latin l changed into , , , or rather than : achizare (It. accigliare), *volia > bòlla = bòlza = bòza 'wish' (It. vòglia), folia > fogia = folla = foza 'leaf' (It. foglia), filia > filla = fitza = fiza 'daughter' (It. figlia).

Morphology

The main distinctive features of Sardinian are :

Pre-Latin Sardinian words

míntza (mitza, miza) '(water) spring'
tzichiría (sichiria, tzirichia) 'dill'
tzingòrra (zingòrra), kind of small eel
tzípiri (tzípari) 'rosemary'


cóstiche 'variety of maple' (cf. Bas. gastigar 'maple')
cúcuru 'top'; e.g. cucuredhu 'pinnacle', 'mound', etc. (cf. Bas. kukur 'summit')
giágaru (Campidanese) 'hunting dog' (cf. Bas. tsakurr 'dog')
golósti 'holly' (cf. Bas. gorosti)
sechaju 'year-old lamb' (cf. Bas. segaila 'year-old kid')


  • Latin words prefixed with the pre-Latin article t(i)-:
tilichèrta, Camp. tzilikitu 'lizard' (ti + L. lacerta)
tilingiòne "worm" (ti + L. lumbricum 'earthworm')
trúcu 'neck'; var. ciugu, túgulu, Camp. tsuguru (t + L. jugulum)
túgnu, tontonníu 'mushroom' (t + L. fungus)


Other pre-Latin Sardinian words are presented here:
  • geographical terms:
bèga 'damp plain' probable cognate with Portuguese veiga, Spanish vega 'fertile plain' (Basque *ibaika).
bàcu 'canyon'
garrópu 'canyon'
giara 'tableland'
míntza 'spring' / 'manantial' / 'sorgènte'.
piteràca, boturinu, terighinu 'way'


  • plant names:
tzaurra 'germ'; intzaurru, 'sprout'
araminzu, oroddasuCynodon dactylon 'couch grass'
arbutu, arbutzu, abrutzuAsphodelus ramosus 'asphodel' (although in Latin arbustus means 'bush', 'shrub')
atagnda, atzagnddaPapaver rhoeas 'red poppy'
bidduriConium maculatum 'hemlock'
carcuriAmpelodesma mauritanica (a Mediterranean grass)
istiòcoroPicris echioides
curmaRuta chalepensis 'rue'
tinníga, tinnía, sinníga, tsinníga — 'esparto'
tiríaCalicotome spinosa 'thorny broom'
tzichiríaRidolfia segetum (a kind of fennel)


  • animal names:
gròdde, marxani 'fox'
irbírru, isbírru, iskírru, ibbírru 'marten'
tilingiòne, tilingròne, tiringoni 'earthworm'
tilipírche, tilibílche 'grasshopper'
tilicúcu, telacúcu, tiligúgu 'gecko', Camp. tsilicitu 'lizard' (pistiloni 'gecko')
tilichèrta, tilighèrta, tilighèlta; calixerta 'lizard', cognate with Latin lacerta.


History and origins

The history of the island of Sardinia, relatively isolated from the European continent up into modern times, led to the development of a distinct Romance language, which even now preserves traces of the indigenous pre-Roman languages of the island. The language is of Latin origin like all Romance languages yet the following substratal influences are likely:



Adstratal influences include:



Origins

The early origins of the Sardinian language (sometimes called Paleosardinian) are still obscure, due mostly to the lack of documents, as Sardinian appeared as a written form only in the Middle Ages. There are substantial differences between the many theories about the development of Sardinian, so opposite results are sometimes produced.

Many studies have attempted to discover the origin of some obscure roots that today could legitimately be defined as indigenous, pre-Romance roots. First of all, the root of sard, present in many toponyms and distinctive of the ethnic group, is supposed to have come from a mysterious people known as the Shardana, "the people of the sea".

