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Seattle Public Schools is the school district serving Seattlemarker, Washingtonmarker, USA.

List of Schools

As of 2007, the district contains 58 elementary schools, eight (8) K-8 schools, 10 middle schools, 12 high schools, and nine (9) Alternative schools and Special programs.

Demographics

Seattle Public Schools is the largest public school district in the state of Washington.

As of October 2007, the enrollment figures for the district are:

Total Students: 45,581

By Ethnicity:

White: 19,508 (42.8%)

Asian: 10,075 (22.1%)

Black: 9,735 (21.4%)

Hispanic: 5,304 (11.6%)

American Indian: 959 (2.1%)

By Gender:

Male: 23,254 (51%)

Female: 22,327 (49%)

As of May 2007, 40.5% of students are on free or reduced price meal programs.

For full demographic data by school, see Seattle Public Schools Demographic Data

School Board

The Board of Directors for Seattle Public Schools is an elected body representing seven geographical regions, known as Districts, within the City of Seattle. The length of the term is four years. Board meetings are generally held twice monthly. For the 2008-09 school year, board meetings are scheduled the second and fourth Wednesday of the month; all others are on the first and third Wednesdays of each month, at 6:00 p.m., with some exceptions. A complete schedule of all meeting for the board meetings for the 2008-09 school year can be found here.

Current school board members

DIRECTOR GEOGRAPHICAL

DISTRICT
TERM

EXPIRES
NOTES
Peter Maier I 2011
Sherry Carr II 2011 Executive committee member-at-large
Harium Martin-Morris III 2011
Michael DeBell IV 2009 Board president
Mary Bass V 2009
Steve Sundquist VI 2011 Board vice-president
Cheryl Chow VII 2009  


History

In 1919 there were 64 grammar schools, six high schools, two parental schools (comparable to today's youth detention centers), a school for the deaf, and nine "special schools... for pupils who do not progress normally in regular classes."

In the early 20th century, Seattle Public Schools were "exemplary" under the leadership (1901–1922) of superintendent Frank B. Cooper and a series of "civic-minded progressives" who served on the Seattle school board.

Former schools

Six Seattle public elementary schools in 1900.

Early Seattle public schools

When the University of Washingtonmarker was founded as the Territorial University in 1861, its initial class offerings were not at a level that would now be considered those of a college or university. Its first class offering was a primary school (elementary school) taught by Asa Mercer, and for some years it was jointly supervised by the newly formed Seattle School Board its own Board of Regents. It functioned as Seattle's first public school.

In 1867, the public school moved to what was then the County Building on Third Avenue between James and Jefferson, the site of today's Prefontaine Fountain. A year later, the school moved to Yesler's Pavilion (later Yesler's Hall) at present-day First and Cherry. A year later the school moved again to a temporary building (called Bacon's Hall after its first teacher, Carrie Bacon) located at the site of the present King County Court House. In 1870 the first "permanent" school building, the Central School, opened on Third Avenue between Madison and Spring Streets. It originally had two classrooms; a third was built in its attic in 1881.

Meanwhile, in 1873 the two-room North School opened at Third and Pine, and in 1875 the school district had purchased at 6th and Madison, where the Sixth Street School, also known as Eastern School, opened promptly in a temporary building and grew into successively larger and better-built buildings in 1877 and 1883. The latter, an "elegant wooden building" with an imposing "French mansard roof, clock tower, and tall central belfry" superseded the old Central School as well as the North School. From 1884, it was known as the Central School. Classes extended through 12th grade, and the first class graduated from 12th grade in 1886. However the school burned in 1888. : Central II.

The district had, in this period, started a number of other schools, including the even more imposing Denny School on Battery Street between 5th and 6th Avenues in Belltownmarker, opened 1884. Described as "an architectural jewel... the finest schoolhouse on the West Coast," it was demolished in 1928 as part of the Denny Regrademarker project. When the Central School burned in 1888, its high school and first grade classes were parcelled out to the Denny School, other classes to the former downtown building of the university, with other classes going to temporary facilities, some of which also burned, in the Great Seattle Fire.

