Seattle Public Schools is
the school district serving Seattle, Washington, USA.
List of Schools
As of 2007, the district contains 58 elementary schools
, eight (8) K
-8 schools, 10 middle
, 12 high schools
, and nine
(9) Alternative schools
Seattle Public Schools is the largest public school
the state of Washington.
As of October 2007, the enrollment figures for the district
White: 19,508 (42.8%)
Asian: 10,075 (22.1%)
Black: 9,735 (21.4%)
Hispanic: 5,304 (11.6%)
American Indian: 959 (2.1%)
Male: 23,254 (51%)
Female: 22,327 (49%)
As of May 2007, 40.5% of students are on free or reduced price meal
For full demographic data by school, see Seattle Public Schools
The Board of Directors for Seattle Public Schools is an elected
body representing seven geographical regions, known as Districts
within the City of Seattle. The length of the term is four years.
Board meetings are generally held twice monthly. For the 2008-09
school year, board meetings are scheduled the second and fourth
Wednesday of the month; all others are on the first and third
Wednesdays of each month, at 6:00 p.m., with some exceptions. A
complete schedule of all meeting for the board meetings for the
2008-09 school year can be found here
Current school board members
In 1919 there were 64 grammar schools, six high schools, two
parental schools (comparable to today's youth detention centers
), a school
for the deaf, and nine "special schools... for pupils who do not
progress normally in regular classes."
In the early 20th century, Seattle Public Schools were "exemplary"
under the leadership (1901–1922) of superintendent Frank B. Cooper
and a series of "civic-minded
" who served on the
Seattle school board.
Six Seattle public elementary schools
Early Seattle public schools
Washington was founded as the Territorial University in 1861,
its initial class offerings were not at a level that would now be
considered those of a college or university.
Its first class
offering was a primary school (elementary school) taught by
, and for some years it was
jointly supervised by the newly formed Seattle School Board its own
Board of Regents. It functioned as Seattle's first public
In 1867, the public school moved to what was then the County
Building on Third Avenue between James and Jefferson, the site of
today's Prefontaine Fountain. A year later, the school moved to
's Pavilion (later Yesler's Hall)
at present-day First and Cherry. A year later the school moved
again to a temporary building (called Bacon's Hall after its first
teacher, Carrie Bacon) located at the site of the present King
County Court House. In 1870 the first "permanent" school building,
the Central School, opened on Third Avenue between Madison and
Spring Streets. It originally had two classrooms; a third was built
in its attic in 1881.
Meanwhile, in 1873 the two-room North School opened at Third and
Pine, and in 1875 the school district had purchased at 6th and
Madison, where the Sixth Street School, also known as Eastern
School, opened promptly in a temporary building and grew into
successively larger and better-built buildings in 1877 and 1883.
The latter, an "elegant wooden building" with an imposing "French
mansard roof, clock tower, and tall central belfry" superseded the
old Central School as well as the North School. From 1884, it was
known as the Central School. Classes extended through 12th grade,
and the first class graduated from 12th grade in 1886. However the
school burned in 1888. : Central II
district had, in this period, started a number of other schools,
including the even more imposing Denny School on Battery Street
between 5th and 6th Avenues in Belltown, opened 1884. Described as "an
architectural jewel... the finest schoolhouse on the West Coast,"
it was demolished in 1928 as part of the Denny
When the Central School burned in
1888, its high school and first grade classes were parcelled out to
the Denny School, other classes to the former downtown building of
the university, with other classes going to temporary facilities,
some of which also burned, in the Great Seattle Fire
A new brick Central School opened in 1889 at Seventh and Madison,
and was repeatedly expanded with annexes and extensions. After a
separate high school opened in 1902, the Central School was briefly
known in 1903 as the Washington School before returning to its
older name. The Central School functioned as an elementary school
until 1938, and then until 1949 as the Central Branch of the Edison
Technical School. The building was fatally damaged by the 1949
earthquake and completely razed in 1953; its site is now under
Other former schools
Jr. high schools and middle schools previously included in
- Jane Addams Jr. High School. Built 1949 as part of the Shoreline School District. Annexed by Seattle 1954.
