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Map of the Scioto River watershed.


The Scioto River ( sigh-OH-toe or sigh-OH-tuh) is a river in central and southern Ohiomarker more than 231 miles (372 km) in length . It rises in Auglaize Countymarker in west central Ohio, flows through Columbusmarker, where it collects its largest tributary, the Olentangy River, and meets the Ohio River at Portsmouthmarker. Too small for modern commercial shipping, its primary economic importance is for recreation and drinking water.

Geography and geology

The lower Scioto River valley is very large compared to the width of the river itself and is extensively farmed. Meltwaters from retreating Ice Age glaciers carved the valley exceptionally wide. Valley bottoms are smooth and flood deposits created during and since the most recent Ice Age cause floodplain soils to be very productive. As a result, farms line much of the lower Scioto where it flows through low, rolling hills covered in hardwood trees.

The geologic history of the Scioto River is tied to the destruction of the Teays River network during the Ice Ages and consequent creation of the Ohio River. The north flowing Teays River was dammed by glaciers and damming of other rivers led to a series of floods as lakes overflowed into adjacent valleys. Glacial Lake Tight is estimated to have been two-thirds the size of modern Lake Erie. Valleys beyond the reach of glaciers were reorganized to create the Ohio River and the Scioto River replaced the Teays River. The Scioto River flows through segments of the Teays River valley, but opposite the direction the Teays River flowed. Satellite images show the relationship between the Scioto and Teays river valleys very clearly and are available in the Teays River article. In the cities of Columbus and Dublin, the river has cut a gorge in fossil-bearing Devonian limestone, and many tributary streams have waterfalls, such as Hayden Falls.

The Scioto in American history

The Scioto River valley was home to many Native American cultures. The best known group is the Mound Builders of the Hopewell tradition. Numerous burial mounds can be seen near Chillicothemarker at the Hopewell Culture National Historic Parkmarker. The former strength of these cultures is demonstrated in settler accounts from as far east as Virginiamarker.

The book Trans-Allegheny Pioneers is a compilation of historical events surrounding the move west across the Allegheny Mountains. Settlers reaching the Virginiamarker-West Virginiamarker border region in the late 17th century had many exciting encounters with Native American parties from their seat of power, the Scioto River valley.

During the antebellum years, the Scioto River provided a route to freedom for many enslaved people escaping from the South, as they continued north after crossing the Ohio River. Towns such as Chillicothemarker became important stops on the Underground Railroad.

Pollution

Threats facing the river include agricultural pollutants from upstream, and urban-generated pollutants such as contaminated street runoff and waterborne litter. Rapid residential and commercial development in the watershed is increasing stormwater runoff spikes. Increasing dumping from Westy's sewage plant added an ever increasing odor and left staining residues on the river.

Dams and reservoirs

There are two major dams on the river. Griggs Dammarker in Columbus was built in 1904 - 1908 to impound a water supply for the city. Farther upstream, at Shawnee Hills, the O'Shaughnessy Dammarker was built in 1922 - 1925 creating a larger reservoir which was billed at the time as "the finest inland waterway in the United States." Both dams are operated by the City of Columbusmarker.

Cities and towns along the Scioto River



These towns and cities are along the Scioto River.



Variant names

According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Scioto River has also been known as:
  • Big Sciota River
  • Big Scioto River
  • Chianotho River
  • Great Siota River
  • Menkwi Siipunk
  • Riviere Chianouske
  • Sci-ou-to
  • Sciodoe Creek
  • Sciota River
  • Seeyotah River
  • Sinhioto River
  • Siothai River
  • Sioto River
  • Olentangy river (original indian name)


See also



References



External links




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