For the people of Shandong, see Shandong people
( ) is a
coastal province of
eastern People's Republic of China.
Its abbreviation is Lǔ
after the state of Lu
that existed here
during the Spring and Autumn
Shandong literally means "mountain's east", which refers
to the province's location east of the Taihang Mountains. The province is located in the lower reaches
of the Huang
He (Yellow River) and extends out to sea in the form
of the Shandong
Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the
northwest, Henan to the west,
Jiangsu to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the southeast; it also shares a very short
border with Anhui, between
Henan and Jiangsu.
A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ
(齐鲁/齊魯), after the
state of Lu
and state of Qi
that existed here during the
Spring and Autumn
Shandong is located on the eastern edge of the North China Plain
, and felt the influence
of Chinese civilization since remote antiquity. The earliest
dynasties (the Shang dynasty
) exerted varying degrees
of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was
inhabited by the Laiyi
peoples who were
considered as the "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the
Laiyi were eventually sinicized
During the Spring and Autumn
(春秋时期) and the Warring
(战国时期), regional states became increasingly
powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two
powerful states: the state of Qi (齐国) at
Linzi and the state of
Lu (鲁国) at Qufu.
is noted for being the home of Confucius
The state was, however, comparatively small, and eventually
succumbed to the powerful state of Chu
from the south. The state of Qi
the other hand, a major power throughout this entire period.
ruled included Linzi, Jimo (north of modern Qingdao) and
The Qin Dynasty
destroyed Qi and founded
the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BC. The Han Dynasty
that followed created two
("provinces") in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou Province
in the north and
in the south.
During the division of the Three
Shandong belonged to the Kingdom of Wei
, which ruled over northern
After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the
Western Jin Dynasty
gave way to
invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China,
including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so
Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao
, then Former
, then Former Qin
, then Later Yan
, then Southern
, then the Liu Song Dynasty
and finally the Northern Wei
, the first of the Northern Dynasties during the
Northern and Southern
Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern Dynasties
for the rest of this period.
the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on
the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, and proceeded to
Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought
back from India.
The Sui Dynasty
reestablished unity in
589, and the Tang Dynasty
presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of
this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit
, one of the circuits
division). Later on China splintered into warlord factions,
resulting in the Five
Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
period. Shandong was part of the
Five Dynasties, all based in the north.
The Song Dynasty
reunified China in the
late tenth century. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred
buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological
find. The statues included early
examples of painted figures, and are thought to have been buried
due to Emperor
's Song Dynasty
repression of Buddhism
The Song Dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin Dynasty
1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin Dynasty as Shandong East Circuit
and Shandong West Circuit
— the first use
of its current name.
province of Shandong was created by the Ming Dynasty. It also included much of modern-day Liaoning (in south Manchuria) at
However, the Manchus
increasingly asserted independence, and managed to conquer all of
China in 1644. Under the Qing Dynasty, which they founded, Shandong acquired (more or
less) its current borders.
During the nineteenth century, China became increasingly exposed to
Western influence, and Shandong, a coastal province, was especially
affected. Qingdao was leased to Germany in 1897 and Weihai to
Britain in 1898.
The rest of Shandong was generally
considered to be part of the German sphere of influence
. In addition, the
Dynasty opened Manchuria to
Han Chinese immigration during the 19th
century; Shandong was the main source of the ensuing tide of
Shandong was one of the first places in which the Boxer Rebellion
started and became one of
the centers of the uprising. In 1899, the Qing-Dynasty general
was appointed as governor of
the province to suppress the uprising. He held the post for 3
China was founded in 1911, Qingdao reverted to Chinese control in 1922, Weihai followed in 1930.
In April 1925, the warlord Zhang
, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General", became military
governor of Shandong Province. Time
dubbed him China's
"basest warlord". He ruled over the province until 1928, when he
was ousted in the wake of the Northern
.He was succeeded by Han
, who was loyal to the warlord Feng
but later switched his allegiance to the Nanjing
government headed by Chiang
. Han Fuju also ousted the warlord Liu Zhennian
, nicknamed the "King of Shandong
East", who ruled eastern Shandong Province, hence unifying the
province under his rule.
Japan began its invasion of China proper in the Second Sino-Japanese War, which
would eventually become part of the Pacific theatre of the Second World War.
