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( ) is a coastal province of eastern People's Republic of Chinamarker. Its abbreviation is , after the state of Lu that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period.

The name Shandong literally means "mountain's east", which refers to the province's location east of the Taihang Mountainsmarker. The province is located in the lower reaches of the Huang Hemarker (Yellow River) and extends out to sea in the form of the Shandong Peninsulamarker. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebeimarker to the northwest, Henanmarker to the west, Jiangsumarker to the south, and the Yellow Seamarker to the southeast; it also shares a very short border with Anhuimarker, between Henan and Jiangsu.

A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ (齐鲁/齊魯), after the state of Lu and state of Qi that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period.

History

Shandong is located on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, and felt the influence of Chinese civilization since remote antiquity. The earliest dynasties (the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty) exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Laiyi peoples who were considered as the "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Laiyi were eventually sinicized.

During the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋时期) and the Warring States Period (战国时期), regional states became increasingly powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two powerful states: the state of Qi (齐国) at Linzi and the state of Lu (鲁国) at Qufumarker. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius. The state was, however, comparatively small, and eventually succumbed to the powerful state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi was, on the other hand, a major power throughout this entire period. Cities it ruled included Linzi, Jimomarker (north of modern Qingdaomarker) and Jumarker.

The Qin Dynasty destroyed Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BC. The Han Dynasty that followed created two zhou ("provinces") in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou Province in the north and Yanzhou Province in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms Shandong belonged to the Kingdom of Wei, which ruled over northern China.

After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin Dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao, then Former Yan, then Former Qin, then Later Yan, then Southern Yan, then the Liu Song Dynasty, and finally the Northern Wei Dynasty, the first of the Northern Dynasties during the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern Dynasties for the rest of this period.

In 412, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, and proceeded to Qingzhoumarker to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from Indiamarker.

The Sui Dynasty reestablished unity in 589, and the Tang Dynasty (618-907) presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits (a political division). Later on China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of the Five Dynasties, all based in the north.

The Song Dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find. The statues included early examples of painted figures, and are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's Song Dynasty repression of Buddhism (he favoured Taoism).

The Song Dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin Dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin Dynasty as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit — the first use of its current name.

The modern province of Shandong was created by the Ming Dynastymarker. It also included much of modern-day Liaoningmarker (in south Manchuria) at the time. However, the Manchus increasingly asserted independence, and managed to conquer all of China in 1644. Under the Qing Dynastymarker, which they founded, Shandong acquired (more or less) its current borders.
Dezhou, Shandong
During the nineteenth century, China became increasingly exposed to Western influence, and Shandong, a coastal province, was especially affected. Qingdaomarker was leased to Germanymarker in 1897 and Weihai to Britainmarker in 1898. The rest of Shandong was generally considered to be part of the German sphere of influence. In addition, the Qing Dynastymarker opened Manchuria to Han Chinese immigration during the 19th century; Shandong was the main source of the ensuing tide of migrants.

Shandong was one of the first places in which the Boxer Rebellion started and became one of the centers of the uprising. In 1899, the Qing-Dynasty general Yuan Shikai was appointed as governor of the province to suppress the uprising. He held the post for 3 years.

After the Republic of Chinamarker was founded in 1911, Qingdaomarker reverted to Chinese control in 1922, Weihai followed in 1930.

In April 1925, the warlord Zhang Zongchang, nicknamed the "Dogmeat General", became military governor of Shandong Province. Time dubbed him China's "basest warlord". He ruled over the province until 1928, when he was ousted in the wake of the Northern Expedition.He was succeeded by Han Fuju, who was loyal to the warlord Feng Yuxiang but later switched his allegiance to the Nanjing government headed by Chiang Kai-Shek. Han Fuju also ousted the warlord Liu Zhennian, nicknamed the "King of Shandong East", who ruled eastern Shandong Province, hence unifying the province under his rule.

In 1937 Japanmarker began its invasion of China proper in the Second Sino-Japanese War, which would eventually become part of the Pacific theatre of the Second World War. Han Fuju was made Deputy Commander in Chief of the 5th War Area and put in charge defending the lower Yellow River valley. However, he abandoned his base in Jinan when the Japanese crossed the Yellow River. He was executed for not following orders shortly thereafter.

Shandong was occupied in its entirety by Japan, with resistance in the countryside, and was one of the provinces where operation sankō was implemented by general Yasuji Okamura. This lasted until the surrender of Japan in 1945.

By 1945, communist forces already held some parts of Shandong. Over the next four years of the Chinese Civil War, they expanded their holdings, eventually driving the Kuomintang (government of the Republic of Chinamarker) entirely out of Shandong by June 1949. The People's Republic of Chinamarker was founded in October of the same year.