A new brick Central School opened in 1889 at Seventh and Madison, and was repeatedly expanded with annexes and extensions. After a separate high school opened in 1902, the Central School was briefly known in 1903 as the Washington School before returning to its older name. The Central School functioned as an elementary school until 1938, and then until 1949 as the Central Branch of the Edison Technical School. The building was fatally damaged by the 1949 earthquake and completely razed in 1953; its site is now under Interstate 5.

Other former schools









Rainier.

Jr. high schools and middle schools previously included in district:
  • Jane Addams Jr. High School. Built 1949 as part of the Shorelinemarker School District. Annexed by Seattle 1954. Closed 1984; used since 1985 by Summit K-12. Its excellent auditorium has been used for a variety of purposes, including as a temporary substitute for the University of Washingtonmarker's Meany Auditorium after the 1965 earthquake and, more recently, by the Civic Light Opera.
  • Louisa Boren Jr. High School (1963–1978; then Middle School until 1981). Housed various programs 1981–1989, including Indian Heritage School. Since 1989 it has been used as a temporary site for schools undergoing renovations.
  • Model Middle School (1970–1973), antecedent of South Shore Middle School. : South Shore.
  • R.H. Thomson Jr. High (1962–1981); the building is now the site of Broadview-Thomson Elementary.
  • (Woodrow) Wilson Jr. High. Opened 1953 by Shoreline School District, annexed 1954, added to several times. Became Wilson Middle School 1971. Closed as middle school 1978. Served as Wilson-Pacific School (special education for the mildly retarded) 1978–1989. Then briefly housed COHO Alternative School, and housed American Indian Heritage School 1989–2000, its longest time in one place as of 2007.
Elementary schools previously included in district:
  • (John B.) Allen School. Built 1905. Became the Phinney Neighborhood Center 1981.
  • Beacon Hill School. Became El Centro de la Raza, 1972.
  • Bell Town School. Built 1876. Sold 1884 when the Denny School (see below) opened. Became a private residence, then an apartment/rooming house, eventually torn down.
  • Briarcliff School. Opened 1949 as annex to the Magnolia School, became independent 1951. Known as Briarcliff-Hawthorne 1978–1984 after a merger as part of desegragation. Closed 1984.
  • Brighton Beach School. Before the opening of the current Brighton Elementary, another school of the same name was opened by the Columbia School District, 1901. Closed 1905 when the Brighton School opened. Annexed with Columbia City 1907 and reopened for one year as Brighton Beach School, an annex to the Brighton School; used again 1916–1922 as Brighton Annex. Removed from site 1943. This site is currently used for Graham Hill Elementary Schoolmarker.
  • Broadview School. Opened 1914 by Oak Lake School District. Annexed by Shoreline School District 1944 and then by Seattle 1954. Greatly expanded 1964. Closed 1984, merged into Broadview-Thomson. Demolished in 1989, it is now the site of Ida Culver House-Broadview.
  • Cascade School. This school, opened in 1895, closed in 1949 and demolished in 1955, stood at Pontius Avenue N. and Thomas Street in the Cascademarker neighborhood. Its playfield is now the Cascade Playground.
  • Cedar Park School. Opened 1959 as an annex to Lake City School, became independent 1960. Paired (shared principal and librarian) with Sand Point School 1976. Closed 1981. Has been leased as an arts center since 1982, originally Cedar Park Arts Center, later Artwood.
  • Colman School. Built 1909. It is now the Northwest African American Museum, opened March 8, 2008.
  • Crown Hill School. Built 1919 as an annex to the Whittier School. Became independent 1942. Addition to building 1949. Closed 1979. As of 2007, home of Small Faces Child Development Center.
  • Duwamish Bend School / Holgate School. Opened 1943 in units of the then-new (but short-lived) Duwamish Bend housing project as an annex to the Georgetown School, it acquired a building of its own in 1944. It operated as an independent school 1945–1954 and then one more year as an annex to Georgetown; renamed Holgate in 1952. From 1955, it served in various technical school and special school capacities until 1966 when it became the antecedent of South Seattle Community College, and was torn down once SCCC was completed. The related Holgate Aircraft Branch is still part of SCCC as the Duwamish Industrial Center.
  • Fairmount Park Elementary School. (1957-2007). Merged into High Point Elementary starting with 2007-08 school year due to decreasing enrollment in the district.
  • Fairview School, built 1908, added to 1928, closed 1976, sold 1985. Now Fairview Church and Fairview Christian School (private non-denominational Christian K-8).
  • Fauntleroy School, in the Fauntleroy neighborhood of West Seattle. Opened 1906, annexed to Seattle School District in 1908, as West Seattle was annexed in 1907. Operated as an annex to South Seattle School 1908–1910 and Gatewood 1910–1911; destroyed by fire 1911.
  • Genesee Hill School. Opened as annex to Jefferson School (and later to Lafayette School) 1949; independent 1950. Closed 1989. Now site of Pathfinder K–8.
  • Georgetown School. Built 1900 when Georgetown was still a separate city. Known as Mueller School 1903–1910. Building moved 1907. Annexed (with Georgetown itself) to Seattle 1910, renamed back to Georgetown School. Closed 1971. Used for some alternative school programs and for a community center, before its two separate buildings were torn down in 1981 and 1984, respectively.