Massimo Pittau claimed in 1984 to have found in the Etruscan language the etymology of many other Latin words, after comparison with the Nuragic language. If true, one could conclude that, having evidence of a deep influence of Etruscan culture in Sardinia, the island could have directly received from Etruscan many elements that are instead usually considered to be of Latin origin. Pittau then indicates that both the Etruscan and Nuragic languages are descended from the Lydian language, therefore being both Indo-European languages, as a consequence of the alleged provenance of Etruscans/Tirrenii from that land (as in Herodotus), where effectively the capital town was Sardismarker. Pittau also suggests, as a historical point, that the Tirrenii landed in Sardinia, whereas the Etruscans landed in modern-day Tuscany. Massimo Pittau's views however are not representative of most Etruscologists.

It has been said that Paleosardinian should be expected to have notable similarities with Iberic languages and the Siculian language: the suffix -'ara, for example, in proparoxytones (Bertoldi and Terracini proposed it indicated plural forms). The same would happen (according to Terracini) for suffixes in -/àna/, -/ànna/, -/énna/, -/ònna/ + /r/ + paragogic vowel (as in the surname Bonnànnaro). Rohlfs, Butler and Craddock add the suffix -/ini/ (as in the surname Barùmini) as a peculiar element of Paleosardinian. At the same time, suffixes in /a, e, o, u/ + -rr- seem to find a correspondence in northern Africa (Terracini), in Iberiamarker (Blasco Ferrer), in southern Italy and in Gasconymarker (Rohlfs), with some closer relation to Basque (Wagner, Hubschmid). Suffixes in -/ài/, -/éi/, -/òi/, and -/ùi/ are common to Paleosardinian and northern African languages (Terracini). Pittau underlined that this concerns terms originally ending in an accented vowel, with an attached paragogic vowel; the suffix resisted Latinization in some toponyms, which show a Latin body and a Nuragic desinence. On this point, some toponyms ending in -/ài/ and in -/asài/ were thought to show Anatolic influence (Bertoldi). The suffix -/aiko/, widely used in Iberia, and perhaps of Celtic origins, as well as the ethnical suffix in -/itani/ and -/etani/ (as in the Sardinian Sulcitani) have been noted as other Paleosardinian elements (viz Terracini, Ribezzo, Wagner, Hubschmid, Faust, et al.).

Romans

The Romanmarker domination, beginning in 238 BC, obviously brought Latin to Sardinia, but Latin was not able to completely supplant the Pre-Roman Sardinian language. Some obscure roots remained unaltered, and in many cases it was Latin that was made to accept the local roots, such as nur (in Nuraghe, as well as Nuoromarker and many other toponyms). Roman culture, on the other hand, was undoubtedly dominant; Barbagia derives its name from the Greek word Ό βάρβαρος-ου that means stuttering because its people couldn't speak Latin well. Cicero, who called Sardinians latrones matrucati (thieves with rough sheep-wool cloaks) to emphasise Roman superiority, helped to spread this conception.

Other influences

During this time period, there was a reciprocal influence between Corsicamarker and a limited area of northern Sardinia. On the southern side, though, the evidence favors contacts with Semitic and (later) Byzantine languages. In the 1st century AC, some relevant groups of Hebrews were deported to Sardinia, bringing various influences; the Christianization of the island would probably have brought Hebrews to convert to a sort of independent cult of Sant'Antiocomarker (perhaps a way to preserve some aspects of their ethnicity under a Christian form), still present in Gavoimarker. This contact with Hebrews, followed by another deportation of Christians, presumedly lasted for a couple of centuries, and makes it likely that by the 3rd century AC, Vulgar Latin began to dominate the island.

This eventual Latin cultural domination thus makes Sardinian a Romance language, or more precisely an archaic neo-Latin language, whose main characteristics are an archaic phonetic and morphosyntactic phenomena.

After this domination, Sardinia passed under the control of the Eastern Roman Empire, and more influences are derived from this culture. The Greek language that was the main reference of Byzantines did not, however, enter into the structure of Sardinian (still a Romance language) except for in some ritual or formal formulas that are expressed in Latin using Greek structure. Much evidence for this can be found in the Condaghes, the first written documents in Sardinian.

