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Seattle ( , ) is located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United Statesmarker. Situated in the western part of Washington statemarker on an isthmus between Puget Soundmarker (an arm of the Pacific Oceanmarker) and Lake Washingtonmarker, about south of the Canada – United States border, it is named after Chief Seattle, of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The encompassing Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue metropolitan statistical area is the 15th largest in the United States, and the largest in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The major economic, cultural and educational center in the region, Seattle is the county seat of King Countymarker. As of July 1, 2008, the city had an estimated municipal population of 598,541, making it the twenty-fifth most populous city in the U.S. and a metropolitan area population of 3,344,813.

The Seattle area has been inhabited for at least 4,000 years, but European settlement began only in the mid-19th century. The first permanent European settlers — Arthur A. Denny and those subsequently known as the Denny Party — arrived November 13, 1851. Early settlements in the area were called "New York-Alki" ("Alki" meaning "by and by" in the local Chinook Jargon) and "Duwamps". In 1853, Doc Maynard suggested that the main settlement be renamed "Seattle", an anglicized rendition of the name of Sealth, the chief of the two local tribes. From 1869 until 1882, Seattle was known as the "Queen City". Seattle's current official nickname is the "Emerald City", the result of a contest held in the early 1980s; the reference is to the lush evergreen forests of the area. Seattle is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska", "Rain City", and "Jet City", the last from the local influence of Boeing. Seattle residents are known as Seattleites.

Seattle is the birthplace of rock legend Jimi Hendrix and the music style known as "grunge," which was made famous by local groups Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, and Soundgarden. Bruce Lee and Brandon Lee are also buried at Lakeview cemetery. Seattle has a reputation for heavy coffee consumption; coffee companies founded or based in Seattle include Starbucks, Seattle's Best Coffee,(1)

(2) and Tully's. There are also many successful independent artisanal espresso roasters and cafes. Researchers at Central Connecticut State Universitymarker ranked Seattle the most literate city of America's sixty-nine largest cities in 2005 and 2006, second most literate in 2007 (after Minneapolismarker), and tied with Minneapolismarker in 2008. Additionally, survey data by the United States Census Bureau indicated that Seattle was the most educated city in the U.S., with 52.5% of residents aged 25 and older having a bachelor's degree. In terms of per capita income, a study by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the Seattle metropolitan area 17th out of 363 metropolitan areas in 2006.

The railways and streetcars that once dominated its transportation system have largely been replaced with an extensive bus route for those living near the city center, and the city's outward growth caused automobiles to become the main mode of transportation for much of the population in the middle to late twentieth century. As a result, Seattle is ranked as one of the most congested cities in the United States. However, efforts to reverse this trend at the municipal and state levels have resulted in newcommuter rail service that connects Seattle to Everettmarker and Tacomamarker,a regional Link Light Rail system that extends south from the city coremarker,andan inner-city South Lake Union Streetcar network in the South Lake Union area.Extension of the light rail to theSeattle-Tacoma International Airportmarker is expected by the end of 2009,and to surrounding areas such as the University of Washingtonmarker, Bellevuemarker and Redmondmarkerin the years to come.

History

Founding



Archaeological excavations confirm that the Seattle area has been inhabited by humans for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, the people (now called the Duwamish Tribe) occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Baymarker.(1)

(2)

(3)


In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River; they formally claimed it on September 14, 1851. Thirteen days later, members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party, the group who would eventually found Seattle. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Pointmarker on September 28, 1851. The rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland, Oregonmarker and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851.

After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and founded the village of "Dewamps" or "Duwamps" on the site of present day Pioneer Square. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and established a village they initially called "New York", but renamed "Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning, roughly, by and by or someday. New York-Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance for the next few years, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.

David Swinson Maynard, one of Duwamps's founders, was the primary advocate to rename the village "Seattle" after Chief Sealth of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes.(1)

Includes bibliography.
(2) (3) Morgan (1951, 1982), p.20 The term, "Seattle", appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city. Two years later, after a petition was filed by most of the leading citizens, the Legislature disincorporated the town. The town remained a precinct of King County until late 1869 when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated with a Mayor-council government.


Timber town



Seattle has a history of boom and bust cycles, as is common to cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically, then gone into precipitous decline, but it has typically used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure.

The first such boom, covering the early years of the city, was fueled by the lumber industry. (During this period the road now known as Yesler Way was nicknamed "Skid Road", after the timber skidding down the hill to Henry Yesler's sawmill. This is considered a possible origin for the term which later entered the wider American vocabulary as Skid Row.) Like much of the American West, Seattle saw numerous conflicts between labor and management, as well as ethnic tensions that culminated in the anti-Chinese riots of 1885–1886. This violence was caused by unemployed whites who determined to drive the Chinese from Seattle (anti-Chinese riots also occurred in Tacoma). Martial law was declared, and federal troops were brought in to put down the disorder. Nevertheless, the economic success in the Seattle area was so great that when the Great Seattle fire of 1889 destroyed the central business district, a far grander city center rapidly emerged in its place. Finance company Washington Mutual, for example, was founded in the immediate wake of the fire. However, the Panic of 1893 hit Seattle hard.

Gold Rush, World War I, and the Great Depression

This boom was followed by the construction of a park system, designed by the Olmsted brothers' landscaping firm.

The second and most dramatic boom and bust resulted from the Klondike Gold Rush, which ended the depression that had begun with the Panic of 1893; in a short time, Seattle became a major transportation center. On July 14, 1897, the S.S. Portland docked with its famed "ton of gold", and Seattle became the main transport and supply point for the miners in Alaska and the Yukon. Those working men only found lasting wealth in a few cases, however; it was Seattle's business of clothing the miners and feeding them salmon that panned out in the long run. Everett, Tacoma, Port Townsend, Bremerton, Seattle, and Olympia became competitors for exchange, rather than mother-lodes for extraction, of precious metals. The boom lasted well into the early part of the 20th century and funded many new Seattle companies and products. In 1907, 19-year-old James E. Casey borrowed $100 from a friend and founded the American Messenger Company (later UPSmarker). Other Seattle companies founded during this period include Nordstrommarker and Eddie Bauer. The Gold Rush era culminated in the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition of 1909, which is largely responsible for the layout of today's University of Washingtonmarker campus.