Closed 1984; used since 1985 by Summit K-12. Its excellent
auditorium has been used for a variety of purposes, including as a
temporary substitute for the University of Washington's Meany Auditorium after the 1965 earthquake and,
more recently, by the Civic Light Opera.
- Louisa Boren Jr. High School (1963–1978; then Middle School
until 1981). Housed various programs 1981–1989, including Indian
Heritage School. Since 1989 it has been used as a temporary site
for schools undergoing renovations.
- Model Middle School (1970–1973), antecedent of South Shore
Middle School. : South Shore.
- R.H. Thomson Jr. High (1962–1981); the building is now the site
of Broadview-Thomson Elementary.
- (Woodrow) Wilson Jr. High. Opened 1953 by Shoreline School
District, annexed 1954, added to several times. Became Wilson
Middle School 1971. Closed as middle school 1978. Served as
Wilson-Pacific School (special education for the mildly retarded)
1978–1989. Then briefly housed COHO Alternative School, and housed
American Indian Heritage School 1989–2000, its longest time in one
place as of 2007.
Elementary schools previously included in district:
- (John B.) Allen School. Built 1905. Became the Phinney
Neighborhood Center 1981.
- Beacon Hill School. Became El
Centro de la Raza, 1972.
- Bell Town School. Built 1876. Sold 1884 when the Denny School
(see below) opened. Became a private residence, then an
apartment/rooming house, eventually torn down.
- Briarcliff School. Opened 1949 as annex to the Magnolia School,
became independent 1951. Known as Briarcliff-Hawthorne 1978–1984
after a merger as part of desegragation. Closed 1984.
- Brighton Beach School. Before the opening of the current
Brighton Elementary, another school of the same name was opened by
the Columbia School District, 1901. Closed 1905 when the Brighton
School opened. Annexed with Columbia City 1907 and
reopened for one year as Brighton Beach School, an annex to the
Brighton School; used again 1916–1922 as Brighton Annex. Removed
from site 1943. This site is currently used for Graham Hill
- Broadview School. Opened 1914 by Oak Lake School District.
Annexed by Shoreline School District 1944 and then by Seattle 1954.
Greatly expanded 1964. Closed 1984, merged into Broadview-Thomson.
Demolished in 1989, it is now the site of Ida Culver
- Cascade School. This school, opened in 1895, closed in 1949
and demolished in 1955, stood at Pontius Avenue N. and Thomas
Street in the Cascade neighborhood. Its playfield is now the
- Cedar Park School. Opened 1959 as an annex to Lake City School,
became independent 1960. Paired (shared principal and librarian)
with Sand Point School 1976. Closed 1981. Has been leased as an
arts center since 1982, originally Cedar Park Arts Center, later
- Colman School. Built 1909. It is now the Northwest African American
Museum, opened March 8, 2008.
- Crown Hill School. Built 1919 as an annex to the Whittier
School. Became independent 1942. Addition to building 1949. Closed
1979. As of 2007, home of Small Faces Child Development
- Duwamish Bend School / Holgate School. Opened 1943 in units of
the then-new (but short-lived) Duwamish Bend housing project as an
annex to the Georgetown School, it acquired a building of its own
in 1944. It operated as an independent school 1945–1954 and then
one more year as an annex to Georgetown; renamed Holgate in 1952.
From 1955, it served in various technical school and special school
capacities until 1966 when it became the antecedent of South Seattle Community
College, and was torn down once SCCC was completed. The related
Holgate Aircraft Branch is still part of SCCC as the Duwamish
- Fairmount Park Elementary School. (1957-2007). Merged into High
Point Elementary starting with 2007-08 school year due to
decreasing enrollment in the district.
- Fairview School, built 1908, added to 1928, closed 1976, sold
1985. Now Fairview Church and Fairview Christian School (private
non-denominational Christian K-8).
- Fauntleroy School, in the Fauntleroy neighborhood of
West Seattle. Opened 1906, annexed to
Seattle School District in 1908, as West Seattle was annexed in
1907. Operated as an annex to South Seattle School 1908–1910 and
Gatewood 1910–1911; destroyed by fire 1911.