Under the new government, parts of western Shandong was initially given to the short-lived Pingyuan Province, but this did not last. Shandong also acquired the Xuzhoumarker and Lianyungangmarker areas from Jiangsumarker province, but this did not last either. For the most part Shandong has kept the same borders that it has today.

In recent years Shandong, especially eastern Shandong, has enjoyed significant economic development, becoming one of the richest provinces of the People's Republic of China.

Zhucheng, which is located in Shandong, is known as "dinosaur city" as it has been the scene of many dinosaur finds in the past. On December 31, 2008, it was announced that 7,600 dinosaur bones were uncovered. This is believed to be the largest collection ever found. These bones include tyrannosaurus and ankylosaurus.

Geography

Shandong is mostly flat in terrain. The northwestern, western, and southwestern parts of the province are all part of the vast North China Plain. The center of the province is more mountainous, with the Taishan Mountainsmarker, Lushan Mountains, and Mengshan Mountains being the most prominent. The east of the province is the hilly Shandong Peninsulamarker extending into the sea; it separates Bohai Sea in the northwest from the Yellow Seamarker to the east and south. The highest peak of Shandong is the highest peak in the Taishan area: Jade Emperor Peak, with a height of 1545 m.

The Yellow Rivermarker passes through Shandong's western areas, entering the sea along Shandong's northern coast; in its traversal of Shandong it flows on a levee, higher than the surrounding land, and dividing western Shandong into the Hai Hemarker watershed in the north and the Huai He watershed in the south. The Grand Canal of China enters Shandong from the northwest and leaves on the southwest. Lake Weishan is the largest lake of the province. Shandong's coastline is 3000 km long. Shandong Peninsulamarker has a rocky coastline with cliffs, bays, and islands; the large Laizhou Bay, the southernmost of the three bays of Bohai Sea, is found to the north, between Dongying and Penglaimarker; Jiaozhou Bay, which is much smaller, is found to the south, next to Qingdaomarker. The Miaodao Islands extend northwards from the northern coast of the peninsula.

Shandong has a temperate climate, with moist summers and dry, cold winters. Average temperatures are -5 to 1°C in January and 24 to 28°C in July. Annual precipitation is 550 to 950 mm.

With Jinanmarker serving as the province's economic and cultural centre, the province's economic prowess has led to the development of modern coastal cities located at Qingdaomarker, Weihai, and Yantai. In addition, Weifangmarker and Zaozhuang are also upstart cities.

Politics

The politics of Shandong is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Shandong is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Shandong. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Shandong Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Shandong CPC Party Chief".

Economy

Shandong ranks first among the provinces in the production of a variety of products, including cotton and wheat as well as precious metals such as gold and diamonds. It also has one of the biggest sapphire deposits in the world. Other importants crop include sorghum and maize. Shandong has extensive petroleum deposits as well, especially in the Dongying area in the Yellow Rivermarker delta, where the Shengli Oilfield (lit. Victory Oilfield) is one of the major oilfields of China. Shandong also produces bromine from underground wells and salt from sea water.

Shandong is one of the richer provinces of China, and its economic development focuses on large enterprises with well-known brand names. Shandong is the biggest industrial producer and one of the top manufacturing provinces in China. Shandong has also benefited from South Koreanmarker and Japanesemarker investment, due to its geographical proximity to those countries. The richest part of the province is the Shandong Peninsulamarker, where the city of Qingdaomarker is home to two of the most well-known brand names of China: Tsingtao Beer and Haier. In addition, Dongying's oil fields and petroleum industries form an important component of Shandong's economy.

In 2008, the nominal GDP for Shandong was 3.11 trillion yuan (US$446 billion), ranking second in the country (behind Guangdongmarker and ahead of Jiangsumarker). It's GDP per capita was 33,083 yuan (US$4,749), ranking seventh.

Wine Industry

Shandong Coastal Vineyards
The production of wine is the second largest industry in the Shandong Province, second only to agriculture.

Geographically, the southern hills average an elevation of 200 meters, while the coastal areas remain relatively flat. Most of the soil is loose, well-ventilated, and rich in minerals and organic matter that enable full development of the root systems.

Presently, there are more than 140 wineries in the region, mainly distributed in the Nanwang Grape Valley and along the Yan-Peng Sightseeing Highway. The region produced more than 40% of China's grape wine production. Main varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt, Merlot, Riesling and Chardonnay are all at 20 years of age, considered to be the golden stage for these grapes. Most of them maintain an average saccharinity of above 20%.

