Shanghai World Financial Center (Abbr: SWFC; ) is a supertall skyscraper in
Pudong, Shanghai, China.
It is a mixed use skyscraper which consists
of offices, hotels, conference rooms, observation decks, and
shopping malls on the ground floors. Park Hyatt
is the hotel component containing 174 rooms and
is the highest hotel in the world, surpassing the Grand Hyatt
Shanghai on the 53rd to 87th floors of the neighboring
September 2007 the skyscraper was topped out at and became the
building in the world; as well as the tallest structure in the
People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong.
It is currently the world's tallest
completed building by roof.
On 28 August 2008, the SWFC officially opened for business. On
August 30 the Observation Deck opened with a view from 3 levels.
The highest view is at above ground level.
Designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox
101-story tower was originally planned for construction in 1997,
but work was temporarily interrupted by the Asian Financial Crisis
the late 1990s and later to accommodate design changes by the
developer. The building of the tower is financed by
several multinational firms, including Japanese, Chinese, and Hong
Kong banks, as well as by the Japanese developer
and as-yet unnamed American and European investors.
investment bank Morgan Stanley
coordinating the financing for Mori Building.
The foundation stone was laid on 27 August 1997. In the late 1990s
the Pierre de Smet Building Corporation had a fund shortage caused
by the Asian financial
in 1997 to 1998, which halted the project after the
foundations were completed. On 13 February 2003, the Mori Group
increased the building's height to 492 m and 101 stories from the
initial plans for a , 94-story building. The new building would use
the foundation of the original design. The building construction
resumed on 16 November 2003.
The building reached its total height of 492 m on 14 September 2007
after installation of the final steel girder. The final cladding
panels were installed in mid June 2008, and elevator installation
was finished in mid July 2008. On 17 July 2008 The Shanghai World
Financial Center was completed and on 28 August 2008, the SWFC
officially opened for business. On 30 August 2008, the observation
floors were opened to the public.
A fire broke out in the SWFC on 14 August 2007. The fire was first
noticed on the 40th floor, around 16:30 (GMT +8), and soon the
smoke was clearly seen outside the building. By 17:45, the fire had
been extinguished. The damage was reported to be slight and nobody
was injured in this accident. The cause of the fire is still
unknown, but according to some sources the preliminary
investigation suggested workers' electric weldings caused the fire.
The most distinctive feature in the design of the building is an
aperture at the peak. The original design specified a circular
aperture, in diameter, to reduce the stresses of wind pressure, as
well as serve as a subtext for the design, since "Chinese mythology
represents the earth with a square and the sky with a circle". It
also resembled a Chinese moon gate
its circular form in Chinese
. However, this initial design began facing
protests from some Chinese, including the mayor of Shanghai, who
considered it too similar to the rising
design of the Japanese flag
Pedersen then suggested that a bridge be placed at the bottom of
the aperture to make it less circular. On 18 October 2005, KPF
submitted an alternative design to Mori Building and a trapezoidal
hole replaced the circle at the top of the tower, which in addition
to changing the controversial design, will also be cheaper and
easier to implement according to the architects. In the eyes of
some, the building resembles a giant bottle opener
Inside the tallest observation deck in
There are 3 observation decks
Shanghai World Financial Center. The height of its lowest
observation deck (观光大厅) is , on the 94th floor, the second is high,
on the 97th floor, named "Observatory Bridge" (观光天桥), and the
highest (观光天阁) is high, on the 100th floor.
The skyscraper's roof height is set at 492 m, and has temporarily
claimed the highest roof in the world. Before construction
resumed on the roof, tower height was scheduled to be so the
building would hold the title of the world's tallest building
(structural top) over the Taipei 101, but a height limit was imposed, allowing the roof
to reach a maximum height of 492 m. Architect William Pedersen and developer
Minoru Mori have resisted suggestions to
add a spire that would surpass that of Taipei 101 and perhaps the
Tower, calling the Shanghai WFC a "broad-shouldered
The SWFC boasts a gross floor area of more than
and 31 elevators and 33 escalators.
Shanghai World Financial Center was named by architects as the best
skyscraper completed in 2008. Council on Tall
Buildings and Urban Habitat's Carol Willis, head of New York's
Museum states: "The simplicity of its form as well as its
size dramatizes the idea of the skyscraper."
noted its innovative
structural design: "Steel trusses gird against the forces of wind
and earthquake and made the building lighter, made it use less
steel, and contributed to its sustainability."