Han Fuju was made
Deputy Commander in Chief of the 5th War Area and put in charge
defending the lower Yellow River valley. However, he abandoned his
base in Jinan when the Japanese crossed the Yellow River. He was
executed for not following orders shortly thereafter.
Shandong was occupied in its entirety by Japan, with resistance in
the countryside, and was one of the provinces where operation sankō
was implemented by general
. This lasted until the
surrender of Japan in 1945.
By 1945, communist
already held some parts of Shandong. Over the next four
years of the Chinese Civil War,
they expanded their holdings, eventually driving the Kuomintang (government of the Republic of
China) entirely out of Shandong by June 1949.
Republic of China was founded in October of the same
Under the new government, parts of western Shandong was initially
given to the short-lived Pingyuan
, but this did not last. Shandong also
acquired the Xuzhou and Lianyungang areas from Jiangsu province,
but this did not last either.
For the most part Shandong has
kept the same borders that it has today.
In recent years Shandong, especially eastern Shandong, has enjoyed
significant economic development, becoming one of the richest
provinces of the People's Republic of China.
Zhucheng, which is located in Shandong, is known as "dinosaur city"
as it has been the scene of many dinosaur finds in the past. On
December 31, 2008, it was announced that 7,600 dinosaur bones were
uncovered. This is believed to be the largest collection ever
found. These bones include tyrannosaurus
Shandong is mostly flat in terrain. The northwestern, western, and
southwestern parts of the province are all part of the vast
North China Plain
. The center of the
province is more mountainous, with the Taishan Mountains, Lushan Mountains,
and Mengshan Mountains being the
most prominent. The east of the province is the hilly
Peninsula extending into the sea; it separates Bohai Sea in the northwest from the Yellow Sea to the east and south.
The highest peak of
Shandong is the highest peak in the Taishan area: Jade Emperor Peak
, with a height of
River passes through Shandong's western areas, entering
the sea along Shandong's northern coast; in its traversal of
Shandong it flows on a levee, higher than the
surrounding land, and dividing western Shandong into the Hai He watershed in
the north and the Huai He watershed in the
The Grand Canal of
enters Shandong from the northwest and leaves on the
southwest. Lake Weishan
is the largest
lake of the province. Shandong's coastline is 3000 km long.
Peninsula has a rocky coastline with cliffs, bays, and
islands; the large Laizhou Bay, the
southernmost of the three bays of Bohai
Sea, is found to the north, between Dongying and Penglai; Jiaozhou Bay, which is
much smaller, is found to the south, next to Qingdao.
extend northwards from the northern coast of the
Shandong has a temperate climate
with moist summers and dry, cold winters. Average temperatures are
-5 to 1°C
in January and 24 to 28°C in July.
Annual precipitation is 550 to 950 mm.
Jinan serving as the province's economic and cultural
centre, the province's economic prowess has led to the development
of modern coastal cities located at Qingdao, Weihai, and Yantai. In addition, Weifang and Zaozhuang are also
The politics of Shandong is structured in a dual party-government
system like all other governing institutions in mainland
The Governor of Shandong
highest ranking official in the People's Government of Shandong.
However, in the province's dual party-government governing system,
the Governor has less power than the Shandong Communist Party of China
Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Shandong CPC Party Chief
Shandong ranks first among the provinces in the production of a
variety of products, including cotton
as well as precious metals such as
also has one of the biggest sapphire deposits in the world. Other
importants crop include sorghum
. Shandong has extensive petroleum deposits as well, especially in the
Dongying area in the Yellow River delta, where the Shengli Oilfield (lit.
Oilfield) is one of the major oilfields of China. Shandong also
from underground wells and
from sea water.
Shandong is one of the richer provinces of China, and its economic
development focuses on large enterprises with well-known brand
names. Shandong is the biggest industrial producer and one of the
top manufacturing provinces in China. Shandong has also
benefited from South
Korean and Japanese investment, due to its geographical proximity to
those countries. The richest part of the province is the
Peninsula, where the city of Qingdao is home to two of the most well-known brand names
of China: Tsingtao Beer and Haier.
's oil fields and
petroleum industries form an important component of Shandong's
the nominal GDP for Shandong was 3.11 trillion yuan (US$446 billion), ranking second in the country
(behind Guangdong and ahead of Jiangsu).
