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Serbia ( ), officially the Republic of Serbia ( ), is a country located in both Central and Southeastern Europe. Its territory covers the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and central part of the Balkans. Serbia borders Hungarymarker to the north; Romaniamarker and Bulgariamarker to the east; the Republic of Macedoniamarker to the south; and Croatiamarker, Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker and Montenegromarker to the west; its border with Albaniamarker is disputed. Belgrademarker is the capital of Serbia and the largest city.

After their settlement in the Balkans, Serbs formed a medieval kingdom that evolved into a Serbian Empire, which reached its peak in the 14th century. In the 16th century Serbian lands were conquered by Ottomans. Serbia regained independence from the Ottoman Empire in a 19th century revolution and subsequently expanded its territory. Former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodinamarker joined Serbia in 1918. Following the end of World War I, the country united with other South Slavic peoples into a Yugoslav state which would exist in several formations up until 2006, when Serbia once again became independent.

In February 2008, the parliament of Kosovomarker, Serbia's southern province with an ethnic Albanian majority, declared independence. The response from the international community has been mixed. Serbia regards Kosovo as its autonomous province governed by the United Nations.

Serbia is a member of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the Council of Europe which it presided over in 2007. It is also a potential candidate for membership in the European Union and a militarily neutral country.


Prehistory & Early

The Vinča and Starčevo cultures were early neolithic civilizations in Serbia between the 7th and the 3rd millennium BC. Many Archeological sites show a long history of culture in Serbia, such as the Lepenski Virmarker.The ancient (Paleo-Balkan) Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians and Celts inhabited Serbia prior to the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC. The Celts had built many fortifications, foundations of many modern cities in Serbia, such as Kalemegdanmarker (Singidunummarker, Belgrademarker). Greeks expanded into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century B.C., the northernmost point of the empire of Alexander the Great being the town of Kale-Krševica. Contemporary Serbia comprises (in total or in part) classical provinces of Moesia, Pannonia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia, Dacia and Macedonia. The northern Serbian city of Sirmiummarker was one of the capitals of the Roman Empire during the Tetrarchy. No less than 17 Roman Emperors were born in what is now Serbia.

Medieval kingdoms and Serbian Empire

The beginning of the Serbian state starts with the White Serbs settling the Balkans led by the Unknown Archont, who was asked to defend the frontiers from invading Avars. Emperor Heraclius granted the Serbs a permanent dominion in the Sclavinias of Western Balkans upon completing their task.At first heavily dependent on the Byzantine Empire as its vassal, Raška gained independence by expulsion of the Byzantine troops and heavy defeat of the Bulgarian army. The last and full Christianization of Serbia took place in 867-869 when Byzantine Emperor Basil I sent priests after Knez Mutimir had acknowledged Byzantine suzerainty. At about the same time, the western Serbs were subjugated to the Frankish Empire. The First dynasty died out in 960 A.D: the wars of succession for the Serb throne led to incorporation into the Byzantine Empire (971).Around 1040 AD an uprising in the medieval state of Duklja overthrew Byzantine rule. Duklja then assumed domination over the Serbian lands between the 11–12th centuries. In 1077 A.D. Duklja became the first Serb Kingdom following the establishment of the Catholic Bishopric of Barmarker.From late 12th century onwards Raska rose to become the paramount Serb state. Over the 13th and 14th century, it ruled over the other Serb lands. During this time, Serbia began to expand eastward and southward into Kosovomarker and northern Macedonia and northward for the first time.

The Serbian Empire was proclaimed in 1346 under Stefan Dušan. During Dušan's rule, Serbia reached its territorial peak, becoming one of the larger states in Europe. Dušan's Code, a universal system of laws, was enforced.Dušan was succeeded as emperor by his son Uroš Nejaki . Rather young and too incompetent to maintain a strong grip on the empire created by his father, he watched the Serbian Empire fragment into a conglomeration of principalities. Stefan died childless in December 1371, after much of the Serbian nobility had been destroyed by the Turks in the Battle of Marica earlier that year.Some of Serbia's greatest Medieval arts were created during this period, most notably St. Sava's Nomocanon.

The Houses of Mrnjavčević, Lazarević and Branković ruled the Serbian lands in the 15th and 16th centuries. Constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms and the Ottoman Empire. After the fall of Constantinoplemarker to the Turks and the Siege of Belgrade, the Serbian Despotate fell in 1459 following the siege of the provisional capital of Smederevomarker. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrademarker finally fell in 1521. Forceful conversion to Islam became imminent, especially in the southwest (Raška, Kosovo and Bosnia). To the south, the Republic of Venicemarker grew stronger in importance, gradually taking over the coastal areas.

Ottoman and Austrian rule

After the loss of independence to the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, Serbia briefly regained sovereignty under Emperor Jovan Nenad in the 16th century. Three Austrian invasions and numerous rebellions, such as the Banat Uprising, constantly challenged Ottoman rule. Vojvodinamarker endured a century long Ottoman occupation before being ceded to the Habsburg Empire in the 17th-18th centuries under the Treaty of Karlowitz.As the Great Serb Migrations depopulated most of Kosovomarker and Serbia proper, the Serbs sought refuge in the more prosperous Vojvodina in the northmarker and Military Frontier in the West where they were granted imperial rights by the Austrian crown under measures such as the Statuta Wallachorum of 1630. The Ottoman persecutions of Christians culminated in the abolition and plunder of the Patriarchate of Pećmarker in 1766. As Ottoman rule in the Pashaluk of Belgrade grew ever more brutal, theHoly Roman Emperor Leopold I formally granted the Serbs the right to their autonomous crown land.

Serbian Revolution and independence

The first modern independent Serbia was established in the course of the Serbian national revolution (1804–1817), and it lasted for several decades. For the first time in Ottoman history an entire Christian population had risen up against the Sultan. The entrenchment of French troops in the western Balkans, the incessant political crises in the Ottoman Empire, the growing intensity of the Austro-Russian rivalry in the Balkans, the intermittent warfare which consumed the energies of French and Russian Empiresmarker and the outbreak of protracted hostilities between the Porte and Russia are but a few of the major international developments which directly or indirectly influenced the course of the Serbian revolt.

During the First Serbian Uprising (first phase of the revolt) led by Karađorđe Petrović, Serbia was independent for almost a decade before the Ottoman army was able to reoccupy the country. Shortly after this, the Second Serbian Uprising began. Led by Miloš Obrenović, it ended in 1815 with a compromise between the Serbian revolutionary army and the Ottoman authorities. The famous German historian Leopold von Ranke published his book "The Serbian revolution" (1829). They were the easternmost bourgeois revolutions in the 19th-century world. Likewise, the Principality of Serbia was second in Europe to abolish feudalism- after France.