A shipbuilding boom in the early part of the 20th century became massive during World War I, making Seattle somewhat of a company town; the subsequent retrenchment led to the Seattle General Strike of 1919, the first general strike in the country A 1912 city development plan by Virgil Bogue went largely unused. Seattle was mildly prosperous in the 1920s but was particularly hard hit in the Great Depression, experiencing some of the country's harshest labor strife in that era. Violence during the Maritime Strike of 1934 cost Seattle much of its maritime traffic, which was rerouted to the Port of Los Angelesmarker.

Seattle was also the home base of impresario Alexander Pantages who, starting in 1902, opened a number of theaters in the city exhibiting vaudeville acts and silent movies. His activities soon expanded, and the thrifty Greek went on and became one of America's greatest theater and movie tycoons. Between Pantages and his rival John Considine, Seattle was for a while the western United States' vaudeville mecca. The several theaters Scottishmarker-born, Seattle-based architect B. Marcus Priteca built for Pantages in Seattle have all been either demolished or converted to other uses, but many of their theaters survive in other cities of the USA, often retaining the Pantages name.

Post-war years: aircraft and software

Downtown Seattle and a ferry at the Central Waterfront.


The local economy dipped after World War II, which had seen the dispersion of the numerous Japanese-American businessmen. The local economy rose again with manufacturing company Boeing's growing dominance in the airliner market. Seattle celebrated its restored prosperity and made a bid for world recognition with the Century 21 Exposition, the 1962 World's Fair. The local economy went into another major downturn in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Many left the area to look for work elsewhere, and two local real estate agents put up a billboard reading "Will the last person leaving Seattle – Turn out the lights."

Still, Seattle remained the corporate headquarters of Boeing until 2001, when the company separated its headquarters from its major production facilities. Boeing finally chose to move its corporate headquarters to Chicago. The Seattle area is still home to Boeing's Renton narrow-body plant (where the 707, 720, 727, and 757 were assembled, and the 737 is assembled today) and Everett wide-body plantmarker (assembly plant for the 747, 767, 777 and the upcoming 787 Dreamliner); the company's credit union for employees, BECU, remains based in the Seattle area, though it is now open to all residents of Washington.

As prosperity began to return in the 1980s, the city was stunned by the Wah Mee massacre in 1983, when thirteen people were killed in an illegal gambling club in the International District, Seattlemarker's Chinatown. Beginning with Microsoft's 1979 move from Albuquerque, New Mexicomarker to nearby Bellevue, Washingtonmarker, Seattle and its suburbs became home to a number of technology companies including Amazon.com, RealNetworks, McCaw Cellular (now part of AT&T Mobility), VoiceStream (now T-Mobile USA), and biomedical corporations such as HeartStream (later purchased by Philips), Heart Technologies (later purchased by Boston Scientific), Physio-Control (later purchased by Medtronic), ZymoGenetics, ICOS (later purchased by Eli Lilly and Company) and Immunex (later purchased by Amgen). This success brought an influx of new citizens with a population increase within city limits of almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000, and saw Seattle's real estate become some of the most expensive in the country. Many of the Seattle area's tech companies remain relatively strong, but the frenzied dot-com boom years ended in early 2001.

Seattle in this period attracted widespread attention as home to these many companies, but also by hosting the 1990 Goodwill Games and the APEC leaders conference in 1993, as well as through the worldwide popularity of grunge, a sound that had developed in Seattle's independent music scene. Another bid for worldwide attention—hosting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999—garnered visibility, but not in the manner its sponsors desired, as related protest activity and police reactions to those protests overshadowed the conference itself. The city was further shaken by the Mardi Gras Riots in 2001, and was literally shaken the following day by the Nisqually Earthquakemarker.

The UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Seattle 50th worldwide in quality of living; the survey factored in political stability, personal freedom, sanitation, crime, housing, the natural environment, recreation, banking facilities, availability of consumer goods, education, and public services including transportation.

Geography

Topography

Seattle is located between an inlet of the Pacific Ocean to the west called Puget Sound and Lake Washington to the east. The city's chief harbor, Elliott Bay, is an inlet of the Sound. West beyond the Sound are the Kitsap Peninsulamarker and Olympic Mountainsmarker on the Olympic Peninsula; east beyond Lake Washington and the eastside suburbs are Lake Sammamishmarker and the Cascade Range. Lake Washington's waters flow out through the Lake Washington Ship canal, a series of two man-made canals and Lake Union, to the Hiram C. Chittenden Locks at Salmon Bay, to Shilshole Bay, which is part of Puget Sound. The sea, rivers, forests, lakes, and fields were once rich enough to support one of the world's few sedentary hunter-gatherer societies. Areas lending themselves well to sailing, skiing, bicycling, camping, and hiking may be reached almost year-round.

The city itself is hilly, though not uniformly so. Like Rome, the city is said to lie on seven hills; the lists vary, but typically include Capitol Hill, First Hill, West Seattle, Beacon Hill, Queen Anne, Magnolia, and the former Denny Hill. The Wallingford and Mount Baker neighborhoods are technically located on hills as well. Many of the hilliest areas are near the city center, with Capitol Hill, First Hill, and Beacon Hill collectively constituting something of a ridge along an isthmus between Elliott Bay and Lake Washington. The break in the ridge between First Hill and Beacon Hill is man-made, the result of two of the many regrading projects that reshaped the topography of the city center. The topography of the city center was also changed by the construction of a seawall and the artificial Harbor Islandmarker (completed 1909) at the mouth of the city's industrial Duwamish Waterwaymarker.