It's GDP per capita was 33,083 yuan (US$4,749), ranking
Shandong Coastal Vineyards
The production of wine is the second largest industry in the
Shandong Province, second only to agriculture.
Geographically, the southern hills average an elevation
of 200 meters, while the coastal
areas remain relatively flat. Most of the
soil is loose, well-ventilated, and rich in minerals and organic matter
that enable full development
of the root
Presently, there are more than 140 wineries in the region, mainly
distributed in the Nanwang Grape Valley and along the Yan-Peng
Sightseeing Highway. The region produced more than 40% of China's
grape wine production. Main varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon
, Cabernet Gernischt
are all at 20 years of age, considered
to be the golden stage for these grapes. Most of them maintain an
average saccharinity of above 20%.
- Jinan Export
- Jinan New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Qingdao Economic and Technical Development Zone
- Qingdao Export Processing Zone
- Qingdao Free Trade Zone
- Qingdao New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Qingdao Shi Laoren Tourist Holiday Resort
- Weifang Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone
- Weihai Economic and Technical Development
- Weihai Export Processing Zone
- Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park
- Yantai Economic Development Area
- Yantai Export Processing Zone
- Yantai New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
- Zibo National New
& Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
is the second most populous province of China, after Henan, with a
population of almost 92 million.
Over 99% of Shandong's
population is Han Chinese
groups include the Hui
and the Manchus
. Shandong citizens are also known to have the
highest average height of any Chinese province.
Shandong is divided into seventeen prefecture-level
, all of them prefecture-level cities
The seventeen prefecture-level
of Shandong are subdivided into 140 county-level
, and 60
). Those are in turn divided
into 1941 township-level
, 293 township
, two ethnic townships
, and 423 subdistricts
See List of
administrative divisions of Shandong
for a complete
list of county-level
are spoken in
Shandong. Linguists classify these dialects into three
broad categories: Ji Lu Mandarin
spoken in the northwest (as well as in neighbouring Hebei), such as
the Jinan dialect; Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in the
southwest (as well as in neighbouring Henan); and
Jiao Liao Mandarin spoken in the
Peninsula (as well as the Liaodong Peninsula across the sea), such as the Qingdao dialect.
When people speak of
the "Shandong dialect" (山東話), it is generally the first or the
second that is meant; the Jiao Liao dialects of Shandong are
commonly called the "Jiaodong dialect" (膠東話).
(鲁菜) is one of the
eight great traditions of Chinese
. It can be more finely divided into inland Shandong
cuisine (e.g. Jinan cuisine
-centered Jiaodong cuisine
in the peninsula; and
, an elaborate tradition originally intended for
imperial and other important feasts.
are popular types of Chinese opera
in Shandong; both originated
from southwestern Shandong.
Jingjiu Railway (Beijing-Kowloon) and Jinghu Railway
are both major arterial railways that pass through the western part
of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaocheng and Heze; the Jinghu passes
through Dezhou, Jinan, Tai'an, Qufu. and
Tengzhou. The Jiaoji
Railway is an important railway of Shandong, linking its two
largest cities of Qingdao and Jinan, with the
longest history of all.
Shandong has one of the densest and highest quality expressway
networks among all Chinese
provinces. At over 3000 km, the total length of Shandong's
expressways is the highest among the provinces. The Jiqing Expressway (Jinan-Qingdao) and Jingfu
Expressway (Beijing-Fuzhou, passing
through Shandong) are all important arterial
Peninsula, with its bays and harbours, has many important
ports, including Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Rizhao, and Longkou.
Many of these ports have historical
significance as well, as the sites of former foreign naval bases or
historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast
of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsula, further north across the sea.
airports include Jinan Yaoqiang Airport and Qingdao
Liuting International Airport.
Tourist attractions in Shandong include:
- Penglai, a town on the north of the Shandong peninsula
famed in Taoism.
- Qingdao, beach resort city on the south of the peninsula
famous for its Tsingtao beer
- Ba Da Guan, made up of eight streets
named after the eight great military forts of the ancient
- Zhan Qiao, a long strip pier stretches
into the sea and was the first wharf at Qingdao.
- Laoshan, a scenic area and Daoist centre to the east of Qingdao.
- Qingzhou, an ancient trading and administrative centre with
some famous archaeological discoveries.
- Weihai, a former British port city
important in the second
- World Heritage Sites:
Colleges and universities
Senior High Schools
Professional sports teams based in Shandong include: