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The Federal Senate of Brazil ( ) is the upper house of the National Congressmarker of Brazilmarker. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empiremarker in 1824, it was inspired in United Kingdommarker's House of Lordsmarker, but with the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 it became closer to the United States Senate.

Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal Districtmarker are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later.

The current president of the Brazilian Senate is José Sarney, from the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party of Amapámarker. He was elected in early 2009 for a two-year term.

History

The Federal Senate of Brazil was first established by the Constitution of 1824, the first enacted after the Declaration of Independence.

Following the independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered the convocation of a National Assembly to compose the country's first Constitution. Following several disagreements with the elected deputies (which included representatives from present-day Uruguaymarker, then part of the Brazilian Empire under the name of Provícia Cisplatina), the Emperor dissolved the Assembly and, in 1824, implemented the first Constitution, in which it was established that the Legislative branch would comprise a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, and an upper house.

The first configuration of the Senate was a consulting body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of great prestige, to which only a small part of the population could aspire.

Members of the Senate were elected, but they had to be at least 40 years old and, which was more significant as a limiting factor, an annual income of 800,000 contos-de-réis was necessary in order to run for office. Furthermore, voters were selected by income as well. In order to be able to vote in the election, any man (women did not vote in the Brazilian Empire) was required to have an annual income of at least 200,000 contos-de-réis. But those who qualified to vote with this income would not vote directly for the Senators; instead, they voted for other people, who were candidates to be Senator electors. In order to run for this position, a minimal annual income of 400,000 contos-de-réis was required. Once elected, these electors would vote for senator. The election itself would not turn out a winner automatically. The three highest-voted candidates in each circumscription would make up what was called a "triple list", from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered "elected". The Emperor usually picked the highest-voted individual, but it was within his discretion to select whichever of the three individuals listed. The only exception for these rules were the Princes of the Brazilian Imperial House, who were senators by right and would take a seat in the Senate upon reaching 25 years old.

The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empire's Provinces, each with a number of senators proportional to its population.

The first session of the first Senate took place on May 1826, following repeated delays from the Emperor in calling the first election after the inception of the 1824 Constitution; which had led to repeated accusations that the Emperor would be attempting to establish an absolutist government.