The Convention of Ackerman (1826), the Treaty of Adrianople (1829) and finally, the Hatt-i Sharif of 1830, recognized the suzerainty of Serbia with Miloš Obrenović I as its hereditary Prince. The struggle for liberty, a more modern society and a nation-state in Serbia won a victory under first constitution in the Balkans on 15 February 1835. It was replaced by a more conservative Constitution in 1838.

In the two following decades (temporarily ruled by the Karadjordjevic dynasty) the Principality actively supported the neighboring Habsburg Serbs, especially during the 1848 revolutions. Interior minister Ilija Garašanin published The Draft (for South Slavic unification), which became the standpoint of Serbian foreign policy from the mid-19th century onwards. The government thus developed close ties with the Illyrian movement in Croatia-Slavonia (Austria-Hungary).

Following the clashes between the Ottoman army and civilians in Belgrade in 1862, and under pressure from the Great Powers, by 1867 the last Turkish soldiers left the Principality. By enacting a new constitution without consulting the Porte, Serbian diplomats confirmed the de facto independence of the country. In 1876, Montenegromarker and Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, proclaiming their unification with Bosnia. The formal independence of the country was internationally recognized at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, which formally ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78; this treaty, however, prohibited Serbia from uniting with Principality of Montenegro, and placed Bosnia and Raška region under Austro-Hungarian occupation to prevent unification.

Kingdom of Serbia

From 1815 to 1903, Kingdom of Serbiamarker was ruled by the House of Obrenović (except from 1842 to 1858, when it was led by Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević). In 1882, Serbia, ruled by King Milan, was proclaimed a Kingdommarker. In 1903, the House of Karađorđević, (descendants of the revolutionary leader Đorđe Petrović) assumed power. Serbia was the only country in the region that was allowed by the Great Powers to be ruled its own domestic dynasty. During the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), the Kingdom of Serbiamarker tripled its territory by acquiring part of Macedonia, Kosovomarker, and parts of Serbia proper.

As for Vojvodina, during the 1848 revolution in Austria, Serbs of Vojvodina established an autonomous region known as Serbian Vojvodina. As of 1849, the region was transformed into a new Austrian crown land known as the Serbian Voivodship and Tamiš Banat. Although abolished in 1860, Habsburg emperors claimed the title Großwoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien until the end of the monarchy and the creation of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918.

World War I

On 28 June 1914 the assassinationmarker of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevomarker in Bosnia-Herzegovina by Gavrilo Princip (a Yugoslav unionist member of Young Bosnia) and an Austrian citizen, led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Kingdom of Serbiamarker. In defense of its ally Serbia, Russiamarker started to mobilize its troops, which resulted in Austria-Hungary's ally Germanymarker declaring war on Russia. The retaliation by Austria-Hungary against Serbia activated a series of military alliances that set off a chain reaction of war declarations across the continent, leading to the outbreak of World War I within a month.

The Serbian Army won several major victories against Austria-Hungary at the beginning of World War I, such as the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara - marking the first Allied victories against the Central Powers in World War I. Despite initial success it was eventually overpowered by the joint forces of the German Empiremarker, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria in 1915. Most of its army and some people went into exile to Greece and Corfumarker where they recovered, regrouped and returned to Macedonian front to lead a final breakthrough through enemy lines on 15 September 1918, freeing Serbia again and defeating Austro-Hungarian Empire and Bulgaria. Serbia (with its major campaign) was a major Balkan Entente Power which contributed significantly to the Allied victory in the Balkans in November 1918, especially by enforcing Bulgaria's capitulation with the aid of France. The country was militarilly classified as a minor Entente power. Serbia was also among the main contributors to the capitulation of Austria-Hungary in Central Europe.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

World War II and civil war in Serbia

Invasion of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was in a precarious position in World War II. Fearing an invasion by Germany, the Yugoslav Regent, Prince Paul, signed the Tripartite Pact with the Axis powers on 25 March 1941, triggering demonstrations in Belgrade. On March 27, Prince Paul was overthrown by a military coup d'état and replaced by King Peter II. General Dušan Simović became Peter's Prime Minister and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia withdrew its support for the Axis.

In response Adolf Hitler launched the invasion of Yugoslavia on 6 April. By 17 April, unconditional surrender was signed in Belgrade. After the invasion, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was dissolved and, with Yugoslavia partitioned, Serbia became part of the Military Administration of Serbia, under a joint German-Serb government led by Milan Nedić.Aside from being occupied by the Wehrmacht from 1941 to 1945, Serbia was the scene of a civil war between Royalist Chetniks commanded by Draža Mihailović and Communist Partisans commanded by Josip Broz Tito. Against these forces were arrayed Nedić's units of the Serbian Volunteer Corps and the Serbian State Guard. By the beginning of 1944, the partisans became the leading force in Bosnia, Montenegro, Slovenia and Herzegovina. In Serbia however, especially in rural areas, the population remained loyal to Draza Mihajlovic.

The joint Soviet and Bulgarian occupation in 1944 swung in favour of the partisans, who were then established as the ruling elite, with the Karadjordjevic dynasty banned from returning to Serbia. The Syrmia front was the last sequence of the civil war in Serbia.

Genocide of Serbs by the Ustaše regime in WWII Croatia

The ultranationalist and fascist Ustaše sought to purge the Independent State of Croatia of Serbs, Jews, and Roma who were subjected to large-scale persecution and genocide, most notoriously at the Jasenovac concentration camp. The Jewish Virtual Library estimates that between and Croatian Serbs were killed at Jasenovac and that between and were victims of the entire genocide campaign. The estimated number of Serbian children who died is between 35,000 and 50,000. The Yad Vashem center reports that over Serbs were killed overall in the NDH, with some people of many nationalities and ethnicities murdered in one camp Jasenovac. After the war, official Yugoslav sources estimated over victims, mostly Serbs. Misha Glenny suggests that the numbers of Serbs killed in the genocide was more than 400,000.

In April 2003 Croatian president Stjepan Mesić apologized on behalf of Croatia to the victims of Jasenovac. In 2006, on the same occasion, he added that to every visitor to Jasenovac it must be clear that "Holocaust, genocide and war crimes" took place there.