- Genesee Hill School. Opened as annex to Jefferson School (and
later to Lafayette School) 1949; independent 1950. Closed 1989. Now
site of Pathfinder K–8.
- Georgetown School. Built 1900 when Georgetown was still a
separate city. Known as Mueller School 1903–1910. Building moved
1907. Annexed (with Georgetown itself) to Seattle 1910, renamed
back to Georgetown School. Closed 1971. Used for some alternative
school programs and for a community center, before its two separate
buildings were torn down in 1981 and 1984, respectively.
- (Nellie) Goodhue School. Opened in 1946 by Shoreline School
District as Shoreline Health and Guidance Center. Annexed by
Seattle 1954 and used as the Nellie Goodhue School for mentally
handicapped children, superseding the Woodhull Hay School (also
part of the Shoreline district founded in 1954). Until 1957, was an
annex to Northgate, then independent. Closed as a school in 1961,
as Seattle Schools integrated special education students. Returned
to its role as guidance center / student services building, now
known as the Northend Annex.
- Haller Lake School. Founded 1924 as part of Oak Lake School
district, repeatedly added to, annexed by Shoreline in 1943 and by
Seattle in 1954. Closed 1979, it was soon sold to the private
School, which used the building until 1999, when it was
torn down to be replaced by their new middle school.
- Head of the Bay School was a short-lived school (1890–1892),
near the southeast end of Elliott Bay before the dredging and
filling that has transformed that area. Never officially a Seattle
school, although that area is now part of Seattle. : South Seattle.
- E.C. Hughes School. Opened as an unnamed school in portable
buildings in Olympic Heights (then
known as West Hill) in 1913; named as West Hill School in 1918;
moved to permanent site in 1920, as an annex to Gatewood School. In
1926 it was renamed as E.C. Hughes. Operated until 1989, used for
storage until 1998, then revived as an interim site while Highland
Park Elementary underwent repairs.
- Interbay School, 1903–1939, demolished 1948.
- Interlake School, 1904–1971, then briefly an annex to Lincoln
High School. Since 1982, the mixed-use Wallingford
- (Washington) Irving School. Founded 1902 as East Side School in
then-independent Ballard. Annexed with Ballard itself, 1907. Renamed
Washington Irving 1910. Closed 1915. Reopened as Ballard Special
School 1918, renamed Robert Fulton Adjustment School 1929, closed
1932. Used as storehouse until 1937, then WPA offices until 1942, when
it was sold.
- Jefferson School, 1912–1979, demolished 1982, now the site of
mixed-use Jefferson Square one block southeast of the West Seattle
- (Martin Luther) King Elementary School. (1913-2007). Merged
into T.T. Minor starting with 2007-08 school year due to decreasing
enrollment in the district.
- Previously (until 1974) Harrison School
- Lake City School. Original building opened 1914 in Lake City
School District, annexed by Shoreline 1944, building became annex
to new Lake City School 1952, annexed to Seattle 1954, closed 1958,
demolished, site used for Lake City branch of Seattle Public Library. Second
building opened 1931, successively added to, underwent same
annexations. Closed 1981, its former playground is now a park and
the building itself was remodeled as the Lake City Professional
- Magnolia School, 1927–1984. Also home 1993–2000 of African
American Academy. Used as an interim site.
- Maple Leaf School. There have been three Maple Leaf Schools in
what is now Seattle. The first (built 1896, burned around 1910) was
along the Seattle, Lake Shore and
Eastern Railway (now Burke-Gilman
Trail) near Matthews Beach. The
other two (1910–1926 and 1926–1979, respectively) were in the
neighborhood that retains the name Maple Leaf. Annexed to
Shoreline district 1944, to Seattle 1953. The second building was
used as a VFW hall for some
years and the third as a vo-tech school; both were
- (Horace) Mann School. Originally Walla Walla School. Originally
a 1901 annex to the T.T. Minor School, it soon became a school in
its own right. Renamed after Horace Mann
in 1921, it remained an elementary school until 1968. It served as
the music annex to nearby Garfield High School 1969–1970, and has
been the site of the NOVA program since then.