Major Producers

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Jinanmarker Export Processing Zone
  • Jinan New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Qingdaomarker Economic and Technical Development Zone
  • Qingdao Export Processing Zone
  • Qingdao Free Trade Zone
  • Qingdao New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Qingdao Shi Laoren Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Weifangmarker Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone
  • Weihai Economic and Technical Development Zone
  • Weihai Export Processing Zone
  • Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park
  • Yantai Economic Development Area
  • Yantai Export Processing Zone
  • Yantai New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Zibomarker National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone


Demographics

Shandong is the second most populous province of China, after Henanmarker, with a population of almost 92 million. Over 99% of Shandong's population is Han Chinese. Minority groups include the Hui and the Manchus. Shandong citizens are also known to have the highest average height of any Chinese province.

Administrative divisions

Shandong is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Type
1 Jinanmarker 济南市 Jǐnán Shì Sub-provincial city
2 Qingdaomarker 青岛市 Qīngdǎo Shì Sub-provincial city
3 Binzhou 滨州市 Bīnzhōu Shì Prefecture-level city
4 Dezhou 德州市 Dézhōu Shì Prefecture-level city
5 Dongying 东营市 Dōngyíng Shì Prefecture-level city
6 Heze 菏泽市 Hézé Shì Prefecture-level city
7 Jining 济宁市 Jìníng Shì Prefecture-level city
8 Laiwumarker 莱芜市 Láiwú Shì Prefecture-level city
9 Liaochengmarker 聊城市 Liáochéng Shì Prefecture-level city
10 Linyi 临沂市 Línyí Shì Prefecture-level city
11 Rizhao 日照市 Rìzhào Shì Prefecture-level city
12 Tai'an 泰安市 Tài'ān Shì Prefecture-level city
13 Weifangmarker 潍坊市 Wéifāng Shì Prefecture-level city
14 Weihai 威海市 Wēihǎi Shì Prefecture-level city
15 Yantai 烟台市 Yāntái Shì Prefecture-level city
16 Zaozhuang 枣庄市 Zǎozhuāng Shì Prefecture-level city
17 Zibomarker 淄博市 Zībó Shì Prefecture-level city


The seventeen prefecture-level divisions of Shandong are subdivided into 140 county-level divisions (49 district, 31 county-level cities, and 60 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1941 township-level divisions (1223 town, 293 township, two ethnic townships, and 423 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Shandong for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Culture

Mandarin dialects are spoken in Shandong. Linguists classify these dialects into three broad categories: Ji Lu Mandarin spoken in the northwest (as well as in neighbouring Hebeimarker), such as the Jinan dialect; Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in the southwest (as well as in neighbouring Henanmarker); and Jiao Liao Mandarin spoken in the Shandong Peninsulamarker (as well as the Liaodong Peninsulamarker across the sea), such as the Qingdao dialect. When people speak of the "Shandong dialect" (山東話), it is generally the first or the second that is meant; the Jiao Liao dialects of Shandong are commonly called the "Jiaodong dialect" (膠東話).

Shandong cuisine (鲁菜) is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It can be more finely divided into inland Shandong cuisine (e.g. Jinan cuisine); the seafood-centered Jiaodong cuisine in the peninsula; and Confucius's Mansion cuisine, an elaborate tradition originally intended for imperial and other important feasts.

Shandong Bangzi and Lüju are popular types of Chinese opera in Shandong; both originated from southwestern Shandong.

Transport

The Jingjiu Railway (Beijing-Kowloonmarker) and Jinghu Railway (Beijing-Shanghai) are both major arterial railways that pass through the western part of Shandong. The Jingjiu passes through Liaochengmarker and Heze; the Jinghu passes through Dezhou, Jinanmarker, Tai'an, Qufumarker. and Tengzhoumarker. The Jiaoji Railway is an important railway of Shandong, linking its two largest cities of Qingdaomarker and Jinanmarker, with the longest history of all.

Shandong has one of the densest and highest quality expressway networks among all Chinese provinces. At over 3000 km, the total length of Shandong's expressways is the highest among the provinces. The Jiqing Expressway (Jinanmarker-Qingdaomarker) and Jingfu Expressway (Beijing-Fuzhoumarker, passing through Shandong) are all important arterial expressways.

The Shandong Peninsulamarker, with its bays and harbours, has many important ports, including Qingdaomarker, Yantai, Weihai, Rizhao, and Longkou. Many of these ports have historical significance as well, as the sites of former foreign naval bases or historical battles. Ferries link the cities on the north coast of the peninsula with the Liaodong Peninsulamarker, further north across the sea.

Important airports include Jinan Yaoqiang Airportmarker and Qingdao Liuting International Airportmarker.

Tourism

Tourist attractions in Shandong include:



Education

Colleges and universities



Senior High Schools



Sports

Professional sports teams based in Shandong include:

See also



Notes



External links




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