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Sea of Marmara: Map

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Map of the Sea of Marmara
The Sea of Marmara ( ), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as Propontis ( ), is the inland sea that connects the Black Seamarker to the Aegean Seamarker, thus separating Turkeymarker's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorusmarker strait connects it to the Black Sea and the Dardanellesmarker strait to the Aegean. The former also separates Istanbulmarker into its Asian and European sides. The Sea has an area of 11,350 km² (280 km x 80 km) with the greatest depth reaching 1,370 m.

Geography

The salinity of the sea averages about 22 parts per thousand, which is slightly greater than that of the Black Seamarker but only about two-thirds that of most oceans. However, the water is much more saline at the sea-bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand — similar to that of the Mediterranean Seamarker. This high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea itself, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Susurlukmarker, Bigamarker (Granicusmarker) and Gonenmarker Rivers also reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward, almost all of these rivers flow from Anatoliamarker.

There are two major island groups known as the Prince'smarker and Marmaramarker islands (including Avşamarker and Paşalimanımarker).

The south coast of the sea is heavily indented, and includes the Gulf of Izmitmarker ( ), the Gulf of Gemlik ( ) and the Gulf of Erdek ( ).During a storm on December 29, 1999, the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft broke in two in the Sea of Marmara, and more than 1500 tonnes of oil were spilled into the water.

The North Anatolian fault, which has triggered many major earthquakes in recent years, such as the İzmit Earthquakemarker of 1999, runs under the sea.

Name

The sea takes its name from the island of Marmara, which is rich in sources of marble, from the Greek μάρμαρον (marmaron), "marble".

The sea's ancient Greek name Propontis derives from pro (before) and pont- (sea), deriving from the fact that the Greeks sailed through it to reach the Black Seamarker. In Greek mythology, a storm on Propontis brought the Argonauts back to an island they had left, precipitating a battle where either Jason or Heracles killed King Cyzicus, who mistook them for his Pelasgian enemies.

Towns and cities

Towns and cities on the Marmara Sea coast include:

Istanbul Provincemarker

    Istanbulmarker

         Adalarmarker

         Bakırköymarker

         Bostancı

         Kadıköymarker

         Kartalmarker

         Kumkapımarker

         Pendikmarker

         Üsküdarmarker

         Yeşilköymarker

         Zeytinburnumarker 
    Büyükçekmecemarker

    Silivrimarker

    Tuzlamarker

Balıkesir Provincemarker

    Bandırmamarker

    Erdekmarker

    Gönen

Bursa Provincemarker

    Gemlik

    Karacabeymarker

    Mudanyamarker



Çanakkale Provincemarker

    Bigamarker

    Gelibolumarker

    Lapsekimarker

Kocaeli Provincemarker

    Derince

    Eskihisar

    Gebzemarker

    Gölcükmarker

    Hereke

    İzmitmarker (Pr. Cap)

    Karamürsel

    Körfezmarker

Tekirdağ Provincemarker

    Marmara Ereğlimarker

    Şarköymarker

    Tekirdağmarker (Pr. Cap)

Yalova Provincemarker

    Altınovamarker

    Armutlumarker

    Çiftlikköymarker

    Çınarcıkmarker

    Termalmarker

    Yalovamarker (Pr. Cap)



See also



Gallery



Image:Marmara sea.JPG|View of Marmara Sea from Istanbul (Kumkapi)Image:Yassiada 1.jpg|Sea of Marmara approaching YassıadaImage:Resim 093.jpg|View of the Marmara Sea from Yeşilköymarker

References

External links




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