Serbia within Socialist Yugoslavia

After the war ended, the election law was passed, scheduling them for November 1945. According to that law, the voting right was granted to all citizens of Yugoslavia over 18 years of age, as well as all members of the People's Front and partisan units regardless of their age. Voting right were denied to former royalist forces, pro-independist parties in Serbia and Croatia, (assumed) collaborators and Germans and Italians. Opposition parties have been encouraged to dismantle and join the list of the People's Front. Strict censorship was enforced, as all members of the Election Committee belonged to the People's front. All opposition parties have reported abuse from Ozna, the secret police. Most parties were dismantled and incorporated onto the single list of the People's front, as they were inhibited to apply on their own, with the remainer of the opposition boycotting the elections. Single list, as a single candidate who participated in the elections, won decisively. By 1947, the People's Front was "cleansed" from their formerly individual leaders, and all opposition parties outside the list have been abolished. At the same time, the supreme leadership formally accepted the programme of the Communist party as its own.

On the basis of the elections, the constitutional assembly established by the Yugoslav Communist party proclaimed the abolition of the Serbian-led monarchy of Yugoslaviamarker – and the royal family was banned from returning to the country. A communist regime was established under a dictatorship led by Yugoslavia's Communist Party leader Joseph Broz Tito. Tito, who was of Croat- Slovene descent personally sought inter-ethnic unity in the aftermath of the violent division of the country in World War II through a policy called Brotherhood and Unity which sponsored cooperation between the peoples and promoted a united Yugoslav identity over existing ethnic or religious identities, repressed nationalists of any nationality, and forced the different peoples to work with each other to solve their differences. This would become highly controversial in Serbia in the latter years of Tito's rule. Serbia was one of 6 federal units of the state, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslaviamarker (Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavijamarker, or SFRJ). Over time Serbia's influence began to wane as reforms demanded by the other republics demanded decentralization of power to allow them to have an equal say in the centralized system. This began with the creation of the autonomous provinces of Kosovomarker and Vojvodinamarker which initially held modest powers. However, reforms in 1974 made drastic changes, giving the autonomous provinces nearly equal powers to the republics, in which the Serbian parliament held no control over the political affairs of the two provinces, and technically only held power over Central Serbia. Many Serbs, including those in the Yugoslav Communist party, resented the powers held by the autonomous provinces. At the same time, a number of Kosovo ethnic Albanians in the 1980s began to demand that Kosovo be granted the right to be a republic within Yugoslavia, thus giving it the right to separate, a right which it did not have as an autonomous province. The ethnic tensions between Serbs and ethnic Albanians in Kosovo would eventually have a major influence in the collapse of the SFRY.

Dissolution of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav Wars

Slobodan Milošević rose to power in Serbia in 1989 in the League of Communists of Serbia through a serious of coups against incumbent governing members. Milošević promised reduction of powers for the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. This ignited tensions with the communist leadership of the other republics that eventually resulted in the secession of Sloveniamarker, Croatiamarker, Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker and Macedoniamarker from Yugoslavia.

Multiparty democracy was introduced in Serbia in 1990, officially dismantling the former one-party communist system. Critics of the Milošević government claimed that the Serbian government continued to be authoritarian despite constitutional changes as Milošević maintained strong personal influence over Serbia's state media. Milošević issued media blackouts of independent media stations' coverage of protests against his government and restricted freedom of speech through reforms to the Serbian Penal Code which issued criminal sentences on anyone who "ridiculed" the government and its leaders, resulting in many people being arrested who opposed Milošević and his government.

The period of political turmoil and conflict marked a rise in ethnic tensions and between Serbs and other ethnicities of the former Communist Yugoslavia as territorial claims of the different ethnic factions often crossed into each others' claimed territories Serbs who had criticized the nationalist atmosphere, the Serbian government, or the Serb political entities in Bosnia and Croatia were reported to be harassed, threatened, or killed by nationalist Serbs. Serbs in Serbia feared that the nationalist and separatist government of Croatia was led by Ustase sympathizers who would oppress Serbs living in Croatia. This view of the Croatian government was promoted by Milošević, who also accused the separatist government of Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker of being led by Islamic fundamentalists. The governments of Croatia and Bosnia in turn accused the Serbian government of attempting to create a Greater Serbia. These views led to a heightening of xenophobia between the peoples during the wars.

In 1992, the governments of Serbia and Montenegromarker agreed to the creation of a new Yugoslav federation called the Federal Republic of Yugoslaviamarker which abandoned the predecessor SFRY's official endorsement of communism, and instead endorsed democracy.

In response to accusations that the Yugoslav government was financially and militarily supporting the Serb military forces in Bosnia & Herzegovina and Croatia, sanctions were imposed by the United Nations, during the 1990s, which led to political isolation, economic decline and hardship, and serious hyperinflation of currency in Yugoslavia.

Milošević represented the Bosnian Serbs at the Dayton peace agreement in 1995, signing the agreement which ended the Bosnian War that internally partitioned Bosnia & Herzegovina largely along ethnic lines into a Serb republic and a Bosniak-Croat federation.

When the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia refused to accept municipal election results in 1997 which resulted in defeat in municipal municipalties, Serbians engaged in large protests against the Serbian government, government forces held back the protesters.Between 1998 and 1999, Serbia's official peace was broken when the situation in Kosovo worsened with continued clashes in Kosovo between the Serbian and Yugoslavian security forces on one side and the ethnic Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) on the other, which was known as the Kosovo War.

Political transition

In September 2000, opposition parties claimed that Milošević committed fraud in routine federal elections. Street protests and rallies throughout Serbia eventually forced Milošević to concede and hand over power to the recently formed Democratic Opposition of Serbia (Demokratska opozicija Srbije, or DOS). The DOS was a broad coalition of anti-Milošević parties. On 5 October, the fall of Milošević led to end of the international isolation Serbia suffered during the Milošević years. Milošević was sent to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslaviamarker on accusations of sponsoring war crimes and crimes against humanity during the wars in Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo which he was held on trial to until his death in 2006. With the fall of Milošević, Serbia's new leaders announced that Serbia would seek to join the European Union (EU). In October 2005, the EU opened negotiations with Serbia for a Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA), a preliminary step towards joining the EU.

Serbia's political climate since the fall of Milošević remained tense. In 2003, the prime minister Zoran Đinđić was assassinated as result of a plot originating from circles of organized crime and former security forces. Nationalist and EU-oriented political forces in Serbia have remained sharply divided on the political course of Serbia in regards to its relations with the European Union and the West. However, the tensions between those political poles gradually eased since, as the issues of Kosovo independence, economical crisis and aspiration towards accession to the European Union forced the parties to find more common ground.