- McDonald School, 1913–1981. Then served as the cradle of what
became Bastyr University, and has
been used since as an interim site for other schools undergoing
renovation. On October 7th, 2009 the Seattle School District
announced McDonald would reopen, using Lincoln High School as an
interim site while renovations are done for the old building, which
will be fully operational starting in 2012.
- Mercer School. This building was at Fourth Avenue N. and Valley
Street near the base of Queen Anne Hill. Opened in 1890, closed and
demolished in 1948, the property is now the site of the Seattle
Public Schools administration building.
- North Queen Anne School, opened 1914 as annex to Ross School,
independent 1918, expanded 1922, closed 1981. Since then it has
been leased to Northwest Center for the Retarded (now just
"Northwest Center") for their Child Development Program.
- Pacific School, 1896–1946, then as Pacific Prevocational Center
(coeducational secondary school for mentally handicapped
youngsters) to 1975. Demolished 1977, land is now part of
University. Had Seattle's first fully equipped school
gymnasiums (2 of them).
- Pinehurst School: opened 1950 as the K-3 Pinehurst Primary
School in the Shoreline School District. Annexed 1953 and renamed
Pinehurst Elementary School; physically expanded 1955–6 and became
a K-6. Closed 1981. Site of Alternative School #1 since 1984.
- Pontiac School (1890–1926). Originally part of the Yesler
School District; Yesler was more or less today's Laurelhurst. Annexed by
- Queen Anne School, later West Queen Anne School. This 1890
school (later expanded) between W. Galer (then Gaylor) and W. Lee
Streets and between Fifth and Sixth Avenues W. was later known as
the West Queen Anne School. The building survives as a condominium
apartment building, and is on the National Register of Historic
- Rainier School. This school at 23rd Avenue S. and S. King
Street opened in 1891, briefly known as "Lincoln" in 1903, closed
as elementary school in 1940, reopened as unit of Edison Technical
School in 1943, and finally closed and was demolished in 1943.
- Pleasant Valley School. Opened 1912 as annex to Lawton. Became
independent 1922. Closed 1926, superseded by the Magnolia
- Rainier View Elementary School. (1954-2007). Merged into
Emerson Elementary starting with 2007-08 school year due to
decreasing enrollment in the district.
- Rainier Vista School. Built in 1943 with federal funds at the
Rainier Vista housing project, which was originally built for
Boeing workers during World War II. Leased by Seattle Schools from
the outset, purchased 1947. Used as an annex to the Columbia
School, it was initially a nursery
school and K–1. Ages were gradually expanded, eventually a K–6.
Closed 1971, used 1971–2000 for Head Start classes.
- Ravenna School. Two successive schools, mid-1890s–1909 and
1911–1981. The latter is now the Ravenna-Eckstein Community Center
(and senior housing).
- Riverside School (1911–1926); one-room schoolhouse; superseded
by the Youngstown/Cooper School; the building survives.
- Randell School (1890–1904), predecessor to Madrona School.
School (1883–1941) operated in two successive locations, both
between Fremont and Ballard. The post 1903 location is the site of
today's Ross Playfield.
- Salmon Bay School (unrelated to the current school of that
name). Founded 1901 as part of the Ballard School District, annexed
with Ballard in 1907. Closed as school 1932, used 1938 for WPA
sewing classes. Demolished 1945, now site of Ballard Boys and Girls
- Sand Point School (1958–1988). Part of North
Seattle Community College since 1990. On October 7th, 2009 it was
announced that Sand Point Elementary School will be reopening
beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.
- Seward School. In the Eastlake neighborhood. Opened
1895. There are three distinct buildings, all extant (though the
original building has been moved), and with a rather complicated
history of uses; as of 2007, TOPS @ Seward uses these
- South School / Main Street School. Original building opened as
South School 1873, renamed Kindergarten School 1897–1902, then Main
Street School (annex to the new South School 1902–1909, briefly
known as Mann School in 1903), then used as a temporary relocation
site or annex for various schools until 1921. Demolished 1922.
