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( ; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a province in the Northwest China region of the People's Republic of Chinamarker, and includes portions of the Loess Plateaumarker on the middle reaches of the Yellow Rivermarker as well as the Qinling Mountains across the southern part of the province.

Romanization and Name

By regular Hanyu Pinyin rules, if tone marks are not written, both Shaanxi and the neighbouring province of Shanximarker should be spelled "Shanxi"; the difference is in tone: Shānxī and Shǎnxī. To make the difference clear without tonal marks, the spelling "Shaanxi" was contrived (following the romanization system of Yuen Ren Chao) for the province of Shǎnxī, while "Shanxi" is used for the province of Shānxī. Shaanxi is the official spelling on Chinese Government's official web portal. This makes "Shaanxi" the only name of Chinese provinces that is not romanized according to pinyin rules.

History

Shaanxi is considered one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. Thirteen feudal dynasties established their capitals in the province during a span of more than 1,100 years, from the Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty.

The province's principal city and current capital, Xi'anmarker, is one of the four great ancient capitals of China and is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, which leads to Europe, Arabia and Africa.

Under the Han Dynasty, the Northern Silk Road was expanded to advance exploration and military purposes to the west. This Northern Silk Road is the northernmost of the Silk Roads and is about 2600 kilometres in length. It connected the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an to the west over the Wushao Ling Pass to Wuwei and emerging in Kashgarmarker before linking to ancient Parthia.

Under the Ming dynastymarker, Shaanxi was incorporated into Gansumarker but was again separated in the Qing dynastymarker.

One of the most devastating earthquakes in history occurred near Hua Shan, in south-eastern part of Shaanxi Province on January 23, 1556, killing an estimated 830,000 people (see 1556 Shaanxi earthquakemarker).

The end of the short-lived Jiangxi Soviet signalled the beginning of the Long March by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communists to the Shaanxi Soviet at Yan'an.

Geography

Desert in the north along the border with Inner Mongolia, the Loess Plateau in the central part of the province, the Qinling mountains running east to west in the south central part, and subtropical climate south of the Qinling mountains.

The northern part of Shaanxi is cold in the winter and very hot in summer with dry winter and spring. Its southern portion generally receives more rain. Annual mean temperature is roughly between 9°C and 16°C with January temperature ranging from −11°C to 3.5°C and July temperature ranging from 21°C to 28°C.

Other cities include: Baojimarker, Hanzhongmarker, Lintongmarker, Tongchuan, Xianyangmarker, Yan'anmarker, Ankangmarker.

Administration

Shaanxi consists of nine prefecture-level cities and one sub-provincial city:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Type
1 Xi'anmarker 西安市 Xī'ān Shì Sub-provincial city
2 Ankangmarker 安康市 Ānkāng Shì Prefecture-level city
3 Baojimarker 宝鸡市 Bǎojī Shì Prefecture-level city
4 Hanzhongmarker 汉中市 Hànzhōng Shì Prefecture-level city
5 Shangluo 商洛市 Shāngluò Shì Prefecture-level city
6 Tongchuan 铜川市 Tóngchuān Shì Prefecture-level city
7 Weinanmarker 渭南市 Wèinán Shì Prefecture-level city
8 Xianyangmarker 咸阳市 Xiányáng Shì Prefecture-level city
9 Yan'anmarker 延安市 Yán'ān Shì Prefecture-level city
10 Yulinmarker 榆林市 Yúlín Shì Prefecture-level city


See List of administrative divisions of Shaanxi for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Politics

The politics of Shaanxi is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Shaanxi is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Shaanxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor is considered to have less power than the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (中共陕西省委书记), colloquially termed the "Shaanxi CPC Party Chief"; since the Governor is always ranked as the First-Deputy Secretary in the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee.

Shaanxi was established as a provincial government since Qing Dynastymarker. In 10 January 1950, the People's Government of Shaanxi was established in Xi'anmarker. Ma Minfang was then appointed as the first Governor of Shaanxi.

Economy

Shaanxi's nominal GDP for 2008 was 685.1 billion RMB (98 billion USD) and GDP Per Capita was 18,246 RMB (2,627 USD). It ranked 22nd in the PRC.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Baojimarker New & High-Tech Industry Area
  • Xi'anmarker Economic & Technological Development Zone
  • Xi'an Export Processing Zone
  • Xi'an New & High-Tech Industry Area
  • Yanglingmarker Agricultural High-Tech Industry Area


Demographics

Nearly all the people in Shaanxi are ethnic Han Chinese, with pockets of Hui population in the north western region (adjacent to Ningxia). The southern part of Shaanxi, known as Guanzhong, where the provincial capital Xi'an is located, is more populated compared to the northern part.

Culture

Shaanxi cuisine
  • Qinqiang, the representative folk opera of Shaanxi.
  • Also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xi'an#Culture

Tourism

Terracotta Army
Banpo Neolithic village, near Xi'anDaqin PagodaImperial mausoleumsZhao MausoleumHuashan (Mount Hua), one of the five most famous mountains in China.Taibaishan (Mount Taibai), the highest peak of the Qinling Range.Mausoleum and Terracotta Army Museummarker of the First Qin Emperor in Xi'an (World Heritage Site)The city of Xi'anmarker: City Walls, Great Mosque, Bell Tower and Drum Towermarker, Forest of Stone Steles Museummarker, Shaanxi History Museummarker, Wild Goose PagodaYan'anmarker, the destination of the Long March and the center of Chinese Communist revolution from 1935 to 1948Biang Biang Noodles, one of the "ten strange wonders of Shaanxi" (陝西十大怪)

Media

  • Shaanxi Radio serves Xi'an and the surrounding Shaanxi province area with music, and news.




Education

Universities and colleges



Sports

Professional sports teams based in Shaanxi include:

References



External links




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