From 2003 to 2006, Serbia has been part of the "State Union of Serbia and Montenegro." This union was the successor to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SRJ). On 21 May 2006, Montenegro held a referendum to determine whether or not to end its union with Serbia. The next day, state-certified results showed 55.4% of voters in favor of independence. This was just above the 55% required by the referendum.

Republic of Serbia

On 5 June 2006, following the referendum in Montenegromarker, the National Assembly of Serbia declared the "Republic of Serbia" to be the legal successor to the "State Union of Serbia and Montenegro." Serbia and Montenegro became separate nations. However, the possibility of a dual citizenship for the Serbs of Montenegro is a matter of the ongoing negotiations between the two governments.In April 2008 Serbia was invited to join the intensified dialogue programme with NATOmarker despite the diplomatic rift with the Alliance over Kosovomarker.


Mountain ranges and major rivers of Serbia.

Serbia is at the crossroads between Central-, Southern- and Eastern Europe, between the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain.

The province of Vojvodina, occupying the northern third of the country, is located entirely within the Central European Pannonian Plain. The easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain. The northeastern border of the country is determined by the Carpathian Mountain rangemarker, which run through the whole of Central Europe. The Southern Carpathiansmarker meet the Balkan Mountainsmarker, following the course of the Velika Moravamarker, a 500 km long (partially navigable) river. The Midžormarker peak is the highest point in eastern Serbia at 2156 m. In the southeast, the Balkan Mountains meet the Rhodope Mountains.The Šar Mountainsmarker of Kosovo form the border with Albania, with one of the highest peaks in the region, Djeravicamarker (2656 m). Dinaric Alps of Serbia follow the flow of the Drina rivermarker (at 350 km navigable for smaller vessels only) overlooking the Dinaric peaks on the opposite shore in Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker.

Although landlocked, there are around 2000 km of navigable rivers and canals, the largest of which are: the Danube, Sava, Tisa, joined by the Timiş River and Begej, all of which connect Serbia with Northern and Western Europe (through the Rhine-Main-Danube CanalmarkerNorth Seamarker route), to Eastern Europe (via the Tisa, Timiş, Begej and Danube Black Seamarker routes) and to Southern Europe (via the Sava river). The two largest Serbian cities – Belgrademarker and Novi Sadmarker, as well as Smederevomarker – are major regional Danubian harbours.

Over a quarter of Serbia (27%) is covered by forest. In 2010, as projected, the national parks will take up 10% of the country's entire territory.


The Serbian climate varies between a continental climate in the north, with cold winters, and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall patterns, and a more Adriatic climate in the south with hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy inland snowfall. Differences in elevation, proximity to the Adriatic Seamarker and large river basins, as well as exposure to the winds account for climate differences.Vojvodinamarker possesses typical continental climate, with air masses from northern and western Europe which shape its climatic profile. South and South-west Serbia is subject to Mediterranean influences. However, the Dinaric Alps and other mountain ranges contribute to the cooling down of most of the warm air masses. Winters are quite harsh in Sandžak because of the mountains which encircle the plateau.

Mediterranean microregions exist throughout southern Serbia, in Zlatibor and the Pčinja District around valley and river Pčinja.

The average annual air temperature for the period 1961–90 for the area with an altitude of up to 300 m is 10.9 °C. The areas with an altitude of 300 m to 500 m have an average annual temperature of around 10.0 °C, and over 1000 m of altitude around 6.0 °C. The lowest recorded temperature in Serbia was –39.5 °C (-39 °F, January 13 1985, Karajukića Bunari in Peštermarker), and the highest was 44.9 °C (113 °F, July 24 2007, Smederevska Palankamarker). In the summer of 2007, temperatures were as high as 46 °C in Serbia (July 23, 114.8 °F).


Danube at Đerdap (Iron Gate)
Serbian environmental protection is monitored by the Republic of Serbia Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), a part of the Ministry for Science and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia.The NATO bombings of 1999 caused lasting damage to the environment of Serbia, with several thousand tons of toxic chemical stored in factories that were targeted being released into the soil, atmosphere and water basins affecting humans and the local wildlife.Recycling is still a fledgeling activity in Serbia, with only 15% of its waste being turned back for re-use, while the Ministry for Science and Environmental Protection is moving towards improving the situation.The Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency (SEEA) was founded in May 2002. A national non-profit organization, it develops and proposes programmes andmeasures, co-ordinates and stimulates activities intended to achieve rational use and saving ofenergy, as well as the increase in efficiency of energy use in all sectors of consumption.The country is looking towards making wider use of renewable energy, a 20 megawatt wind farm is being developed in Belo Blato as part of a 300 megawatt development plan.

Serbia has 5 national parks:


On 4 February 2003 the parliament of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia agreed to a weaker form of cooperation between Serbia and Montenegro within a confederal state called Serbia and Montenegro. The Union ceased to exist following Montenegrin and Serbian declarations of independence in June 2006.

After the ousting of Slobodan Milošević on 5 October 2000, the country was governed by the Democratic Opposition of Serbia. Tensions gradually increased within the coalition until the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) left the government, leaving the Democratic Party (DS) in overall control.

Serbia held a two-day referendum on 28 October and 29 October 2006, that ratified a new constitution to replace the Milošević-era constitution.

The current President of Serbia is Boris Tadić, leader of the center-left Democratic Party (DS). He was reelected with 50.5% of the vote in the second round of the Serbian presidential election held on 4 February 2008.

Serbia held parliamentary elections on 21 May 2008. The coalition For a European Serbia led by DS claimed victory, but significantly short of an absolute majority. Following the negotiations with the leftist coalition centered around Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) and parties of national minorities (those of Hungarians, Bosniaks and Albanians) an agreement was reached to make-up a new government, headed by Mirko Cvetković.

Present-day Serbian politics are fractious and extremely divided between nationalist and liberal European Union advocating parties. Issues include proposals to restore the Serbian monarchy whose family members have stated that they are interested in forming a constitutional monarchy in Serbia. However, none of the larger parties actively support restoration.

Administrative subdivisions

Serbia is divided into 24 districts (excluding Kosovo) plus the City of Belgrademarker. The districts and the City of Belgrade are further divided into municipalities. Serbia has 2 autonomous provinces: Vojvodinamarker with (7 districts, 46 municipalities) and Kosovo and Metohijamarker. Kosovo has declared independence, which Belgrade opposes, and is presently under the administration of EULEX (see Kosovo status process).

