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In the United Kingdommarker, a scheduled monument is a 'nationally important' archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change. The protection given to scheduled monuments is separate from the Town and Country Planning system. Scheduled Monuments are defined in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. In Englandmarker, Walesmarker and Scotlandmarker they are often referred to as a scheduled ancient monument - although the Act defines only ancient monument and scheduled monument. In Northern Irelandmarker they are designated under separate legislation and are referred to as a scheduled historic monument (for those in private ownership) or a monument in state care (for those in public ownership).

Of the tens of thousands of scheduled monuments in the UK, most are inconspicuous archeological sites, but some are large ruins and others intact buildings which remain in use.

The schedules

Occasionally scheduled monuments are also designated as listed buildings (eg. Dunblane Cathedralmarker), although the latter designation is generally only applied to buildings and structures which are, or could be, in modern day-to-day use. Where a monument is both scheduled and listed, many provisions of the listing legislation are disapplied (for example those relating to Building Preservation Notices).

In England the Department for Culture, Media and Sport keeps a register, or schedule, of nationally important sites which receive state protection; this now includes over 31,000 sites. This process was first devolved to Scotland and Wales in the 1970s and is now operated there by the Scottish Government and the Welsh Assembly Government. The three government bodies with responsibility for archaeology and the historic environment in Britain are: English Heritage in Englandmarker, Cadw in Walesmarker, Historic Scotland in Scotlandmarker. The Northern Irish system is governed by separate legislation, and is operated by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Irelandmarker.

A long list of criteria is used to decide whether an ancient monument should be scheduled. Scheduling affords greater protection as it becomes illegal to undertake a great range of works within a designated area, without 'scheduled monument consent'. The Scottish criteria were revised between 2006 and 2008.

Additions

To be eligible for scheduling, a monument must be demonstrably of (in the terms of the 1979 Act) 'national importance'. Non-statutory criteria are provided to guide the assessment. In England these are:
  • Period – meaning the length of time it remained in use; significant sites are often multi-period
  • Rarity – monuments with few known comparators are more likely to be scheduled
  • Documentation – information from earlier investigations at a site can inform on its significance
  • Group value – where a monument forms part of a wider geographical landscape of important sites
  • Survival/Condition – the degree to which the surviving remains convey the size, shape and function of the site
  • Fragility/Vulnerability – threats to the site from natural agencies, tourism or development can lead to a monument being scheduled for its protection
  • Representivity – how well the monument represents diverse similar types and/or whether it contains unique features
  • Potential – its ability to contribute to our knowledge through further study


There is no appeal against the scheduling process and adding a monument to the schedule may be a process requiring a great deal of research and consideration. The process can be accelerated for sites under threat, however. In England, English Heritage gathers information on a site, defines a boundary around it and advises the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport of its eligibility for inclusion on the schedule. In Scotland and Wales Historic Scotland and Cadw are part of central government and act on behalf of the relevant ministers.

Protection

Protection can be given by taking the monument into state ownership or placing it under guardianship, the latter meaning that the owner retains possession, while the appropriate national heritage body maintains it and (usually) opens it to the public. Field Monument Wardens monitor sites to check their condition and to report on damage etc. Wider areas can be protected by designating their locations as Areas of Archaeological Importance. As of 2004 only five city centres, all in England, have been designated AAIs (Canterburymarker, Chestermarker, Exetermarker, Herefordmarker and Yorkmarker). This part of the 1979 Act was never brought into effect in Scotland.

Damage to a scheduled monument is a criminal offence and any works taking place within one require Scheduled Monument Consent from the Secretary of State or her devolved equivalent. Despite perceptions to the contrary, only a very small proportion of applications for SMC is refused. In Scotland in the 10 years 1995–2005, out of 2156applications, only 16 were refused. Development close to a scheduled monument which might damage its setting is a material consideration in the planning system.

The Scheduling system is criticised by some as being cumbersome. It also has a limited definition of what constitutes a monument. Features such as ritual landscapes, battlefields and flint scatters are difficult to schedule. Scheduling is not usually applied to underwater sites, although three maritime sites have been designated as scheduled ancient monuments. In England radical change has been proposed, which will see a single 'register' created that includes scheduled monuments and listed buildings.

Sometimes ancient monuments are also listed buildings, or they are situated in a conservation area. Others are also World Heritage Sites.

A few examples

England

  • Wymondham Abbeymarker in Norfolk is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, a Grade I Listed Building, and lies in Wymondham Conservation Area.






  • High Bridge, Lincolnmarker built in the 12th century in Lincoln, England is the oldest bridge in the United Kingdom which still has buildings on it.


Northern Ireland

Examples of Scheduled Monuments in Northern Irelandmarker, as designated by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency:

Scotland

Examples of Scheduled Ancient Monuments in Scotlandmarker, as designated by Historic Scotland:

Wales

Examples of Scheduled Monuments in Walesmarker, as designated by Cadw:

See also



References



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