  • (Nellie) Goodhue School. Opened in 1946 by Shoreline School District as Shoreline Health and Guidance Center. Annexed by Seattle 1954 and used as the Nellie Goodhue School for mentally handicapped children, superseding the Woodhull Hay School (also part of the Shoreline district founded in 1954). Until 1957, was an annex to Northgate, then independent. Closed as a school in 1961, as Seattle Schools integrated special education students. Returned to its role as guidance center / student services building, now known as the Northend Annex.
  • Haller Lake School. Founded 1924 as part of Oak Lake School district, repeatedly added to, annexed by Shoreline in 1943 and by Seattle in 1954. Closed 1979, it was soon sold to the private Lakeside Schoolmarker, which used the building until 1999, when it was torn down to be replaced by their new middle school.
  • Head of the Bay School was a short-lived school (1890–1892), near the southeast end of Elliott Bay before the dredging and filling that has transformed that area. Never officially a Seattle school, although that area is now part of Seattle. : South Seattle.
  • E.C. Hughes School. Opened as an unnamed school in portable buildings in Olympic Heights (then known as West Hill) in 1913; named as West Hill School in 1918; moved to permanent site in 1920, as an annex to Gatewood School. In 1926 it was renamed as E.C. Hughes. Operated until 1989, used for storage until 1998, then revived as an interim site while Highland Park Elementary underwent repairs.
  • Interbay School, 1903–1939, demolished 1948.
  • Interlake School, 1904–1971, then briefly an annex to Lincoln High School. Since 1982, the mixed-use Wallingford Centermarker.
  • (Washington) Irving School. Founded 1902 as East Side School in then-independent Ballardmarker. Annexed with Ballard itself, 1907. Renamed Washington Irving 1910. Closed 1915. Reopened as Ballard Special School 1918, renamed Robert Fulton Adjustment School 1929, closed 1932. Used as storehouse until 1937, then WPA offices until 1942, when it was sold.
  • Jefferson School, 1912–1979, demolished 1982, now the site of mixed-use Jefferson Square one block southeast of the West Seattle Junction.
  • (Martin Luther) King Elementary School. (1913-2007). Merged into T.T. Minor starting with 2007-08 school year due to decreasing enrollment in the district.
    • Previously (until 1974) Harrison School
  • Lake City School. Original building opened 1914 in Lake City School District, annexed by Shoreline 1944, building became annex to new Lake City School 1952, annexed to Seattle 1954, closed 1958, demolished, site used for Lake City branch of Seattle Public Library. Second building opened 1931, successively added to, underwent same annexations. Closed 1981, its former playground is now a park and the building itself was remodeled as the Lake City Professional Center.
  • Magnolia School, 1927–1984. Also home 1993–2000 of African American Academy. Used as an interim site.
  • Maple Leaf School. There have been three Maple Leaf Schools in what is now Seattle. The first (built 1896, burned around 1910) was along the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway (now Burke-Gilman Trail) near Matthews Beach. The other two (1910–1926 and 1926–1979, respectively) were in the neighborhood that retains the name Maple Leaf. Annexed to Shoreline district 1944, to Seattle 1953. The second building was used as a VFW hall for some years and the third as a vo-tech school; both were eventually demolished.
  • (Horace) Mann School. Originally Walla Walla School. Originally a 1901 annex to the T.T. Minor School, it soon became a school in its own right. Renamed after Horace Mann in 1921, it remained an elementary school until 1968. It served as the music annex to nearby Garfield High School 1969–1970, and has been the site of the NOVA program since then.
  • McDonald School, 1913–1981. Then served as the cradle of what became Bastyr University, and has been used since as an interim site for other schools undergoing renovation. On October 7th, 2009 the Seattle School District announced McDonald would reopen, using Lincoln High School as an interim site while renovations are done for the old building, which will be fully operational starting in 2012.
  • Mercer School. This building was at Fourth Avenue N. and Valley Street near the base of Queen Anne Hill. Opened in 1890, closed and demolished in 1948, the property is now the site of the Seattle Public Schools administration building.
  • North Queen Anne School, opened 1914 as annex to Ross School, independent 1918, expanded 1922, closed 1981. Since then it has been leased to Northwest Center for the Retarded (now just "Northwest Center") for their Child Development Program.
  • Pacific School, 1896–1946, then as Pacific Prevocational Center (coeducational secondary school for mentally handicapped youngsters) to 1975. Demolished 1977, land is now part of Seattle Universitymarker. Had Seattle's first fully equipped school gymnasiums (2 of them).
  • Pinehurst School: opened 1950 as the K-3 Pinehurst Primary School in the Shoreline School District. Annexed 1953 and renamed Pinehurst Elementary School; physically expanded 1955–6 and became a K-6. Closed 1981. Site of Alternative School #1 since 1984.
  • Pontiac School (1890–1926). Originally part of the Yesler School District; Yesler was more or less today's Laurelhurst. Annexed by Seattle 1911.