North of the city center, Lake Washington Ship Canalmarker connects Puget Sound to Lake Washington. It incorporates four natural bodies of water: Lake Unionmarker, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, and Union Bay.

Due to its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire, Seattle is in an earthquake zone. On February 28, 2001, the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquakemarker did significant architectural damage, especially in the Pioneer Square area (built on reclaimed land, as are the Industrial District and part of the city center), but caused no fatalities.Other strong quakes occurred on January 26, 1700 (estimated at 9 magnitude), December 14, 1872 (7.3 or 7.4), April 13, 1949 (7.1), and April 29, 1965 (6.5). The 1949 quake caused eight known deaths, all in Seattle; the 1965 quake caused three deaths in Seattle directly, and one more by heart failure. Although the Seattle Fault passes just south of the city center, neither it nor the Cascadia subduction zone has caused an earthquake since the city's founding. The Cascadia subduction zone poses the threat of an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater, capable of seriously damaging the city and collapsing many buildings, especially in zones built on fill.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , of which is land and water (41.16 percent of the total area).

Surrounding municipalities

Climate

Seattle averages only 58 clear (sunny) days a year, with most of those days occurring between June and September
Seattle's mild, rainy climate is usually classified as Oceanic (Köppen climate classification Cfb). However, its wet-winter and dry-summer pattern shows some characteristics of a cool Mediterranean climate (Csb), and it is sometimes classified this way. Temperature extremes are moderated by adjacent Puget Sound, the greater Pacific Ocean, and Lake Washington. The region is partially protected from Pacific storms by the Olympic Mountains and from Arctic air by the Cascade Range. Despite being on the margin of the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains, the city has a reputation for frequent rain. This reputation derives from this frequency of precipitation as well as the fact that it is cloudy an average of 226 days per year. At , the city receives less precipitation than New York Citymarker, Atlantamarker, Houstonmarker, and most cities of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Seattle was also not listed in a study that revealed the 10 rainiest cities in the continental United States. Most of the precipitation falls as drizzle or light rain. Thunderstorms occur only occasionally. Seattle reports thunder on just seven days per annum ( according to 'Cities Ranked and Rated' - Bert Sperling and Peter Sander.2007). For comparison Fort Myers, Florida reports thunder on 93 days per year. Kansas City reports 52 'thunder days' and New York City reports 25. There are occasional downpours. One of these downpours occurred in December 2007 when widespread rainfall hit the greater Puget Sound area. It became the second wettest event in Seattle history when a little over 5 inches of rain fell on Seattle in a 24 hour period. The rain also caused five deaths and widespread flooding and damage. Spring, late fall, and winter are filled with days when it does not rain but looks as if it might because of cloudy, overcast skies. Winters are cool and wet with average lows around 35–40 °F (2–4 °C) on winter nights. Colder weather can occur, but seldom lasts more than a few days. Summers are dry and warm, with average daytime highs around 73–80 °F (22.2–26.7 °C). Hotter weather usually occurs only during a few summer days. Seattle's hottest official recorded temperature was on July 29, 2009; the coldest recorded temperature was 0 °F (–18 °C) on January 31, 1950.

Between October and May, Seattle is mostly or partly cloudy six out of every seven days
Eighty miles (130 km) to the west, the Hoh Rain Forestmarker in Olympic National Parkmarker on the western flank of the Olympic Mountains receives an annual average rainfall of , and the state capital, Olympia—south of the rain shadow—receives an annual average rainfall of 52 inches (132 cm). Snowfall is very infrequent, especially at lower elevations and near the coast, and is usually light and fleeting, lasting only a few days. Heavier snowfall happens infrequently; a recent example happened from December 12–25, 2008, when over one foot of snow fell and stuck on much of the city's roads, causing widespread difficulties in a city so unaccustomed to heavy snow. Average annual snowfall, as measured at Sea-Tac Airport, is 13 inches (33 cm). Seattle's daily record snowfall was on January 13, 1950. A sunnier and drier climate typically dominates from mid-July to mid-September. An average of of rain falls in July and in August. Although the summer climate is considerably drier and less humid than in areas with humid continental climates, a slight dampness can be occasionally felt, usually when temperatures reach above . This dampness is typically more noticeable during the evening when the temperatures have dropped. Because of this, Seattle experiences occasional summer thunderstorms.

The Puget Sound Convergence Zone is an important feature of Seattle's weather. In the convergence zone, air arriving from the north meets air flowing in from the south. Both streams of air originate over the Pacific Ocean; airflow is split by the Olympic Mountains to Seattle's west, then reunited by the Cascade Mountains to the east. When the air currents meet, they are forced upward, resulting in convection. Thunderstorms caused by this activity can occur north and south of town, but Seattle itself rarely receives worse weather than occasional thunder and ice-pellet showers. The Hanukkah Eve Wind Storm in December 2006 is an exception that brought heavy rain and winds gusting up to .

Another exception to Seattle's dampness may occur in El Niño years, when the marine weather systems track as far south as California and little precipitation falls in the Puget Sound area. Since the region's water comes from mountain snowpacks during the drier summer months, El Niño winters can not only produce substandard skiing but can result in water rationing and a shortage of hydroelectric power the following summer.

Neighborhoods

Downtown Seattle includes a tightly packed financial district along with residential areas and a panoramic waterfront.


Seattle has grown through a series of annexations of smaller neighboring communities. On May 3, 1891, Magnolia, Wallingford, Green Lakemarker, and the University Districtmarker (then known as Brooklyn) were annexed. The town of South Seattle was annexed on October 20, 1905. Between January 7 and September 12, 1907, Seattle nearly doubled its land area by annexing six incorporated towns and areas of unincorporated King County, including Southeast Seattle, Ravenna, South Park, Columbia City, Ballardmarker, and West Seattle. Three years later, after having difficulties paying a $10,000 bill from the county, the town of Georgetown merged with Seattle. Finally, on January 4, 1954, the area between N. 85th Street and N. 145th Street was annexed, including the neighborhoods of Pinehurst, Maple Leaf, Lake Citymarker, View Ridge and Northgate.

Seattle mayor Greg Nickels is among those who have called Seattle "a city of neighborhoods", although the boundaries (and even names) of those neighborhoods are often open to dispute. For example, a Department of Neighborhoods spokeswoman reported that her own neighborhood has gone from "the 'CD' (Central District) to 'Madrona' to 'Greater Madison Valley' and now 'Madrona Park'.

Over a dozen Seattle neighborhoods have Neighborhood Service Centers, originally known in 1972 as "Little City Halls" and even more have their own street fair and/or parade during the summer months.The largest of the city's street fairs feature hundreds of craft and food booths and multiple stages with live entertainment, and draw more than 100,000 people over the course of a weekend. In addition, at least half a dozen neighborhoods have weekly farmers' markets, some with as many as fifty vendors.

Cityscape

Landmarks

The Space Needlemarker, dating from the Century 21 Exposition (1962), is Seattle's most recognizable landmark, having been featured in the logo of the television show Frasier and the backgrounds of the television series Dark Angel, Grey's Anatomy and iCarly, and films such as It Happened at the World's Fair and Sleepless in Seattle. The fairgrounds surrounding the Needle have been converted into Seattle Centermarker, which remains the site of many local civic and cultural events, such as Bumbershoot, Folklife, and the Bite of Seattle. Seattle Center plays multiple roles in the city, ranging from a public fair ground to a civic center, though recent economic losses have called its viability and future into question. The Seattle Center Monorail was also constructed for Century 21 and still runs from Seattle Center to Westlake Center, a downtown shopping mall, a little over a mile to the southeast.
The Smith Towermarker was the tallest building on the West Coast from its completion in 1914 until the Space Needle overtook it in 1962. The late 1980s saw the construction of Seattle's two tallest skyscrapers: the 76 story Columbia Centermarker (completed 1985) is the tallest building in the Pacific Northwest and the fourth tallest building west of the Mississippi River; the Washington Mutual Towermarker (completed 1988) is Seattle's second tallest building. Other notable Seattle landmarks include Pike Place Marketmarker, the Fremont Trollmarker, the Experience Music Project and Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Famemarker (at Seattle Center), and the Seattle Central Librarymarker.

Starbucks has been at Pike Place Market since the coffee company was founded there in 1971. The first store is still operating a block south of its original location.

The National Register of Historic Places has over 150 Seattle listings. The city also designates its own landmarks.

Culture

Performing arts

Seattle has been a regional center for the performing arts for many years. The century-old Seattle Symphony Orchestra is among the world's most recorded and performs primarily at Benaroya Hallmarker. The Seattle Opera and Pacific Northwest Ballet, which perform at McCaw Hallmarker (opened 2003 on the site of the former Seattle Opera House at Seattle Center), are comparably distinguished, with the Opera being particularly known for its performances of the works of Richard Wagner and the PNB School (founded in 1974) ranking as one of the top three ballet training institutions in the United States. The Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras (SYSO) is the largest symphonic youth organization in the United States. The city also boasts lauded summer and winter chamber music festivals organized by the Seattle Chamber Music Society.

The 5th Avenue Theatremarker, built in 1926, stages Broadway-style musical shows featuring both local talent and international stars.Examples of local talent are Billy Joe Huels (lead singer of the Dusty 45s starring in Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story and Sarah Rudinoff in Wonderful Town. National-level stars include Stephen Lynch in The Wedding Singer, which went on to Broadway and Cathy Rigby in Peter Pan

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4) Seattle has "around 100" theatrical production companies "around 100 theater companies ... Twenty-eight have some sort of Actors' Equity contract ..." and over two dozen live theatre venues, many of them associated with fringe theatre;(1) This lists 23 distinct venues in Seattle hosting live theater (in the narrow sense) that week; it also lists 7 other venues hosting burlesque or cabaret, and three hosting improv. In any given week, some theaters are "dark".

(2) This article mentions five fringe theater groups that were new at that time, each with a venue. Seattle is probably second only to New York for number of equity theaters (28 Seattle theater companies have some sort of Actors' Equity contract).In addition, the 900-seat Romanesque Revival Town Hallmarker on First Hill hosts numerous cultural events, especially lectures and recitals.

Seattle is considered the home of grunge music because it was home to artists such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, and Mudhoney all of whom reached vast audiences in the early 1990s. The city is also home to such varied musicians as avant-garde jazz musicians Bill Frisell and Wayne Horvitz, rapper Sir Mix-a-Lot, smooth jazz saxophonist Kenny G, Heart, heavy metal bands Queensrÿche, Nevermore and Sunn O))), as well as such poppier rock bands as Harvey Danger, Goodness, and The Presidents of the United States of America. Such musicians as Jimi Hendrix, Kurt Cobain, Duff McKagan, Nikki Sixx, and Quincy Jones spent their formative years in Seattle.

Since the grunge era, the area has hosted a diverse and influential alternative music scene. The Seattle record label Sub Pop—the first to sign Nirvana and Soundgarden—has signed such non-grunge bands as Band of Horses, Modest Mouse, Murder City Devils, Sunny Day Real Estate, Death Cab for Cutie, The Postal Service and Flight of the Conchords.

Earlier Seattle-based popular music acts include the collegiate folk group The Brothers Four; The Wailers, a 1960s garage band; The Ventures, an instrumental rock band; pop Young Fresh Fellows and The Posies; pop-punk The Fastbacks; and the outright punk of The Fartz (later 10 Minute Warning), The Gits, and 7 Year Bitch.

Seattle annually sends a team of spoken word slammers to the National Poetry Slam and considers itself home of some of the most talented performance poets in the world: Buddy Wakefield, two-time Individual World Poetry Slam Champ; Anis Mojgani, two-time National Poetry Slam Champ; and Danny Sherrard, 2007 National Poetry Slam Champ and 2008 Individual World Poetry Slam Champ. Seattle also hosted the 2001 national Poetry Slam Tournament. The Seattle Poetry Festival is a biennial poetry festival that (launched first as the Poetry Circus in 1997) has featured local, regional, national, and international names in poetry.

The city also has movie houses showing both Hollywoodmarker productions and works by independent filmmakers. Among these, the Seattle Cineramamarker stands out as one of only three movie theaters in the world still capable of showing three-panel Cinerama films.

Additionally, the city is also home to the Seattle Polish Film Festival, (SPFF) an annual film festival showcasing current and past films of Polish cinema. The festival is produced by the Seattle-Gdynia Sister City Association and awards the Seattle Spirit of Polish Cinema awards as well as the Viewers Choice of Best Film.

Media

Today, Seattle has one major daily newspaper, The Seattle Times. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, known as the P-I, published a daily newspaper from 1863 to March 17, 2009. There is also a Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, and the University of Washington publishes The Daily, a student-run publication, when school is in session. The most prominent weeklies are the Seattle Weekly and The Stranger; both consider themselves "alternative" papers.(1)

(2) Real Change is a weekly street newspaper that is sold mainly by homeless persons as an alternative to panhandling. There are also several ethnic newspapers, including the Northwest Asian Weekly, and numerous neighborhood newspapers, including the North Seattle Journal.

Seattle is also well served by television and radio, with all major U.S. networks represented, along with at least five other English-language stations and two Spanish-language stations. Seattle cable viewers also receive CBUTmarker 2 (CBC) from Vancouvermarker, British Columbiamarker.

Leading non-commercial radio stations include NPR affiliates KUOW-FM 94.9 and KPLU-FM 88.5 (Tacoma). Other notable stations include KEXP-FM 90.3 (affiliated with EMP), KBCS-FMmarker 91.3 (affiliated with Bellevue College), and KNHC-FMmarker 89.5, which broadcasts an electronic music format and is owned by the public school system and operated by students of Nathan Hale High School. Many Seattle radio stations are also available through Internet radio, with KEXP in particular being a pioneer of Internet radio. Seattle also has numerous commercial radio stations, including KING-FM, one of the last commercial classical music stations in the United States.

Seattle-based online magazines Worldchanging and Grist.org were two of the "Top Green Websites" in 2007 according to Time..

Seattle also has many online newspapers. The two largest are The Seattle Times and Seattle Post-Intelligencer (the latter now online only).

Tourism

210 cruise ship visits brought 886,039 passengers to Seattle in 2008.


Among Seattle's prominent annual fairs and festivals are the 24-day Seattle International Film Festival, Northwest Folklife over the Memorial Day weekend, numerous Seafair events throughout July and August (ranging from a Bon Odori celebration to the Chevrolet Cup hydroplane races), the Bite of Seattle, one of the largest Gay Pride festivals in the United States, and the art and music festival Bumbershoot, which programs music as well as other art and entertainment over the Labor Day weekend. All are typically attended by 100,000 people annually, as are the Seattle Hempfest and two separate Independence Day celebrations. In the past, the Gay Pride parade and festival have been centered on Capitol Hill, but since 2006, festivities have been held city-wide, and the parade has followed a route in Downtown from the retail core to Seattle Center.

Other significant events include numerous Native American pow-wows, a Greek Festival hosted by St. Demetrios Greek Orthodox Church in Montlake, and numerous ethnic festivals (many associated with Festál at Seattle Center).
There are other annual events, ranging from the Seattle Antiquarian Book Fair & Book Arts Show; an anime convention, Sakura-Con; Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention; specialized film festivals, such as the Seattle Gay and Lesbian Film Festival; and a two-day, 9,000-rider Seattle to Portland Bicycle Classic.

The Henry Art Gallerymarker opened in 1927, the first public art museum in Washington. The Seattle Art Museummarker (SAM) opened in 1933; SAM opened a museum downtown in 1991 (expanded and reopened 2007); since 1991, the 1933 building has been SAM's Seattle Asian Art Museummarker (SAAM). SAM also operates the Olympic Sculpture Park (opened 2007) on the waterfront north of the downtown piers. The Frye Art Museummarker is a free museum on First Hill.

Regional history collections are at the Loghouse Museum in Alki, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Parkmarker, the Museum of History and Industry and the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culturemarker. Industry collections are at the Center for Wooden Boats and the adjacent Northwest Seaport, the Seattle Metropolitan Police Museum, and the Museum of Flightmarker. Regional ethnic collections include the Nordic Heritage Museummarker, the Wing Luke Asian Museum and the Northwest African American Museum. Seattle has artist-run galleries, including 10-year veteran Soil Art Gallery, and the newer Crawl Space Gallery.

Woodland Park Zoomarker opened as a private menagerie in 1889, but was sold to the city in 1899. The Seattle Aquarium has been open on the downtown waterfront since 1977 (undergoing a renovation 2006). The Seattle Underground Tour, an exhibit of places that existed before the Great Fire, is also popular. There are also many community centers for recreation, including Rainier Beach, Van Asselt, Rainier, and Jefferson south of the Ship Canal and Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Loyal Heights north of the Canal, and Meadowbrook.