The part of Serbia that is neither in Kosovo nor in Vojvodina is called Central Serbia. Central Serbia is not an administrative division, unlike the two autonomous provinces, and it has no regional government of its own. In English this region is often called "Serbia proper" to denote "the part of the Republic of Serbia not including the provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo", as the Library of Congressmarker puts it. This usage was also employed in Serbo-Croatian during the Yugoslav era (in the form of "uža Srbija", literally: "narrow Serbia"). Its use in English is purely geographical, without any particular political meaning being implied.


The Armed Forces of Serbia are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense. The Armed Forces are divided into the Land Command, Air and Defense Command and Training Command. As a landlocked country, Serbia does not have a navy but operates a Serbian River Flotilla as an independent service. Constitutionally, the commander of Armed Forces is the incumbent President of Serbia.

The wars and crisis of the 1990s have significantly hampered the Army, which has since suffered lack of financing, personnel reduction from 150,000, to 30,000 and low enrollment rates. Serbian military expenditures dropped from around 5% of GDP in the late 1990s to a mere 2.1% in 2009. Thorough reforms and full professionalization (whose completion is scheduled for the end of 2010) are underway, but the lack of funds has slowed the process. Conscription is still mandatory and regular service takes 6 months, but a high number of recruits take the opportunity to put forth conscientious objection and serve 9 months in civil service.

Serbia participates in the Partnership for Peace program, but does not aspire to full NATOmarker membership, due to significant public objections, largely stemming from the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.


Ethnic map of Serbia according to the 2002 Census

Serbs form the largest ethnic group, with significant minorities consisting of Hungarians, Bosniaks, Albanians, Roma, Croats, Czechs and Slovaks, Macedonians, Bulgarians, Romanians, Germans, and Chinese. According to the UN assessments, 450,000 to 500,000 Roma live in Serbia, most of whom have been exiled from Kosovomarker. The German minority in Vojvodina was more numerous in the past (336,430 in 1900, or 23.5% of the population). The northern province of Vojvodinamarker is ethnically and religiously diverse.

According to the last official census data collected in 2002, ethnic composition of Serbia is:
Ethnic Composition (2002 census)
Ethnic group Population
Serbs 6,212,000 (82.86%)
Hungarians 293,172 (3.91%)
Bosniaks 136,464 (1.82%)
Roma 107,971 (1.44%)
Yugoslavs 80,978 (1.08%)
Croats 70,602 (0.94%)
Slovaks 57,900 (0.89%)
Germans 5,200 (0,1%)
Others (each less than 1%) 474,323 (9.79%)
TOTAL 7,498,001

The census was not conducted in Serbia's southern province of Kosovo, which is under administration by the United Nations. According to the EU estimates however, the overall population is estimated at 1,350,000 inhabitants, of whom 90% are Albanians, 8% Serbs and others 2%.There are also around 200,000 Serbian and other refugees,who are expelled from Kosovo. Refugees and IDPs in Serbia form between 7% and 7.5% of its population – about half a million refugees sought refuge in the country following the series of Yugoslav wars (from Croatia mainly, to an extent Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker too and the IDPs from Kosovomarker, which are the most numerous at over 200,000) Serbia has the largest refugee population in Europe.On the other hand, it is estimated that 500,000 people have left Serbia during the '90s alone. Significant amount of these people were college graduates. Serbia has the fourth oldest overall population on the planet, mostly due to heavy migration and low level of fertility, which is expected to continue in long terms. In addition, Serbia has among the highest negative growth population rates in the world, ranking 227th out of 233 countries overall.


For centuries straddling the religious boundary between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, joined up later by Islam, Serbia remains one of the most diverse countries on the continent. Centuries on, different regions of Serbia remain heavily cosmopolitan: Vojvodinamarker province is 25% Catholic or Protestant, while Central Serbia and Belgrademarker regions are over 90% Orthodox Christian. Kosovomarker consists of a 90% Albanian Muslim majority.Among the Eastern Orthodox churches, the Serbian Orthodox Church is the westernmost. According to the 2002 Census, 82% of the population of Serbia (excluding Kosovomarker) or 6,2 million people declared their nationality as Serbian, who are overwhelmingly adherents of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians/Vlachs, Macedonians, Bulgarians etc. Together they comprise about 84% of the entire population.

Catholicism is mostly present in Vojvodinamarker (mainly in its northern part), where almost 20% of the regional population (minority ethnic groups such as the Hungarians, Slovaks, Croats, Bunjevci, Czechs etc. belong to this Christian denomination. There are an estimated 433,000 baptized Catholics in Serbia, roughly 6,2% of the population, mostly in northern Serbia.

Temple of Saint Sava

Protestantism accounts for about 1.5% of the country's population. Islam has a strong historic following in the southern regions of Serbia – Raska and several municipalities in the south-east. Bosniaks are the largest Muslim community in Serbia at about 140,000 (2%), followed by Albanians (1%), Turks, Arabs etc.

With the exile of Jews from Spainmarker during the infamous Inquisition era, thousands of escaping families and individuals made their way through Europe to the Balkans. A goodly number settled in Serbia and became part of the general population. They were well accepted and during the ensuing generations the majority assimilated or became traditional or secular, rather than remain orthodox Jews as had been the original immigrants. Later on the wars that ravaged the region resulted in a great part of the Serbian Jewish population emigrating from Europe.


With a GDP PPP for 2008 estimated at $79.662 billion ($10,792 per capita PPP), the Republic of Serbia is an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank. FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) in 2006 was $5.85 billion or €4.5 billion. FDI for 2007 reached $4.2 Billion while real GDP per capita figures are estimated to have reached $6,781 (April 2009). The GDP growth rate showed increase by 6.3% (2005), 5.8% (2006), reaching 7.5% in 2007 and 8.7% in 2008 as the fastest growing economy in the region. According to Eurostat data, Serbian PPS GDP per capita stood at 37 per cent of the EU average in 2008.

At the beginning of economic transition in 1989, the politics of the Yugoslav government handprints gets favorable economic outlook. Also, the economic sanctions of 1992 to 1995, as well as the industry damage suffered during the Kosovo War devastating economic climate within Serbia. The loss of former Yugoslav and Comecon markets had devastating effects on the exporters.

After the people ousted the former Federal Yugoslav President Milošević in October 2000, the country experienced faster economic growth, and has been preparing for membership in the European Union, its most important trading partner.

The recovery of the economy still faces many problems, among which unemployment (14%) high export/import trade deficit and considerable national debt are most prominent. The country expects some major economic impulses and high growth rates in the next years. Given its recent high economic growth rates, which averaged 6.6% in the last three years, foreign analysts have sometimes labeled Serbia as the “Balkan Tiger”.