  • Queen Anne School, later West Queen Anne School. This 1890 school (later expanded) between W. Galer (then Gaylor) and W. Lee Streets and between Fifth and Sixth Avenues W. was later known as the West Queen Anne School. The building survives as a condominium apartment building, and is on the National Register of Historic Places.
  • Rainier School. This school at 23rd Avenue S. and S. King Street opened in 1891, briefly known as "Lincoln" in 1903, closed as elementary school in 1940, reopened as unit of Edison Technical School in 1943, and finally closed and was demolished in 1943.
  • Pleasant Valley School. Opened 1912 as annex to Lawton. Became independent 1922. Closed 1926, superseded by the Magnolia School.
  • Rainier View Elementary School. (1954-2007). Merged into Emerson Elementary starting with 2007-08 school year due to decreasing enrollment in the district.
  • Rainier Vista School. Built in 1943 with federal funds at the Rainier Vista housing project, which was originally built for Boeing workers during World War II. Leased by Seattle Schools from the outset, purchased 1947. Used as an annex to the Columbia School, it was initially a nursery school and K–1. Ages were gradually expanded, eventually a K–6. Closed 1971, used 1971–2000 for Head Start classes.
  • Ravenna School. Two successive schools, mid-1890s–1909 and 1911–1981. The latter is now the Ravenna-Eckstein Community Center (and senior housing).
  • Riverside School (1911–1926); one-room schoolhouse; superseded by the Youngstown/Cooper School; the building survives.
  • Randell School (1890–1904), predecessor to Madrona School.
  • Ross School (1883–1941) operated in two successive locations, both between Fremontmarker and Ballardmarker. The post 1903 location is the site of today's Ross Playfield.
  • Salmon Bay School (unrelated to the current school of that name). Founded 1901 as part of the Ballard School District, annexed with Ballard in 1907. Closed as school 1932, used 1938 for WPA sewing classes. Demolished 1945, now site of Ballard Boys and Girls Club.
  • Sand Point School (1958–1988). Part of North Seattle Community Collegemarker since 1990. On October 7th, 2009 it was announced that Sand Point Elementary School will be reopening beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.
  • Seward School. In the Eastlake neighborhood. Opened 1895. There are three distinct buildings, all extant (though the original building has been moved), and with a rather complicated history of uses; as of 2007, TOPS @ Seward uses these buildings.
  • South School / Main Street School. Original building opened as South School 1873, renamed Kindergarten School 1897–1902, then Main Street School (annex to the new South School 1902–1909, briefly known as Mann School in 1903), then used as a temporary relocation site or annex for various schools until 1921. Demolished 1922.
  • South Park School. Opened 1902, annexed with South Park 1907. Annex to Concord School after 1914. Closed 1938. Now site of South Park Community Center.
  • South Seattle School. Opened 1892 by School District 99 as a successor to Head of the Bay School. Annexed to Seattle 1905. Closed 1932. Site is now South Seattle Playground.
  • Summit School (1905–1965). The building functioned 1965–1973 as an annex to Seattle Central Community College; then for three years it housed the alternative school that still bears its name, and offshoot of the NOVA program. In 1977 it was sold and converted to use as offices; the same year, it was listed on the NRHP. The building was sold again in 1980, and since that time has housed the Northwest School, a private preparatory school.
  • University Heights School. Opened 1902; briefly known as Morse School in 1903; from 1974, Alternative Elementary School #2 used two-thirds of the building; exteriors declared city landmark 1977; closed 1989, with the alternative school moving to the Decatur School. Since 1990 it is the University Heights Community Center.
  • Viewlands Elementary (1954-2007). Merged into Broadview-Thomson Elementary starting with 2007-08 school year due to decreasing enrollment in the district.
  • Warren Avenue School (1903–1959). Briefly known in 1903 as Edwards School. The school became a pioneer in programs for physically handicapped students, notably those with cerebral palsy, but also the hearing impaired, blind, etc. Closed to make way for the Century 21 Exposition: the site is now the KeyArenamarker.
  • Webster School. Opened 1903 as Bay View School by Ballard School District. Annexed with Ballard itself in 1907. Moved to new building January 1908 and renamed in honor of Daniel Webster in March. Closed 1979; briefly leased by a motion picture producer (during which time it was seriously damaged by a fire); now the site of the Nordic Heritage Museummarker, which is seeking to move to a Market Street, Ballard site as of 2007.
  • Wetmore School. Opened 1903 or earlier by the Columbia School District. Annexed with Columbia City in 1907. After 1910 it became the gymnasium of the York School (later renamed after John Muir, and still open as of 2007). It was used in that capacity until 1959, when the former Wetmore School took on the name "York School" and was used for manual training, before becoming a gym again 1973–1989. Demolished 1989.
  • (Reverend George F.) Whitworth Elementary School. (1908-2007). Merged into Dearborn Park Elementary starting with 2007-08 school year due to decreasing enrollment in the district.
  • Yesler School (1892–1918). Originally part of the Yesler School District; as noted above, Yesler was more or less today's Laurelhurst. Annexed by Seattle 1911.