- South Park School. Opened 1902, annexed with South Park 1907. Annex to
Concord School after 1914. Closed 1938. Now site of South Park
- South Seattle School. Opened 1892 by School District 99 as a
successor to Head of the Bay School. Annexed to Seattle 1905.
Closed 1932. Site is now South Seattle Playground.
- Summit School (1905–1965). The building functioned 1965–1973 as
an annex to Seattle Central Community College; then for three years
it housed the alternative school that still bears its name, and
offshoot of the NOVA program. In 1977 it was sold and converted to
use as offices; the same year, it was listed on the NRHP. The
building was sold again in 1980, and since that time has housed the
Northwest School, a private
- University Heights School. Opened 1902; briefly known as Morse
School in 1903; from 1974, Alternative Elementary School #2 used
two-thirds of the building; exteriors declared city landmark 1977;
closed 1989, with the alternative school moving to the Decatur
School. Since 1990 it is the University Heights Community
- Viewlands Elementary (1954-2007). Merged into Broadview-Thomson
Elementary starting with 2007-08 school year due to decreasing
enrollment in the district.
- Warren Avenue School (1903–1959). Briefly known in 1903 as
Edwards School. The school became a pioneer in programs for
physically handicapped students, notably those with cerebral palsy, but also the hearing impaired, blind, etc. Closed to
make way for the Century 21
Exposition: the site is now the KeyArena.
- Webster School. Opened 1903 as Bay View School by Ballard
School District. Annexed with Ballard itself in 1907. Moved to new
building January 1908 and renamed in honor of Daniel Webster in March. Closed 1979; briefly
leased by a motion picture producer (during which time it was
seriously damaged by a fire); now the site of the Nordic
Heritage Museum, which is seeking to move to a Market Street,
Ballard site as of 2007.
- Wetmore School. Opened 1903 or earlier by the Columbia School
District. Annexed with Columbia City in 1907.
After 1910 it became the gymnasium of the York School (later
renamed after John Muir, and still open as
of 2007). It was used in that capacity until 1959, when the former
Wetmore School took on the name "York School" and was used for
manual training, before becoming a gym again 1973–1989. Demolished
- (Reverend George F.) Whitworth Elementary School. (1908-2007).
Merged into Dearborn Park Elementary starting with 2007-08 school
year due to decreasing enrollment in the district.
- Yesler School (1892–1918). Originally part of the Yesler School
District; as noted above, Yesler was more or less today's
Laurelhurst. Annexed by Seattle 1911.
Other schools previously included in district
- Parental Home for Girls / Girls' Parental School / Martha
Washington School. Two successive locations. The first
(1914–1921), in the Ravenna-Bryant neighborhood, was later the similar but privately
operatd Ruth School for Girls and then the Medina Baby Home; sold
1945. The second was at Brighton Beach on Lake Washington,
at the site of what was already a similar, privately-run facility.
From 1921–1957 it was part of Seattle Public Schools; renamed
Martha Washington 1931; passed under state control in 1957, and was
closed as a residential school in 1965. The building was later used
by a series of alternative schools and a Montessori academy before being demolished in
1989. Its archway was relocated to Green Lake Park in June,
- Parental School / Parental Home for Boys / (Luther) Burbank
School for Boys. Opened 1905 as Parental School; "for Boys" added
1914 when Parental Home for Girls was established; renamed after
Luther Burbank 1931; passed under
state control in 1957, and was closed as a residential school in
1965. Located on Mercer
Island, outside of city limits. The location is now
Luther Burbank Park; several buildings and other remnants
- School for the Deaf. Founded at Longfellow School 1907(?) and
remained there until 1912. At Washington School 1912–1921. Then at
T.T. Minor School through 1939 when it was divided out to Summit,
Longfellow again, and (John) Marshall (then a junior high school;
program there may have begun later, in 1942). The program at Summit
moved to University Heights in 1960. Eventually, not treated as a
separate "school". The current program for deaf middle school
students is at Eckstein.