Since the middle 1990s, Seattle has experienced significant growth in the cruise industry, especially as a departure point for Alaska cruises. In 2008, a record total of 886,039 cruise passengers passed through the city, surpassing the number for Vancouver, BC, the other major departure point for Alaska cruises.

Sports

Club Sport League Venue Established Championships
Seattle Sounders FC Soccer MLS Qwest Fieldmarker 2009 1
Seattle Seahawks Football NFL Qwest Fieldmarker 1976 0
Seattle Mariners Baseball MLB Safeco Fieldmarker 1977 0
Seattle Thunderbirds Ice hockey WHL ShoWare Centermarker 1977 0
Seattle Storm Basketball WNBA KeyArenamarker 2000 1


Seattle's professional sports history began at the start of the 20th century with the PCHA's Seattle Metropolitans, which in 1917 became the first American hockey team to win the Stanley Cup. Today Seattle has four major professional sports teams: The National Football League's Seattle Seahawks, Major League Baseball's Seattle Mariners, Major League Soccer's Seattle Sounders FC, and the 2004 Women's National Basketball Association champions, Seattle Storm. From 1967 to 2008 Seattle was home to an NBA franchise, the Seattle SuperSonics, who were the 1978–79 NBA champions; the team was relocated to Oklahoma City after the 2007–08 season. The Seattle Thunderbirds are a major-junior hockey team that plays in one of the Canadian major-junior hockey leagues, the WHL (Western Hockey League). The Thunderbirds moved to nearby Kent, Washingtonmarker during the 2008–2009 season. The Seattle Sounders FC began play in Major League Soccer in 2009.

Seattle also boasts a strong history in collegiate sports, the University of Washington and Seattle University are NCAA Division I schools. The Major League Baseball All-Star game was held in Seattle twice, first at the Kingdomemarker in 1979 and again at Safeco Field in 2001. That same year, the Seattle Mariners tied the all-time single regular season wins record with 116 wins. The NBA All-Star game was also held in Seattle twice, the first in 1974 at the Seattle Center Coliseum and the second in 1987 at the Kingdome.

In 2006, Qwest Fieldmarker hosted the 2005–06 NFL playoffs. In 2008, Qwest Field hosted the first game of the 2007–08 NFL playoffs, in which the Seahawks defeated the Washington Redskins, 35–14. Qwest also serves as the home field for the Seattle Sounders FC of Major League Soccer.

Outdoor activities



Seattle's mild, temperate marine climate allows year-round outdoor recreation, including walking, cycling, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, kayaking, rock climbing, motor boating, sailing, team sports, and swimming. In town, many people walk around Green Lakemarker, through the forests and along the bluffs and beaches of Discovery Parkmarker (the largest park in the city) in Magnolia, along the shores of Myrtle Edwards Park on the Downtown waterfront, along the shoreline of Lake Washington at Seward Park, or along Alki Beach in West Seattle. Also popular are hikes and skiing in the nearby Cascade or Olympic Mountainsmarker and kayaking and sailing in the waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fucamarker, and the Strait of Georgiamarker. In 2005, Men's Fitness magazine named Seattle the fittest city in the United States.

Economy



Six companies on the 2008 Fortune 500 list of the United States' largest companies, based on total revenue are headquartered in Seattle: former financial services company Washington Mutual ( now Chase ) (#97), Internet retailer Amazon.com (#171), coffee chain Starbucks (#277), department store Nordstrommarker (#299), insurance company Safeco (#388), and global logistics firm Expeditors International (#458). However, in April 2008, the sale of Safeco to Liberty Mutual Group was announced and in September 2008, Washington Mutual was seized by the FDIC and was sold to JPMorgan Chase. Other Fortune 500 companies popularly associated with Seattle are based in nearby Puget Sound cities. Warehouse club chain Costco (#29), the largest company in Washington, is based in Issaquahmarker. Microsoft (#44) and Nintendo of America are located in Redmondmarker. Weyerhaeuser, the forest products company (#147), is based in Federal Way. Finally, Bellevuemarker is home to truck manufacturer PACCAR (#169), and to international mobile telephony giant T-Mobile's U.S. subsidiary, T-Mobile USA.

Prior to moving its headquarters to Chicagomarker, aerospace manufacturer Boeing (#27) was the largest company based in Seattle. Its largest division is still headquartered in nearby Renton, and the company has large aircraft manufacturing plants in Everett and Renton, so it remains the largest private employer in the Seattle metropolitan area. Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels announced a desire to spark a new economic boom driven by the biotechnology industry in 2006. Major redevelopment of the South Lake Union neighborhood is underway, in an effort to attract new and established biotech companies to the city, joining biotech companies Corixa (acquired by GlaxoSmithKline), Immunex (now part of Amgen), Trubion, and ZymoGenetics. Vulcan Inc., the holding company of billionaire Paul Allen, is behind most of the development projects in the region. While some see the new development as an economic boon, others have criticized Nickels and the Seattle City Council for pandering to Allen's interests at taxpayers' expense. Also in 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Seattle among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion. In 2005, Forbes ranked Seattle as the most expensive American city for buying a house based on the local income levels.

Alaska Airlines, operating a hub at Seattle-Tacoma International Airportmarker, maintains their headquarters in the city of SeaTacmarker, next to the airport.

Demographics

According to the Washington State Office of Financial Management, Seattle had a population of 602,000 as of April 1, 2009. In the 2000 census interim measurements of 2006, there were 258,499 households and 113,400 families residing in the city.

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 70.5% of Seattle's population; of which 67.9% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 7.8% of Seattle's population; of which 7.5% were non-Hispanic blacks. American Indian made up 0.9% of the city's population; of which 0.6% were non-Hispanic. Asian Americans made up 13.5% of the city's population; of which 13.4% were non-Hispanic. Pacific Islander Americans made up 0.4% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 2.8% of the city's population; of which 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 4.2% of the city's population; of which 3.7% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 6.2% of Seattle's population.

