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Selangor (Jawi script: سلاڠور; also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity") is one of the 13 states of Malaysiamarker. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysiamarker and is bordered by Perakmarker to the north, Pahangmarker to the east, Negeri Sembilanmarker to the south and the Strait of Malaccamarker to the west. It completely surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpurmarker and Putrajayamarker, both of which were once under Selangor's sovereignty.

The state is a hereditary constitutional monarchy, of which the reigning Sultan (since 2001) is Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah. Since March 10, 2008, the Menteri Besar (chief executive of the state government) has been Tan Sri Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, of the People's Justice Party (PKR) portion of Pakatan Rakyat. The current leader of the opposition in the Selangor State Assembly is Dato' Seri Dr. Mohamed Khir Toyo, who is part of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) party in Barisan Nasional. He was also the 13th Menteri Besar of Selangor.

The state capital is Shah Alammarker, the first city in Selangor, and the royal capital is Klangmarker. Another major urban centre is Petaling Jayamarker which was awarded city status on June 20, 2006. Selangor is one of only two Malaysian states with more than one city; the other is Sarawakmarker.

Selangor is the richest state in Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (PPP) at USD33,147 (2008). On 27 August 2005, Selangor was officially declared the first developed state in Malaysia by the then state government.


The origin of the name Selangor is lost in history, although some sources claim the name to have come from the Malay word selangau, 'a large fly', most probably due to the abundance of flies in the marshes along the Selangor Rivermarker in the state's northwest. A more plausible theory claims the state's name is derived from the term Selang Ur meaning "land of the straits" (selang means "straits" in the Malay language and ur means "town" in Tamil.) Aur (which sounds similar to ur) also means river in Malay. Hence, Selangor may mean 'river straits'. Another possible origin of the name is from combination of the words Sela and Ngor (sela means 'a gap' and ngor means 'bamboo'). It may be possible that the banks of the Selangor River was full of bamboo groves in the distant past. However bamboo do not grow well in the marshy soil of the lower reaches of the river. It is also possible that the word Selangor is an Orang Asli term as some rivers have Orang Asli names, eg Damansara river.


In the 15th century, Selangor was ruled by the Sultanate of Malacca. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguesemarker in 1511, the area became hotly disputed between the Portuguese, Johormarker, Acehmarker and Siammarker. When the Dutchmarker displaced the Portuguese from Malacca in 1641, they brought in Muslim Bugis mercenaries from Sulawesimarker. They established the present hereditary sultanate in 1740. In many districts, Bugis settlers displaced the Minangkabau settlers from Sumatramarker, who had established themselves in Selangor some 100 years previously.

In the 19th century, the economy boomed due to the exploitation of huge tin reserves and the growing importance of rubber. This attracted a large influx of Chinese migrant laborers. Chinese secret clan societies, allied with Selangor chiefs, fought for control of the tin mines. The increasing violence created social and economic havoc. It also opened a window of opportunity for the British governmentmarker, which forced the Sultan of Selangor to accept a British Resident in 1874. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered. In 1896, largely through the coordination of the Resident Frank Swettenham, Selangor united with Negri Sembilanmarker, Perakmarker and Pahangmarker to form the Federated Malay Statesmarker, with its capital in Kuala Lumpurmarker.

The Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malayamarker in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. In 1970, Selangor relinquished the city of Kuala Lumpur to the federal government. Putrajaya also became a federal territory in 2002.

Selangor is currently the richest, most industrialized and most urbanized of all Malaysian states . As Menteri Besar, Mohamed Khir Toyo declared Selangor a developed state on 27 August 2005.

Population and demographics

Selangor is Malaysia's most populous state with the nation's biggest conurbation, the Klang Valley. Selangor's geographical position in the centre of Peninsular Malaysiamarker contributed to the state's rapid development as Malaysia's transportation and industrial hub. This created jobs and attracted migrants from other states as well as overseas, especially from Indonesiamarker, the Philippinesmarker, Vietnammarker, Myanmarmarker, Bangladeshmarker, Indiamarker, Pakistanmarker, and Chinamarker. In recent decades, the influx of illegal immigrants, particularly from Indonesia, has further contributed to Selangor's population.

Selangor has a population of around 5 million (2008 estimate; the state's ethnic composition consisted of Malays 52.9%, Chinese Malaysians 27.8%, Indian Malaysians 13.3%, and other ethnic groups 6%. Selangor's main population centres are Petaling Jayamarker (2007 est. pop. 550,000); Shah Alammarker (500,000); Klangmarker (995,000); and Subang Jayamarker-UEP Subang Jaya (400,000).

The traditional culture of Selangor's Malay majority is influenced by those of Bugis, Johormarker, Minangkabau, Mandailing and Javanese ancestry, most of whom are Muslim. Selangor's population also has ethnic Chinese and Indian influences; those two groups have the larger minority populations. With its state of development, Selangor is more closely tied to the Western world through trade, business and education than other, more rural states. .