Several former Seattle Public Schools buildings are on the National Register of
(NRHP):Image:Broadway Performance Hall - SCCC
01.jpg|Broadway High School, the surviving parts of which are
incorporated into Seattle Central Community
.Image:Frank B. Cooper School 04.jpg|Old Frank B. Cooper Elementary School
(now Youngstown Cultural Arts Center).Image:Seattle - Wallingford
Center 04.jpg|Interlake Public
(now Wallingford Center).Image:Seattle - Queen Anne High
lion 02.jpg|Queen Anne
.Image:Seattle - West Queen Anne Public School
05.jpg|Queen Anne Public
(later West Queen Anne Public School).Image:Seattle -
old Summit School 05.jpg|Old Summit
Except for Broadway High School, all of these also are official
, as are
the following past and present schools:Image:Seattle - B.F. Day
School - 1900.jpg|B.F. Day School
Image:Seattle - Bryant School
Image:Seattle - Cleveland High School 02A.jpgCleveland High
Image:Seattle - NAAM 04.jpg|Colman School
- Concord School 02.jpg|Concord Elementary
Image:Seattle - Dunlap School 01.jpg|Dunlap Elementary
Image:Seattle - Emerson School 01.jpg|Emerson Elementary
Image:Seattle MLK 2006 07.jpg|Franklin
High SchoolImage:GarfieldHS.jpgGarfield High School
Image:Seattle - Gatewood School
John Hay 03.jpg|John Hay
Image:Seattle - Latona School 01.jpg|Latona School
Image:Seattle - Madison School
Image:Eckstein Middle School 01.jpg|Nathan Eckstein Junior High
Image:Seattle - 307 6th Ave S 02.jpg|Old Main Street School
Roosevelt High 01.jpg|Roosevelt High
Image:Seattle - Seward School 01.jpg|Seward School
Image:Seattle - University
Heights School 03.jpg|University Heights
Image:West Seattle High 06.jpg|West Seattle High School
2007, the United States Supreme Court decided the case of
Parents Involved in Community Schools v.
Seattle School District No.
, where they rejected Seattle Public Schools longstanding use
of "racial tie-breakers" in assigning students to schools. The
decision prohibited assigning students to public schools solely for
the purpose of achieving racial
and declined to recognize racial balancing as a
compelling state interest. In a fragmented opinion delivered by
, five justices held
that the School Boards did not present any "compelling state
interest" that would justify the assignment of school seats on the
basis of race. Chief Justice Roberts wrote that "the way to stop
discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on
the basis of race." Associate
Justice Anthony Kennedy
concurrence that presented a more narrow interpretation, stating
that schools may use "race conscious" means to achieve diversity in
schools but that the schools at issue in this case did not use a
sufficient narrow tailoring of their plans to sustain their goals.
Four justices dissented
In June 2006, Andrew J. Coulson of the Cato Institute
wrote a column in the
taking the district to task for a page on
"equity and race relations" on its website that indicated, in his
words, that "only whites can be racist in America" and which, among
other things, stated that "Emphasizing individualism as opposed to
a more collective ideology" and that this and preferring a "future
time orientation" were forms of "cultural racism." The page was
removed from the site the same day.
In 2005, it was revealed that a teacher at Broadview-Thomson
Elementary had been serially molesting children at the school for a
period spanning several years. The teacher, Laurence E. "Shayne"
, had been molesting children for at least four of the
twelve years he worked at the school, according to the Seattle
. The article also said that several school officials
had known of the inappropriate touching and did nothing to stop it,
drawing outrage from concerned parents. Hill is serving his
sentence as of 12/02/05 and is facing anywhere from five years to
- Seattle Public Schools, SPS website FAQ list, Seattle Public Schools,
date unknown. Accessed online 8 July 2008.
- Seattle Public Schools, School Board, Seattle Public Schools, Date
unknown. Accessed online 2008-09-16.
- Seattle Public Schools, School Board Districts, Seattle Public
Schools, Date unknown. Accessed online 2008-09-16.