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey, 16.8% of Seattle's population claimed German ancestry, 12.3% claimed Irish ancestry, 12.2% claimed English ancestry, and 5.8% claimed Norwegian ancestry. In terms of language, 78.6% spoke only English at home while 5.0% spoke Spanish. About 3.6% spoke other Indo-European languages while 10.3% spoke an Asian language at home. About 2.5% spoke other languages.

Seattle has seen a major increase in immigration in recent decades: the foreign-born population increased 40% between the 1990 and 2000 censuses. At nearly 4 percent, Greater Seattle has the highest concentration of Multiracial Americans of any major metropolitan area in the United States. The Chinese population in the Seattle Area has a mix of Mandarin speakers from Taiwanmarker & Cantonese speakers from Hong Kongmarker. The Seattle area is also home to a high Laotian and Cambodian population. There is also a Filipino community around the Seattle Area. In addition, the city is home to over 30,000 Somali immigrants.

As of 1999, the median income of a city household was $45,736, and the median income for a family was $62,195. Males had a median income of $40,929 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,306 11.8 percent of the population and 6.9 percent of families are below the poverty line. Of people living in poverty, 13.8 percent are under the age of 18 and 10.2 percent are 65 or older.

It is estimated that King County has 8,000 homeless on any given night, and many of those live in Seattle. In September 2005, King County adopted a "Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness", one of the near-term results of which is a shift of funding from homeless shelter beds to permanent housing.

In 2006, after growing by 4,000 citizens per annum for the previous 16 years, regional planners expected the population of Seattle to grow by 200,000 people by 2040. However, Mayor Nickels supported plans that would increase the population by 60 percent, or 350,000 people, by 2040 and is working on ways to accommodate this growth while keeping Seattle's single-family housing zoning laws. The Seattle City Council later voted to relax height limits on buildings in the greater part of Downtown, partly with the aim of increasing residential density in the city center.

A 2006 study by UCLAmarker indicates that Seattle has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita. With 12.9 percent of citizens polled identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, the city ranks second of all major US cities, behind San Franciscomarker and slightly ahead of Atlantamarker. Greater Seattle also ranks second among major US metropolitan areas, with 6.5 percent being LGBT.

According to the 2000 U.S. census interim measurements of 2004, Seattle has the fifth highest proportion of single-person households nationwide among cities of 100,000 or more residents, at 40.8 percent.

Government and politics

Seattle City Hall, 2007


Seattle is a charter city, with a Mayor–Council form of government. Since 1911, Seattle's nine city councillors have been elected at large, rather than by geographic subdivisions. The only other elected offices are the city attorney and Municipal Court judges. All offices are non-partisan.

Seattle's politics are strongly liberal/progressive, although there is a small libertarian movement within the metro area. It is one of the most liberal cities in the United States, with approximately 80% voting for the Democratic Party; only two precincts in Seattle—one in the Broadmoor community, and one encompassing neighboring Madison Park—had a majority of votes for Republican George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential election. In addition, all precincts in Seattle voted for Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election, including the two precincts who had previously voted Republican in 2004. In partisan elections for the Washington State Legislature and United States Congress, nearly all elections are won by Democrats. Seattle dominates Washington's 7th congressional district, home to Representative Jim McDermott, one of Congress' most liberal members.

Education

Of the city's population over the age of 25, 52.5 percent (vs. a national average of 24 percent) hold a bachelor's degree or higher, and 91.2 percent (vs. 80 percent nationally) have a high school diploma or equivalent. A United States Census Bureau survey showed that Seattle had the highest percentage of college and university graduates of any major U.S. city. The city was listed as the most literate of the country's sixty-nine largest cities in 2005 and 2006 and second most literate in 2007, and tied for most literate again in 2008 in a study conducted by Central Connecticut State University.



Seattle Public Schools desegregated without a court order but continue to struggle to achieve racial balance in a somewhat ethnically divided city (the south part of town having more ethnic minorities than the north). In 2007, Seattle's racial tie-breaking system was struck down by the United States Supreme Court, but the ruling left the door open for desegregation formulae based on other indicators (e.g., income or socioeconomic class).

The public school system is supplemented by a moderate number of private schools: five of the private high schools are Catholic, one is Lutheran, and six are secular.

Seattle is home to one of the United States' most respected public research universities, the University of Washingtonmarker, as well as its professional and continuing Education unit, University of Washington Educational Outreach. A study by Newsweek International in 2006 cited UW as the twenty-second best university in the world. Seattle also has a number of smaller private universities including Seattle Universitymarker and Seattle Pacific Universitymarker, both founded by religious groups; universities aimed at the working adult, like City University and Antioch University; and a number of arts colleges, such as Cornish College of the Artsmarker and The Art Institute of Seattlemarker. In 2001, Time magazine selected Seattle Central Community College as community college of the year, stating the school "pushes diverse students to work together in small teams".

Infrastructure

Health systems

The University of Washington is consistently ranked among the country's top leading institutions in medical research. Seattle has seen local developments of modern paramedic services with the establishment of Medic One in 1970. In 1974, a 60 Minutes story on the success of the then four-year-old Medic One paramedic system called Seattle "the best place in the world to have a heart attack".

Three of Seattle's largest medical centers are located on First Hill. Harborview Medical Centermarker, the public county hospital, is the only Level I trauma hospital serving Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Virginia Mason Medical Center and Swedish Medical Center's two largest campuses are also located in this part of Seattle. This concentration of hospitals resulted in the neighborhood's nickname "Pill Hill".

Located in the Laurelhurst neighborhood, Seattle Children's, formerly Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, is the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has a campus in the Eastlake neighborhood and also shares facilities with the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance and University of Washington Medical Center. The University District is home to the University of Washington Medical Center which, along with Harborview, is operated by the University of Washington. Seattle is also served by a Veterans Affairsmarker hospital on Beacon Hillmarker, a third campus of Swedish in Ballard, and Northwest Hospital and Medical Center near Northgate Mallmarker.