Other schools previously included in district

  • Parental Home for Girls / Girls' Parental School / Martha Washington School. Two successive locations. The first (1914–1921), in the Ravenna-Bryantmarker neighborhood, was later the similar but privately operatd Ruth School for Girls and then the Medina Baby Home; sold 1945. The second was at Brighton Beach on Lake Washington, at the site of what was already a similar, privately-run facility. From 1921–1957 it was part of Seattle Public Schools; renamed Martha Washington 1931; passed under state control in 1957, and was closed as a residential school in 1965. The building was later used by a series of alternative schools and a Montessori academy before being demolished in 1989. Its archway was relocated to Green Lake Park in June, 2009.
  • Parental School / Parental Home for Boys / (Luther) Burbank School for Boys. Opened 1905 as Parental School; "for Boys" added 1914 when Parental Home for Girls was established; renamed after Luther Burbank 1931; passed under state control in 1957, and was closed as a residential school in 1965. Located on Mercer Islandmarker, outside of city limits. The location is now Luther Burbank Park; several buildings and other remnants survive.
  • School for the Deaf. Founded at Longfellow School 1907(?) and remained there until 1912. At Washington School 1912–1921. Then at T.T. Minor School through 1939 when it was divided out to Summit, Longfellow again, and (John) Marshall (then a junior high school; program there may have begun later, in 1942). The program at Summit moved to University Heights in 1960. Eventually, not treated as a separate "school". The current program for deaf middle school students is at Eckstein.


Architecture

Several former Seattle Public Schools buildings are on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP):Image:Broadway Performance Hall - SCCC 01.jpg|Broadway High School, the surviving parts of which are incorporated into Seattle Central Community College.Image:Frank B. Cooper School 04.jpg|Old Frank B. Cooper Elementary School (now Youngstown Cultural Arts Center).Image:Seattle - Wallingford Center 04.jpg|Interlake Public School (now Wallingford Center).Image:Seattle - Queen Anne High lion 02.jpg|Queen Anne High School.Image:Seattle - West Queen Anne Public School 05.jpg|Queen Anne Public School (later West Queen Anne Public School).Image:Seattle - old Summit School 05.jpg|Old Summit School .