Some toponyms show Greek influence as well, such as Jerzumarker, commonly presumed to derive from the Greek khérsos (untilled), together with the personal names Mikhaleis, Konstantine, and Basilis.

Cultural status

The Sardinian language is one of the principal elements of Sardinian cultural heritage, and there is great activity of late dedicated to studying the language and acknowledging its importance. The recognition of the Sardinian language as a characteristic ethnic element is supported not only by independentist movements, but is also supported by a wide percentage of local population as a whole, as well as the international support of the Sardinian diaspora.

The Sardinian language has recently been recognised as an official regional language by the Sardinian Autonomous Region; it can therefore be used for official purposes on the island. The debate as to its legality had become quite dramatic by the 1980s: at Algheromarker's Fertilia international airport, in a Sardinian Catalan-speaking area, an employee was heard over the loudspeakers (provocatively) announcing the flights in Italian, English and Sardinian Catalan. The employee was fired and penally condemned, causing widespread Sardinian nationalist sentiment, sometimes including violent political disputes which finally led to the law officialising the language. (Note that it must be said that in Alghero the need of diversifying the cultural position was perhaps even more urgent, since in its origins and its history are the distinctive signs of an ethnic enclave surrounded by a Sardinian culture, which in turn has been oppressed by an external culture.)

In the last decade, the Sardinian language has been recognized officially from a legal point of view (law 482/1999 about minority languages in Italy), yet its actual acknowledgement in the present-day life is hard. For example in many Italian libraries and Universities the books about Sardinian language are still grouped under the labels Linguistica italiana (Italian linguistics), Dialetti italiani (Italian dialects) or Dialettologia italiana (Italian dialectology) since this language is perceived as a dialect despite its legal recognition as a language.

Sardinian in Italy

The national anthem of the Kingdom of Sardinia (and Piedmont) was the Hymnu Sardu (or Cunservet Deus su Re), the lyrics of which are in the Sardinian language. It was partially substituted by the Savoy's March when Italy was unified. During the Fascist period, especially the Autarchy campaign, foreign languages were banned. The restrictions went so far that even personal names and surnames were made to sound more "Italian-sounding". During this period, the Sardinian Hymn was the sole chance to speak in a foreign language in Italy without risking prison, because, as a fundamental part of the Royal Family's tradition, it could not be forbidden.

Sardinians took advantage of this possibility to express their opposition to Fascism by singing the Hymn, as did King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy on several official occasions, when the Crown needed to remind Mussolini of its superior position. To reduce this potentially dangerous bit of "propaganda" which was being "innocently" whistled and sung in Sardinian streets, Mussolini was forced to find urgent remedies: Achille Starace (national secretary of the Fascist party) "genially" imposed the use of Orbace (a poor Sardinian wool) as the national cloth for the uniforms of the Militia, while on a cultural level Mussolini himself officially recognised on repeated occasions the effective value of Sardinian poets and writers, still on the border of the limits of the law. These cautious attentions for the island also included the saning of wide areas of the region (bonifiche) and the implementation of commerce and industry.

The Catholic priests too, friendly to Fascism after the Concordato of 1929, started explaining that Latin (which was allowed), although very similar to Sardinian, was not Sardinian (the Holy Mass was still in Latin) and practiced a strict obstructionism against on-the-fly poetry, a genre of popular art expressed in public shows in Sardinia, in which two or more poets are assigned a surprise theme and have to develop it on the spur of the moment in rhymed quatrains.

In the Italian army, the infantry corps of Brigata Sassari (Sassari's Brigade) was the sole unit allowed to have a separate hymn in the Sardinian language (Dimonios - ancient local pagan devils), being the brigade composed exclusively by Sardinian soldiers, the only such brigade in Italy. As a form of respect to Brigata Sassari, who performed well in World War I, any military important operation in Sardinia is named after the last words of Dimonios: Fortza Paris (loosely, let's combine our strength).

External links



References

  • Eduardo Blasco Ferrer: Mensching, 1969
  • Gerhard Rohlfs: Le gascon, 1935.



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