The Constitution of the State of Selangor came into force on the 26 of February 1959. The constitution is separated into two parts. Under the 1959 constitution, Selangor is a constitutional monarchy.

Selangor Sultanate

The Sultan of Selangor is the constitutional Ruler of Selangor. The role, powers and duties of the Sultan are set forth in the constitution of 1959. The constitution proclaims that the office of Sultan is vested with the executive power of the state, is the head of the religion of Islam in the state and the "fountain of honours and dignities" in the state.

This position is hereditary and can only be held by a member of Selangor's royal family. The current ruler is His Royal Highness Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah, who has held this position since 2001.

State Executive Council

The State Executive Council, which along with the Sultan is Selangor's executive branch of government, was established by the constitution of 1959. It is composed of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman and Selangor's head of government, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and other members of the council are appointed by the Sultan of Selangor from members of the State Assembly. The current Menteri Besar is Tan Sri Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, of the Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR, or People's Justice Party) who succeeded UMNO's Menteri Besar, Datuk Seri Dr. Khir Toyo.

State Assembly

The state also has a legislative branch, called the Selangor State Assembly. It is similar to the Parliament but is limited to making laws relating to the state. Its members are elected in elections which are usually held simultaneously with federal elections. The term of each state assembly member is limited to five years. The state assembly must be dissolved before or once it expires its term for a fresh election to elect its members.

State Government Agencies

  • Selangor Agriculture Development Corporation
  • Selangor Department of Agriculture
  • Selangor Department of Community Welfare
  • Selangor Department of Forestry
  • Selangor Department of Irrigatian and Drainage
  • Selangor Department of Islamic Affairs
  • Selangor Department of Mufti
  • Selangor Department of Public Works
  • Selangor Department of Syariah Law
  • Selangor Department of Urban and Country Planning
  • Selangor Department of Veterinar
    • Selangor Housing and Property Board
    • Selangor Islamic Religious Council
    • Selangor Land dan Mineral Office
    • Selangor Museum Board
    • Selangor Public Library Corporation
    • Selangor State Development Corporation
    • Selangor State Government Secretary Administration
    • Selangor State Treasury
    • Selangor Water Management Board
    • Selangor Zakat Board


    Administrative districts of Selangor.

    List of districts

    Selangor is divided into 9 administrative districts.
    1. Gombak
    2. Hulu Langat
    3. Hulu Selangor
    4. Klangmarker, along with Port Klangmarker (formerly known as Port Swettenham)
    5. Kuala Langat
    6. Kuala Selangormarker
    7. Petalingmarker, contains the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport (formerly Subang International Airport)
    8. Sabak Bernam
    9. Sepangmarker, contains the Kuala Lumpur International Airportmarker

    List of local authorities

    There are 12 local authorities in Selangor, namely:

    1. Majlis Daerah Hulu Selangor (MDHS)
    2. Majlis Perbandaran Subang Jaya (MPSJ)
    3. Majlis Daerah Sabak Bernam (MDSB)
    4. Majlis Perbandaran Kajang (MPKj)
    5. Majlis Daerah Kuala Selangor (MDKS)
    6. Majlis Perbandaran Klang (MPK)
    7. Majlis Perbandaran Selayang (MPSel)
    8. Majlis Bandaraya Shah Alam (MBSA)
    9. Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya (MBPJ)
    10. Majlis Perbandaran Ampang Jaya (MPAJ)
    11. Majlis Perbandaran Sepang (MPSpg)
    12. Majlis Daerah Kuala Langat (MDKL)
    13. Majlis Perbandaran Kota Raja (MPKR)


    The traditional Malay cuisine in Selangor has received influences from Johormarker, Bugis, Jawa and Minangkabau.

    Rojak Klang, Lontong Klang and Mee Bandung are famous cuisines in Klang and Shah Alam (Note: Mee Bandung is also touted to have originated from Johor). Other famous dishes include Mee Jawa (which is similar to Mee Rebus in Johor), Satay Kajang, Laksa Selangor, Soto (Soto Nasi Himpit and Mee Soto), Sambal Tahun, Bakso, Ketam Darul Ehsan, Ikan Masak Asam Pedas, Ayam Masak Kicap and Sayur Masak Rebung.

    Klangmarker bak kut teh is famous among the Chinese population. It is a herbal pork soup which is eaten with white rice. Coastal towns such as Klang and Kuala Selangormarker are also famed for seafood.

    Image gallery

    Image: GOD_CAVE_3_0271.jpg|Batu CavesImage: MALAWATI_30_0399.jpg |Silver Leaf Monkey in Bukit MelawatiImage: PEWTER_9_0132.jpg|Royal Selangor PewterImage: WATERFALL_7_0173.jpg|Commonwealth Forest ParkImage: WATERFALL_12_0180.jpg|Kanching Rainforest WaterfallImage: WORKER_0098.jpg|Pasar Borong SelayangImage: BOAT8 PKETAM 0697.jpg|Pulau KetamImage: FRIM_32_0067.jpg|Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM)


    1. SSIC - from YB Dato' Tang See Hang - Selangor State Executive Councillor.

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