Except for Broadway High School, all of these also are official city landmarks, as are the following past and present schools:Image:Seattle - B.F. Day School - 1900.jpg|B.F. Day SchoolImage:Seattle - Bryant School 04.jpgBryant Elementary SchoolImage:Seattle - Cleveland High School 02A.jpgCleveland High SchoolImage:Seattle - NAAM 04.jpg|Colman SchoolImage:Seattle - Concord School 02.jpg|Concord Elementary SchoolImage:Seattle - Dunlap School 01.jpg|Dunlap Elementary SchoolImage:Seattle - Emerson School 01.jpg|Emerson Elementary SchoolImage:Seattle MLK 2006 07.jpg|Franklin High SchoolImage:GarfieldHS.jpgGarfield High SchoolmarkerImage:Seattle - Gatewood School 04.jpg|Gatewood SchoolImage:Seattle John Hay 03.jpg|John Hay SchoolImage:Seattle - Latona School 01.jpg|Latona SchoolImage:Seattle - Madison School 02.jpg|Madison Middle SchoolImage:Eckstein Middle School 01.jpg|Nathan Eckstein Junior High SchoolImage:Seattle - 307 6th Ave S 02.jpg|Old Main Street SchoolImage:Seattle - Roosevelt High 01.jpg|Roosevelt High SchoolImage:Seattle - Seward School 01.jpg|Seward SchoolImage:Seattle - University Heights School 03.jpg|University Heights Elementary SchoolImage:West Seattle High 06.jpg|West Seattle High School

Controversy

In June 2007, the United States Supreme Courtmarker decided the case of Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, where they rejected Seattle Public Schools longstanding use of "racial tie-breakers" in assigning students to schools. The decision prohibited assigning students to public schools solely for the purpose of achieving racial integration and declined to recognize racial balancing as a compelling state interest. In a fragmented opinion delivered by Chief Justice John Roberts, five justices held that the School Boards did not present any "compelling state interest" that would justify the assignment of school seats on the basis of race. Chief Justice Roberts wrote that "the way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race." Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy filed a concurrence that presented a more narrow interpretation, stating that schools may use "race conscious" means to achieve diversity in schools but that the schools at issue in this case did not use a sufficient narrow tailoring of their plans to sustain their goals. Four justices dissented from the Court's conclusions.

In June 2006, Andrew J. Coulson of the Cato Institute wrote a column in the Seattle Post Intelligencer taking the district to task for a page on "equity and race relations" on its website that indicated, in his words, that "only whites can be racist in America" and which, among other things, stated that "Emphasizing individualism as opposed to a more collective ideology" and that this and preferring a "future time orientation" were forms of "cultural racism." The page was removed from the site the same day.

In 2005, it was revealed that a teacher at Broadview-Thomson Elementary had been serially molesting children at the school for a period spanning several years. The teacher, Laurence E. "Shayne" Hill, had been molesting children for at least four of the twelve years he worked at the school, according to the Seattle Weekly. The article also said that several school officials had known of the inappropriate touching and did nothing to stop it, drawing outrage from concerned parents. Hill is serving his sentence as of 12/02/05 and is facing anywhere from five years to life.