Apart from its free-trade agreement with the EU as its associate member, Serbia is the only European country outside the former Soviet Union to have free trade agreements with the Russian Federationmarker and, more recently, Belarusmarker. Apart from its favorable economic agreements with both the East and West, such steps could be soon undertaken with Turkeymarker and Iranmarker. By doing this Serbia hopes to set up an export-oriented economy.

Blue-chip corporations investing in Serbia include: US Steel, Philip Morris, Microsoft, FIATmarker, Coca-Cola, Lafarge, Siemens, Carlsberg and others.In the energy, Russian giants Lukoil and Gazprom have invested heavily.The banking sector has attracted investments from Banca Intesa (Italymarker), Credit Agricole and Societe Generale (Francemarker), HVB Bank (Germany), Erste Bank (Austriamarker), Eurobank EFG and Piraeus Bank (Greecemarker), and others. U.S. based Citibank, opened a representative office in Belgrademarker in December 2006.In the trade sector, biggest foreign investors are France's Intermarche, German Metro Cash & Carry, Greek Veropoulos, and Slovenian Mercator.

Serbia grows about one-third of the world's raspberries and is the leading frozen fruit exporter.


Light blue represent recognition of Serbian as minority language, dark blue official language.

89% of households in Serbia have fixed telephone lines, and the number of cell-phone users surpasses the number of population of Serbia itself by 30%, accounting to 9,60 million users (7,39 million citizens). (Telekom Srbija–5,65 million, Telenor has 3,1 million users and Vip mobile has the rest). [5034] 46.8% of households have computers, 36.7% use the internet, and 42% have cable TV, which puts the country ahead of certain member states of the EU.


Serbia owns one of the world's oldest airline carriers, Jat Airways, founded in 1927. There are 3 international airports in Serbia: Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airportmarker, Niš Constantine the Great Airportmarker and Vršac international airportmarker as well as one in Kosovo, Pristina International Airportmarker .

Historians have labeled the entire Serbia, and especially the valley of the Moravamarker, as "the crossroads between East and West", which is one of the primary reasons for its turbulent history. The Morava valley route, which avoids mountainous regions, is by far the easiest way of traveling overland from continental Europe to Greece and Asia Minormarker. Modern Serbia was the first among its neighbors to buy railroads- in 1858 the first train arrived to Vrsacmarker, then Austria-Hungary (by 1882 route to Belgrademarker and Nišmarker was completed). Serbian Railways handles the entire railway links in Serbia.

European routes E65, E70, E75 and E80, as well as the E662, E761, E762, E763, E771, and E851 pass through the country. The E70 westwards from Belgrade and most of the E75 are modern highways of motorway / autobahn standard or close to that. As of 2005, Serbia has 1,481,498 registered cars, 16,042 motorcycles, 9,626 buses, 116,440 trucks, 28,222 special transport vehicles, 126,816 tractors, and 101,465 trailers.

The Danube River, central Europe's connection to the Black Sea, flows through Serbia. Through Danube-Rhine-Mein canal the North Sea is also accessible. Tisza river offers a connection with Eastern Europe while the Sava river connects her to western former Yugoslav republics near the Adriatic Sea.


Serbia’s government, businesses, and citizen’s concentrate their tourism on the villages and mountains of the country. The most famous mountain resorts are Zlatibormarker, Kopaonikmarker, and the Taramarker. There are also many spas in Serbia, one the biggest of which is Vrnjačka Banjamarker. Other spas include Soko Banja and Niška Banjamarker. There is a significant amount of tourism in the largest cities like Belgrademarker, Novi Sadmarker and Nišmarker, but also in the rural parts of Serbia like the volcanic wonder of Đavolja varošmarker, Christian pilgrimage across the country and the cruises along the Danube, Sava or Tisza. There are several popular festivals held in Serbia, such as the EXIT Festival (proclaimed the best European festival by UK Festival Awards 2007 and Yourope, the European Association of the 40 largest festivals in Europe) and the Guča trumpet festival. 2,2 million tourists visited Serbia in 2007, a 15% increase compared to 2006.


For centuries straddling the boundaries between East and West, Serbia had been divided among: the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire; between Kingdom of Hungary, Bulgarian Empire, Frankish Kingdom and Byzantium; and between the Ottoman Empire and the Austrian Empire (later Austria-Hungary), as well as Venicemarker in the south. The result of these overlapping influences are distinct characters and sharp contrasts between various Serbian regions, its northmarker being more tied to Western Europe and south leaning towards the Balkans and the Mediterranean Sea.
Despite these confronting influences Serbian identity is quite solid, being described as the "most westernized of the Eastern Orthodox peoples, both socially and culturally" by the Encyclopedia of World History (2001).

The Byzantine Empire's influence on Serbia was profound, through introduction of Greek Orthodoxy from 7th century onwards (today- Serbian Orthodox Church). Different influences were also present- chiefly the Ottoman, Hungarian, Austrian and also Venetianmarker (coastal Serbs). Serbs use both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. The monasteries of Serbia, built largely in the Middle Ages, are one of the most valuable and visible traces of medieval Serbia's association with the Byzantium and the Orthodox World, but also with the Romanic (Western) Europe that Serbia had close ties with back in Middle Ages. Most of Serbia's queens still remembered today in Serbian history were of foreign origin, including Hélène d'Anjou (a cousin of Charles I of Sicily), Anna Dondolo (daughter of the Doge of Venicemarker, Enrico Dandolo), Catherine of Hungary, and Symonide of Byzantium.

Serbia has eight cultural sites marked on the UNESCO World Heritage list: Stari Rasmarker and Sopoćani monasteries (included in 1979), Studenicamarker Monastery (1986), the Medieval Serbian Monastic Complex in Kosovo, comprising: Dečani Monasterymarker, Our Lady of Ljevišmarker, Gračanicamarker and Patriarchate of Pec- (2004, put on the endangered list in 2006), and Gamzigrad – Romuliana, Palace of Galeriusmarker, added in 2007. Likewise, there are 2 literarymarker memorials added on the UNESCOmarker's list as a part of the Memory of the World Programme: Miroslav Gospels, handwriting from the 12th century (added in 2005), and Nikola Tesla's archive (2003).

The most prominent museum in Serbia is the National Museum, founded in 1844 ; it houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits,(over 5600 paintings and 8400 drawings and prints) including many foreign masterpiece collections and the famous Miroslavljevo Jevanđelje.Currently museum is under reconstruction.The museum is situated in Belgrademarker.