Current Senators

State Senator Party Term Notes
Acre Geraldo Mesquita
PMDB
2003–2011
Acre Marina Silva
PV
2003–2011
Acre Tião Viana
PT
2007–2015
Alagoas Fernando Collor
PTB
2007–2015
Alagoas João Tenório
PSDB
2003–2011 Substitute for Teotônio Vilela Filho
Alagoas Renan Calheiros
PMDB
2003–2011
Amapámarker Gilvam Borges
PMDB
2003–2011
Amapámarker José Sarney
PMDB
2007–2015 President of the Senate
Amapámarker Papaléo Paes
PSDB
2003–2011
Amazonasmarker João Pedro Gonçalves da Costa
PT
2007–2015 Substitute for Alfredo Nascimento
Amazonasmarker Arthur Virgílio
PSDB
2003–2011
Amazonasmarker Jefferson Praia
PDT
2003–2011 Substitute for Jefferson Peres
Bahia Antônio Carlos Magalhães Júnior
DEM
2003–2011 Substitute for Antônio Carlos Magalhães
Bahia César Borges
PR
2003–2011
Bahia João Durval
PDT
2007–2015
Cearámarker Inácio Arruda
PCdoB
2007–2015
Cearámarker Patrícia Saboya Gomes
PSB
2003–2011
Cearámarker Tasso Jereissati
PSDB
2003–2011
Distrito Federalmarker Adelmir Santana
DEM
2003–2011 Substitute for Paulo Octávio
Distrito Federalmarker Cristovam Buarque
PDT
2003–2011
Distrito Federalmarker Gim Argello
PTB
2007–2015 Substitute for Joaquim Roriz
Espírito Santo Magno Malta
PR
2003–2011
Espírito Santo Gérson Camata
PMDB
2003–2011
Espírito Santo Renato Casagrande
PSB
2007–2015
Goiásmarker Demóstenes Torres
DEM
2003–2011
Goiásmarker Lúcia Vânia
PSDB
2003–2011
Goiásmarker Marconi Perillo
PSDB
2007–2015
Maranhãomarker Edison Lobão Filho
DEM
2008–2011 Substitute for Edison Lobão
Maranhãomarker Epitácio Cafeteira
PTB
2007–2015
Maranhãomarker Mauro Fecury
PMDB
2009–2011 Substitute for Roseana Sarney
Mato Grosso Jayme Campos
DEM
2007–2015
Mato Grosso Gilberto Goellner
DEM
2008–2011 Substitute for Jonas Pinheiro
Mato Grosso Serys Slhessarenko
PT
2003–2011
Mato Grosso do Sul Delcídio Amaral
PT
2003–2011
Mato Grosso do Sul Marisa Serrano
PSDB
2007–2015
Mato Grosso do Sul Válter Pereira
PMDB
2003–2011 Substitute for Ramez Tebet
Minas Geraismarker Eduardo Azeredo
PSDB
2003–2011
Minas Geraismarker Eliseu Resende
DEM
2007–2015
Minas Geraismarker Wellington Salgado de Oliveira
PMDB
2003–2011 Substitute for Hélio Costa
Parámarker Flexa Ribeiro
PSDB
2003–2011 Substitute for Duciomar Costa
Parámarker José Nery Azevedo
PSOL
2003–2011 Substitute for Ana Júlia Carepa
Parámarker Mário Couto
PSDB
2007–2015
Paraíbamarker Cícero Lucena
PSDB
2007–2015
Paraíbamarker Efraim Morais
DEM
2003–2011
Paraíbamarker Roberto Cavalcanti
PRB
2009–2011 Substitute for José Maranhão
Paranámarker Álvaro Dias
PSDB
2007–2015
Paranámarker Flávio Arns
PT
2003–2011
Paranámarker Osmar Dias
PDT
2003–2011
Pernambuco Jarbas Vasconcelos
PMDB
2007–2015
Pernambuco Marco Maciel
DEM
2003–2011
Pernambuco Sérgio Guerra
PSDB
2003–2011
Piauímarker Heráclito Fortes
DEM
2003–2011
Piauímarker João Vicente Claudino
PTB
2007–2015
Piauímarker Mão Santa
PMDB
2003–2011
Rio de Janeiromarker Francisco Dornelles
PP
2007–2015
Rio de Janeiromarker Marcelo Crivella
PRB
2003–2011
Rio de Janeiromarker Paulo Duque
PMDB
2003–2011 Substitute for Sérgio Cabral Filho
Rio Grande do Norte Garibaldi Alves Filho
PMDB
2003–2011
Rio Grande do Norte José Agripino
DEM
2003–2011
Rio Grande do Norte Rosalba Ciarlini
DEM
2007–2015
Rio Grande do Sul Paulo Paim
PT
2003–2011
Rio Grande do Sul Pedro Simon
PMDB
2007–2015
Rio Grande do Sul Sérgio Zambiasi
PTB
2003–2011
Rondôniamarker Expedito Júnior
PR
2007–2015
Rondôniamarker Fátima Cleide
PT
2003–2011
Rondôniamarker Valdir Raupp
PMDB
2003–2011
Roraima Augusto Botelho
PT
2003–2011
Roraima Mozarildo Cavalcanti
PTB
2007–2015
Roraima Romero Jucá
PMDB
2003–2011
Santa Catarinamarker Ideli Salvatti
PT
2003–2011
Santa Catarinamarker Neuto de Conto
PMDB
2003–2011 Substitute for Leonel Pavan
Santa Catarinamarker Casildo Maldaner
PMDB
2007–2015 Substitute for Raimundo Colombo
São Paulomarker Aloizio Mercadante
PT
2003–2011
São Paulomarker Eduardo Suplicy
PT
2007–2015
São Paulomarker Romeu Tuma
PTB
2003–2011
Sergipe Almeida Lima
PMDB
2003–2011
Sergipe Antônio Carlos Valadares
PSB
2003–2011
Sergipe Virginio de Carvalho
PSC
2007–2015 Substitute for Maria do Carmo Alves
Tocantins João Ribeiro
PR
2003–2011
Tocantins Kátia Abreu
DEM
2007–2015
Tocantins Leomar Quintanilha
PMDB
2003–2011


See also



External links




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