Transportation



The first streetcars appeared in 1889 and were instrumental in the creation of a relatively well-defined downtown and strong neighborhoods at the end of their lines. The advent of the automobile sounded the death knell for rail in Seattle. Tacoma–Seattle railway service ended in 1929 and the Everett–Seattle service came to an end in 1939, replaced by inexpensive automobiles running on the recently developed highway system. Rails on city streets were paved over or removed, and the arrival of trolleybuses brought the end of streetcars in Seattle in 1941. This left an extensive network of privately owned buses (later public) as the only mass transit within the city and throughout the region.

King County Metro provides frequent stop bus service within the city and surrounding county,as well as a streetcar line between the South Lake Union neighborhood and Westlake Center in downtown. Seattle is one of the few cities in North America whose bus fleet includes electric trolleybuses. Sound Transit currently provides an express bus service within the metropolitan area, two Sounder commuter rail lines between the suburbs and downtown, and its Central Link light rail line between downtown and Sea-Tac Airport, giving the city its first rapid transit line that has intermediate stops within the city limits. Washington State Ferries, which manages the largest network of ferries in the United States and third largest in the world, connects Seattle to Bainbridgemarker and Vashon Islandmarker in Puget Sound and to Bremertonmarker and Southworth on the Kitsap Peninsulamarker.

According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 18.6 percent of Seattle residents used one of the three public transit systems that serve the city, giving it the highest transit ridership of all major cities without heavy or light rail prior to the completion of Sound Transit's Central Link line.

Seattle-Tacoma International Airportmarker, locally known as Sea-Tac Airport and located just south in the neighboring city of SeaTacmarker, is operated by the Port of Seattle and provides commercial air service to destinations throughout the world. Closer to downtown, Boeing Fieldmarker is used for general aviation, cargo flights, and testing/delivery of Boeing airliners.

The main mode of transportation, however, relies on Seattle's streets, which are laid out in a cardinal directions grid pattern, except in the central business district where early city leaders Arthur Denny and Carson Boren insisted on orienting their plats relative to the shoreline rather than to true North. Only two roads, Interstate 5 and State Route 99 (both limited-access highways), run uninterrupted through the city from north to south. State Route 99 runs through downtown Seattle on the Alaskan Way Viaductmarker, which was built in 1953. However, due to damage sustained during the 2001 Nisqually earthquakemarker the viaduct will be replaced by a tunnel in 2015 at a cost of US$4.25 billion.

Utilities

Seattle Steam Company, one of Seattle's privately owned utility companies
Water and electric power are municipal services, provided by Seattle Public Utilities and Seattle City Light respectively. Other utility companies serving Seattle include Puget Sound Energy (natural gas); Seattle Steam Company (steam); Waste Management, Inc and Allied Waste (curbside recycling and solid waste removal); and Verizon Communications, Qwest and Comcast (telephone, Internet, and cable television).

See also



References

  1. http://www.soundtransit.org/Documents/pdf/projects/MAP_ST2Sound%20Move.pdf
  2. Author has granted blanket permission for material from that paper to be reused in Wikipedia. This article is no longer available. Now available at wikisource:Seattle: Booms and Busts.
  3. Kinnear's article originally appeared in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and was later privately published in a small volume.
  4. BOLA Architecture + Planning & Northwest Archaeological Associates, Inc., Port of Seattle North Bay Project DEIS: Historic and Cultural Resources, Port of Seattle, April 5, 2005, p. 12-13 (which is p. 14-15 of the PDF). Accessed online July 25, 2008.
  5. The real estate agents were Bob McDonald and Jim Youngren, as cited at Don Duncan, Washington: the First One Hundred Years, 1889–1989 (Seattle: The Seattle Times, 1989), 108, 109–110; The Seattle Times, February 25, 1986, p. A3; Ronald R. Boyce, Seattle–Tacoma and the Southern Sound (Bozeman, Montana: Northwest Panorama Publishing, 1986), 99; Walt Crowley, Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), 297.
  6. Gomes considers the bubble to have ended with the peak of the March 2000 peak of NASDAQ.
  7. Ewalt refers to the advertising on Super Bowl XXXIV (January 2000) as "the dot-com bubble's Waterloo".
  8. Peterson, Lorin & Davenport, Noah C. (1950), Living in Seattle, Seattle: Seattle Public Schools, p. 44.
  9. Study Reveals Top 10 Wettest U.S. Cities | LiveScience
  10. http://www.mynorthwest.com/?nid=11&sid=194392
  11. For an overview of Seattle's neighborhood farmers markets see: For the scale of one of the larger markets (in the University District, see:
  12. This press release from New York's Metropolitan Opera describes the Seattle Opera as "one of the leading opera companies in the United States… recognized internationally…"
  13. The Seattle Times, July 6, 2008
  14. Lists 145 theatrical production companies in the Seattle metropolitan area, the majority of them in the city. The list is certainly not complete.
  15. Seattle_Music, the best nightclub Seattle ever had was named Pier 70 Chowder House with the best disk jocky named David Prince
  16. WILLIAM ARNOLD, "Film buff sinks teeth into second Polish film festival" Seattle Post-Intelligencer
  17. WILLIAM ARNOLD, Polish film festival honors a living legend, in person and on-screen November 1, 2007
  18. Relevant information is on "Location" and "History" pages.
  19. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=16000US5363000&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Seattle&_cityTown=Seattle&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null®=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=
  20. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US5363000&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on
  21. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US5363000&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on
  22. More Than 250 Attend NewHolly Workshop to Learn About Somali Culture
  23. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US5363000&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S1501&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_


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