Serbian theatre and cinema

Serbia has a well-established theatrical tradition with many theaters. The Serbian National Theatre was established in 1861 with its building dating from 1868. The company started performing opera from the end of the 19th century and the permanent opera was established in 1947. It established a ballet company.

Bitef, Belgrade International Theatre Festival, is one of the oldest theatre festivals in the world. New Theatre Tendencies is the constant subtitle of the Festival. Founded in 1967, Bitef has continually followed and supported the latest theater trends. It has become one of five most important and biggest European festivals. It has become one of the most significant culture institutions of Serbia.

Cinema prospered after World War II. The most notable postwar director was Dušan Makavejev who was internationally recognised for Love Affair: Or the Case of the Missing Switchboard Operator in 1969 focussing on Yugoslav politics. Makavejev's Montenegro was made in Sweden in 1981. Zoran Radmilović was one of the most notable actors of the postwar period.

Serbian cinema continued to make progress despite the turmoil in the 1990s. Emir Kusturica won a Golden Palm for Best Feature Film at the Cannes Film Festivalmarker for Underground in 1995. In 1998, Kusturica won a Silver Lion for directing Black Cat, White Cat.

As at 2001, there were 167 cinemas in Serbia (excluding Kosovomarker and Metohija) and over 4 million Serbs went to the cinema in that year. In 2005, San zimske noći (A Midwinter Night's Dream ) directed by Goran Paskaljević caused controversy over its criticism of Serbia's role in the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s.


Education in Serbia is regulated by the Ministry of Education. Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools ( ) at the age of seven, and remain there for eight years.

The roots of the Serbian education system date back to the 11th and 12th centuries when the first Catholic colleges were founded in Vojvodina (Titelmarker, Bačmarker). Medieval Serbian education, however, was mostly conducted through the Serbian Orthodox monasteries (Sopocani, Studenicamarker, Patriarchate of Pecmarker) starting from the rise of Raska in 12th century, when Serbs overwhelmingly embraced Orthodoxy rather than Catholicism.

The first university in Serbia was founded in revolutionary Belgrademarker in 1808 as the Belgrade Higher School, the precursor of the contemporary University of Belgrade. For example, the University of Belgrade Faculty of Law is today one of regional leaders in legal education. The oldest college (faculty) within current borders of Serbia dates back to 1778; founded in the city of Sombormarker, then Habsburg Empire, it was known under the name Norma and was the oldest Slavic Teacher's college in Southern Europe.


All holidays in Serbia are regulated by the Law of national and other holidays in Republic of Serbia (Zakon o državnim i drugim praznicima u Republici Srbiji). The following holidays are observed state-wide:

Date Name Notes
1 January / 2 January New Year's Day (Nova Godina) non-working holiday
7 January Orthodox Christmas (Božić) non-working holiday
27 January Saint Sava's Day – Spirituality day (SavindanDan Duhovnosti) working holiday (in memory on the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church)
15 February CandlemasStatehood day (SretenjeDan državnosti) non-working holiday (in memory on the First Serbian Uprising)
17 April Orthodox Great Friday (Veliki petak) non-working holiday (date for 2009 only)
18 April Orthodox Great Saturday (Velika subota) non-working holiday (date for 2009 only)
19 April Orthodox Easter (Vaskrs) non-working holiday (date for 2009 only)
20 April Orthodox Easter Monday (Veliki ponedeljak) non-working holiday (date for 2009 only)
1 May / 2 May Labour Day (Dan rada) non-working holiday
9 May Victory Day (Dan pobede) working holiday
28 June Saint Vitus' Day – Day of the fallen for the fatherland (Vidovdan – Dan Srba palih za otadžbinu) working holiday (in memory of the Battle of Kosovo in 1389)

Also, members of other religions have the right not to work on days of their holidays.


The Sport in Serbia revolves mostly around team sports: football, basketball, water polo, volleyball, handball, and, more recently, tennis. The two main football clubs in Serbia are Red Star Belgrade and FK Partizan, both from capital Belgrade. Red Star is the only Serbian and former Yugoslav club that has won a UEFA competition, winning the 1991 European Cup in Barimarker, Italy. The same year in Tokyo, Japan, the club won the Intercontinental Cup. Partizan is the first club from Serbia to take part in the UEFA Champions League group stages subsequent to the breakup of the Former Yugoslavia. The matches between two rival clubs are known as "Eternal Derby" ( ).

Serbia was host of EuroBasket 2005. FIBA considers Serbia national basketball team the direct descendant of the famous Yugoslavia national basketball team. KK Partizan was the European champion in 1992 with curiosity of winning the title, although playing all but one of the games (crucial quarter-final game vs. Knorr) on foreign grounds; FIBA decided not to allow teams from Former Yugoslavia play their home games at their home venues, because of open hostilities in the region. KK Partizan was not allowed to defend the title in the 1992–1993 season, because of UN sanction. Players from Serbia made deep footprint in history of basketball, having success both in the top leagues of Europe and in the NBA. Serbia is one of the traditional powerhouses of world basketball, winning various FIBA World Championships, multiple Eurobaskets and Olympic medals (albeit as FR Yugoslavia).

Serbian capital Belgrade hosted the 2006 Men's European Water Polo Championship. The Serbia national water polo team was previously known as the Yugoslavia national water polo team. After becoming independent, Serbia have won 2006 European championship, finished as runner-up in 2008 and won bronze medal at 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing. VK Partizan won 6 titles of European champion and it is the second best European team in history of water polo.

Serbia and Italy were host nations at 2005 Men's European Volleyball Championship. The Serbia men's national volleyball team is the direct descendant of Yugoslavia men's national volleyball team. After becoming independent, Serbia won bronze medal at 2007 Men's European Volleyball Championship held in Moscow.

Serbian tennis players Novak Đoković, Ana Ivanović, Jelena Janković, Nenad Zimonjić and Janko Tipsarević are very successful and led to a popularisation of tennis in Serbia.

Milorad Čavić and Nađa Higl in swimming, Olivera Jevtić, Dragutin Topić in athletics, Aleksandar Karakašević in table tennis, Jasna Šekarić in shooting are also very popular athletes in Serbia.


Serbian cuisine is varied, the turbulent historical events influenced the food and people, and each region has its own peculiarities and differences. It is strongly influenced by the Byzantine-Greek, Mediterranean, Oriental and Austro-Hungarian styles.