- SPS School Beat, Seattle Public Schools,
12/4/2008 (accessed online 2009-02-02)
- Fleming, S. E. (1919), Civics (supplement):
Seattle King County, Seattle: Seattle Public Schools. p.
- Digest of pages 283-295 of Polk's Seattle City
Directory 1919, accessed online 9 December 2007. This is
the source for ther being 9 special schools.
- Bryce E. Nelson, quoted by Richard C. Berner, Seattle
1900-1920: From Boomtown, Urban Turbulence, to Restoration,
Charles Press (1991), ISBN 0962988901, p. 77.
- : University.
- : Central I.
- : North.
- : Denny.
- : Addams.
- : Boren.
- : Broadview-Thomson.
- : Wilson.
- Louis Fiset, Seattle Neighborhoods: Phinney – Thumbnail History,
HistoryLink, August 29, 2001. Accessed online 9 December 2007.
- David Wilma, Seattle Neighborhoods: Beacon Hill – Thumbnail
History, HistoryLink, February 21, 2001. Accessed online 9
- : Briarcliff.
- : Graham Hill.
- : Broadview.
- : Cascade.
- : Cedar Park.
- Richard Seven, Life Imitates Art In This Old School,
Pacific Northwest (Seattle Times magazine),
October 17, 2004. Accessed online 10 December 2007.
- : Crown Hill.
- Louis Fiset, Seattle Neighborhoods: Crown Hill – Thumbnail History,
HistoryLink, July 20, 2001. Accessed 9 December 2007.
- : Holgate.
- : Holgate Aircraft.
- : Fairmount Park.
- School Board OKs closure plan, Seattle
Post-Intelligencer (July 26, 2006).
- : Fairview.
- : Fauntleroy.
- : Genesee Hill.
- : Georgetown.
- : Goodhue.
- Exhibit item, part of Parents Organize, Disability Rights Exhibit, Smithsonian National Museum
of American History. Accessed online 20 December 2007.
- : Haller Lake.
- : Hughes.
- : Interbay.
- : Interlake.
- : Irving.
- : Jefferson.
- : King.
- : King.
- : Lake City.
- : Magnolia.
- : Maple Leaf.
- : Mann.
- : McDonald.
- : Mercer.
- : North Queen Anne.
- : Pacific.
- : Pinehurst.
- : Sand Point.
- : West Queen Anne.
- : Rainier View.
- : Columbia Annex.
- : Ravenna.
- Ravenna-Eckstein Community Center, Seattle
Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed 20 December 2007.
- : Cooper.
- : Madrona.
- : Ross.
- : Salmon Bay.
- : Sand Point.
- : Seward.
- : Gatzert. An annex at 307 Sixth Avenue survives
and is considered a landmark.
- : Concord.
- : Summit.
- : University Heights.
- : Viewlands.
- : Warren Avenue.
- : Webster.
- Make a Donation, Nordic Heritage Museum.
Accessed 10 December 2007.
- : Muir.
- : Whitworth.
- : Bryant.
- : Martha Washington.
- David Wilma, Martha Washington School, HistoryLink, March 20, 2001.
Accessed online 9 December 2007.
- : Burbank.
- The Association Review, American Association to
Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, volume 9 (1907), p.
- : Washington.
- : Minor.
- : John Marshall.
- : Summit.
- : Eckstein.
- High court rejects JCPS student assignment
plan, Associated Press, July 5, 2007, on site of
WAVE 3 TV, Louisville, Kentucky. Accessed online 10 December
- Linda Shaw, U.S. Supreme Court rejects Seattle's racial
criteria, Seattle Times, June 29, 2007. Accessed
online 10 December 2007.
- Andrew J. Coulson, Planning ahead is considered racist?,
Seattle Post Intelligencer, June 1, 2006. Accessed online
10 December 2007.
- Equity and Race Relations: Definitions of
Racism, Seattle Public Schools, archived June 22, 2006 on the
- Debera Carlton Harrell, School district pulls Web site after examples of racism
spark controversy, June 2, 2006. Accessed online 10 December