Notes

  1. Seattle Public Schools, SPS website FAQ list, Seattle Public Schools, date unknown. Accessed online 8 July 2008.
  2. Seattle Public Schools, School Board, Seattle Public Schools, Date unknown. Accessed online 2008-09-16.
  3. Seattle Public Schools, School Board Districts, Seattle Public Schools, Date unknown. Accessed online 2008-09-16.
  4. SPS School Beat, Seattle Public Schools, 12/4/2008 (accessed online 2009-02-02)
  5. Fleming, S. E. (1919), Civics (supplement): Seattle King County, Seattle: Seattle Public Schools. p. 41.
  6. Digest of pages 283-295 of Polk's Seattle City Directory 1919, accessed online 9 December 2007. This is the source for ther being 9 special schools.
  7. Bryce E. Nelson, quoted by Richard C. Berner, Seattle 1900-1920: From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration, Charles Press (1991), ISBN 0962988901, p. 77.
  8. : University.
  9. : Central I.
  10. : North.
  11. : Denny.
  12. : Addams.
  13. : Boren.
  14. : Broadview-Thomson.
  15. : Wilson.
  16. Louis Fiset, Seattle Neighborhoods: Phinney – Thumbnail History, HistoryLink, August 29, 2001. Accessed online 9 December 2007.
  17. David Wilma, Seattle Neighborhoods: Beacon Hill – Thumbnail History, HistoryLink, February 21, 2001. Accessed online 9 December 2007.
  18. : Briarcliff.
  19. : Graham Hill.
  20. : Broadview.
  21. : Cascade.
  22. : Cedar Park.
  23. Richard Seven, Life Imitates Art In This Old School, Pacific Northwest (Seattle Times magazine), October 17, 2004. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
  24. : Crown Hill.
  25. Louis Fiset, Seattle Neighborhoods: Crown Hill – Thumbnail History, HistoryLink, July 20, 2001. Accessed 9 December 2007.
  26. : Holgate.
  27. : Holgate Aircraft.
  28. : Fairmount Park.
  29. School Board OKs closure plan, Seattle Post-Intelligencer (July 26, 2006).
  30. : Fairview.
  31. : Fauntleroy.
  32. : Genesee Hill.
  33. : Georgetown.
  34. : Goodhue.
  35. Exhibit item, part of Parents Organize, Disability Rights Exhibit, Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Accessed online 20 December 2007.
  36. : Haller Lake.
  37. : Hughes.
  38. : Interbay.
  39. : Interlake.
  40. : Irving.
  41. : Jefferson.
  42. : King.
  43. : King.
  44. : Lake City.
  45. : Magnolia.
  46. : Maple Leaf.
  47. : Mann.
  48. : McDonald.
  49. : Mercer.
  50. : North Queen Anne.
  51. : Pacific.
  52. : Pinehurst.
  53. : Sand Point.
  54. : West Queen Anne.
  55. : Rainier View.
  56. : Columbia Annex.
  57. : Ravenna.
  58. Ravenna-Eckstein Community Center, Seattle Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed 20 December 2007.
  59. : Cooper.
  60. : Madrona.
  61. : Ross.
  62. : Salmon Bay.
  63. : Sand Point.
  64. : Seward.
  65. : Gatzert. An annex at 307 Sixth Avenue survives and is considered a landmark.
  66. : Concord.
  67. : Summit.
  68. : University Heights.
  69. : Viewlands.
  70. : Warren Avenue.
  71. : Webster.
  72. Make a Donation, Nordic Heritage Museum. Accessed 10 December 2007.
  73. : Muir.
  74. : Whitworth.
  75. : Bryant.
  76. : Martha Washington.
  77. David Wilma, Martha Washington School, HistoryLink, March 20, 2001. Accessed online 9 December 2007.
  78. : Burbank.
  79. The Association Review, American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, volume 9 (1907), p. 503.
  80. : Washington.
  81. : Minor.
  82. : John Marshall.
  83. : Summit.
  84. : Eckstein.
  85. High court rejects JCPS student assignment plan, Associated Press, July 5, 2007, on site of WAVE 3 TV, Louisville, Kentucky. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
  86. Linda Shaw, U.S. Supreme Court rejects Seattle's racial criteria, Seattle Times, June 29, 2007. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
  87. Andrew J. Coulson, Planning ahead is considered racist?, Seattle Post Intelligencer, June 1, 2006. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
  88. Equity and Race Relations: Definitions of Racism, Seattle Public Schools, archived June 22, 2006 on the Internet Archive.
  89. Debera Carlton Harrell, School district pulls Web site after examples of racism spark controversy, June 2, 2006. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
  90. http://www.seattleweekly.com/2005-11-23/news/teacher-pets.php


References

  • School Lists from the 1919 Seattle Polk Directory; digest of pages 283-295 of Polk's Seattle City Directory 1919, Polk's Seattle Directory Co. (1919), accessed online 9 December 2007.
  • . Apparently no ISBN. Available online as a series of PDFs.


External links




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