International rankings

Name Year Place Out of # Reference
CIA World FactbookGDP per capita (PPP) 2008 100th 229 [5035]
CIA World Factbooklife expectancy 2008 96th 223 [5036]
World Economic Forum – Enabling Trade Index ranking 2008 - 118 [5037]
Yale Universitymarker / Columbia UniversityEnvironmental Performance Index 2008 - 149 [5038]
The Economist Intelligence Unite-readiness 2008 - 70 [5039]
The Economist Intelligence UnitGlobal Peace Index 2009 78th 144 [5040]
United States Patent and Trademark Office's list of patents by country (As FRY) 2007 44th 172 [5041]
Save the Children – Mother's Index Rank 2007 - 141 [5042]
Save the Children – Women's Index Rank 2007 - 141 [5043]
Save the Children – Children's Index Rank 2007 - 141 [5044]
Wall Street Journal / The Heritage FoundationIndex of Economic Freedom 2009 109th 179 [5045]
United NationsHuman Development Index 2009 65th 179 [5046]
World Economic Forum – Global Competitiveness Report 2007–2008 2007 91st 131 [5047]
World Economic Forum – The Global Gender Gap Report 2007 2007 - 128 [5048]
World BankEase of Doing Business Index 2007 94th 178 [5049]
Reporters Without BordersWorldwide Press Freedom Index 2008 64th 173 [5050]
Transparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions Index 2008 85th 180 [5051]
The Economist Intelligence UnitIndex of Democracy 2007 55th 167 [5052]
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOfficial Development Assistance by country as a percentage of GNI 2006 - 34 [5053]
Privacy InternationalPrivacy index (EU and 11 other selected countries) 2006 - 36 [5054]
New Economics FoundationHappy Planet Index 2006 - 178 [5055]
The Economist Intelligence UnitQuality-of-life index 2005 - 111 [5056]
Save the Children – % seats in the national government held by women 2004 8% 141 [5057]
World Health Organizationsuicide rates by country 17th 100 [5058]

See also


  2. Hrčak - Scrinia Slavonica, Vol.2 No.1 Listopad 2002
  4. Srpsko Nasledje
  6. Fresco of King Mihailo
  7. Crucified Kosovo: Ljubisa Folic: Crucified Heritage
  9. English translation: Leopold Ranke, A History of Serbia and the Serbian Revolution. Translated from the German by Mrs Alexander Kerr (London: John Murray, 1847)
  10. 200 godina ustanka
  11. Vladimir Corovic: Istorija srpskog naroda
  12. L. S. Stavrianos, The Balkans since 1453 (London: Hurst and Co., 2000), p. 248–250.
  13. The Balkan Wars and the Partition of Macedonia
  14. "Typhus fever on the Eastern front of World War I". Montana State University.
  15. First World - Primary Documents - Vasil Radoslavov on Bulgaria's Entry into the War, 11 October 1915
  16. Највећа српска победа: Фронт који за савезнике није био битан
  17. The Minor Powers During World War One - Serbia
  18. Richard J.Krampton, Balkans after WWII, pg 30
  20. Ustaša - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  21. Jasenovac USHMM Holocaust Encyclopedia. Accessed 2008-08-10.
  22. Jasenovac Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed 2008-08-10.
  25. Glenny, Misha. Balkans: Nationalism, War and the Great Powers, 1804-1999. New York, USA: Penguin Books, 2001. Pp. 431 USTASHE. "With the financial assistance of Italian government, Pavelic set about the construction of two main training camps, one in Hungary, one in Italy..."
  26. Mass crimes against humanity and genocides: A list of atrocities from 1450 CE until the end of World War II
  27. Commemoration held for victims of Jasenovac death camp
  28. Richard J. Krampton, Balkans after World War II, pg 37/8
  29. same source
  30. Danas
  31. Grad Beograd - Važne godine u istoriji grada
  32. Tema nedelje: Srbija u ustavima: Kardeljeve norme: POLITIKA
  33. CNN Cold War - Profile: Josip Broz Tito
  36. Wide Angle, Milosevic and the Media. "Part 3: Dictatorship on the Airwaves." PBS. [1] Quotation from film: "...the things that happened at state TV, warmongering, things we can admit to now: false information, biased reporting. That went directly from Milošević to the head of TV".
  37. "Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina". International Centre Against Censorship. Article 19, May 1994. Avon, United Kingdom: The Bath Press. Pp. 59
  38. Baumgartl, Bernd; Favell, Adam. 1995. New Xenophobia in Europe. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Pp. 52
  39. Gagnon, Valère Philip. 2004. The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s. Cornell University Press. Pp. 5
  40. B92 - News - Politics - NATO offers "intensified dialogue" to Serbia
  41. ABOUT THE CARPATHIANS - Carpathian Heritage Society
  42. Belgrade has a harbour on Sava as well
  45. Radovanović, M and Dučić, V, 2002, Variability of Climate in Serbia in the Second Half of the 20th century, EGS XXVII General Assembly, Nice, 21 April to 26 April 2002, abstract #2283, 27:2283–, provided by the Smithsonian / NASA Astrophysics Data System
  49. From the Pancevo industrial complex (petrochemical plant, fertilizer plant and oil refinery), which stands at the confluence of the Tamis River and the Danube, more than 100 tons of mercury, 2,100 metric tons of 1.2-dichlorethane, 1,500 tons of vinyl chloride (3,000 times higher than permitted levels), 15,000 tons of ammonia, 800 tons of hydrochloric acid, 250 tons of liquid chlorine, vast quantities of dioxin (a component of Agent Orange and other defoliants), and significant quantities of sulphur dioxide and nitrates were released into the atmosphere, soil and waterways. From the "Zastava" car factory in Kragujevac, unknown quantities of pyralene oil leaked into the Lepenica River (a tributary of the Velika Morava) via the sewage system.
  52. in-serbia-53539
  54. Microsoft Word - Delovi_knjiga_III.doc
  55. Little China in Belgrade. BBC News. February 12, 2001.
  56. Success Stories - School for All. Government of the Republic of Serbia.
  57. A young Roma woman in Serbia overcomes poverty and discrimination. UNICEF Serbia.
  58. According to the 1921 census, the German community was the largest non-Slavic ethnic group in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (505,790, or 4.22% of the population). [2] (PDF)
  62. Gross Domestic Product of the Republic of Serbia 1997–2005, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
  63. Economic Trends in the Republic of Serbia 2006, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
  64. National Account Statistics
  71. JAT Airways hopes to regain market dominance in Eastern Europe, CEO says - International Herald Tribune
  72. f. Serbia. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History

External links

General information
  • Serbia from UCB Libraries GovPubs

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