The Full Wiki

Shanxi: Map

  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



( ; Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of Chinamarker. Its one-character abbreviation is Jin (晋 pinyin jìn), after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn Period.

The name Shanxi literally means "mountain's west", which refers to the province's location west of the Taihang Mountainsmarker. Shanxi borders Hebeimarker to the east, Henanmarker to the south, Shaanximarker to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the north. The capital of the province is Taiyuanmarker.

History

Shanxi was the territory of state of Jin during the Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC - 403 BC), which underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States Period (403 BC - 221 BC). By 221 BC all of these states had fallen to the state of Qin, which established the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC).

The Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) ruled Shanxi as the province (zhou) of Bingzhou (幷州 Bīng Zhōu). During the invasion of northern nomads during the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304 - 439), what is now Shanxi was controlled contiguously by several regimes, including Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan. They were followed by Northern Wei (386 - 534), a Xianbei kingdom, which had one of its earlier capitals at present-day Datongmarker in northern Shanxi, and which went on to rule nearly all of northern China.

The Tang Dynasty (618 - 907), had its origins from Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. Modern Chinese people are called Tang Ren globally due to the power and impact of the Tang Dynasty in history. During the Tang Dynasty and after, the area was called Hédōng (河東), or "east of the (Yellow) river".

During the first part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907 - 960), Shanxi supplied three of the Five Dynasties, as well as the only one of the Ten Kingdoms to be in northern China. Shanxi was initially home to the jiedushi (commander) of Hedong, Li Cunxu, who overthrew the first of the Five Dynasties, Later Liang Dynasty (907 - 923) to establish the second, Later Tang Dynasty (923 - 936). Another jiedushi of Hedong, Shi Jingtang, overthrew Later Tang to establish the third of the Five Dynasties, Later Jin Dynasty, and yet another jiedushi of Hedong, Liu Zhiyuan, established the fourth of the Five Dynasties (Later Han Dynasty) after the Khitans destroyed Later Jin, the third. Finally, when the fifth of the Five Dynasties (Later Zhou Dynasty) was established, the jiedushi of Hedong at the time, Liu Chong, rebelled and established an independent state called Northern Han, one of the Ten Kingdoms, in what is now northern and central Shanxi.

Shi Jingtang, founder of the Later Jin Dynasty, the third of the Five Dynasties, ceded a large slice of northern China to the Khitan in return for military assistance. This territory, called The Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, included a part of northern Shanxi. The ceded territory became a major problem for Chinamarker's defense against the Khitans for the next 100 years, because it lies to the south of the Great Wall.

During the Northern Song Dynasty (960 - 1127), the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao Dynasty. The Southern Song Dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China to the Jurchen Jin Dynasty in 1127, including Shanxi.

The Mongol Yuan Dynastymarker divided China into provinces but did not establish Shanxi as a province. Shanxi was formally established with its present name and approximate borders by the Ming Dynastymarker (1368 - 1644). During the Qing Dynastymarker (1644 - 1911), Shanxi was extended northwards beyond the Great Wall to include parts of Inner Mongolia, including what is now the city of Hohhotmarker, and overlapped with the jurisdiction of the Eight Banners and the Guihua Tümed banner in that area.

During most of the Republic of Chinamarker's period of rule over mainland China (1912-1949), Shanxi was held by warlord Yen Hsi-shan, regardless of the frequent political upheavals that shook the rest of China. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan occupied much of the province after defeating China in the Battle of Taiyuan. Shanxi was also a major battlefield between the Japanese and the Chinese communist guerrillas of the Eighth Route Army during the war.

After the defeat of Japan, much of the Shanxi countryside became important bases for the communist People's Liberation Army in the ensuing Chinese Civil War. Yen had incorporated thousands of former Japanese soldiers among his own forces, and these soldiers became part of his failed defense of Taiyuan against the People's Liberation Army in early 1949.

For centuries Shanxi was the center of trade and banking, and the term "Shanxi Merchant" (晋商 jìnshāng) was once synonymous with wealth; the well-preserved city of Pingyaomarker, in Shanxi, also shows many signs of its former dominance as a center of trade and banking. Due to Shanxi's geographic location in the Great China and its natural environment, Shanxi was the richest province in Zhongyuan or Center China. In the Qing Dynasty, Pingyao was the centre of Chinese banking industry, a county in contemporary time famous for its UNESCO ancient city walls and ancient China's Wall Street for its financial importance in history. In modern times, the mining of coal is important in Shanxi's economy, but has also been the subject of severe criticism due to its deplorable conditions. Since 2004 the province has been plagued with labour safety issues, including a slave labour scandal involving children, causing significant civil unrest and national embarrassment.

Geography

Shanxi is located on a plateau, which is in turn made up of higher ground to the east (Taihang Mountainsmarker) and the west (Lüliang Mountains), and a series of valleys in the center through which the Fen River runs. The highest peak is Mount Wutaimarker (Wutai Shan) in northeastern Shanxi at an altitude of 3058 m. The Great Wall of China forms most of the northern border of Shanxi with Inner Mongolia.

The Huang Hemarker (Yellow River) forms the western border of Shanxi with Shaanximarker. The Fen and Qin rivers, tributaries of the Huang He, run north-to-south through the province, and drain much of its area. The north of the province is drained by tributaries of the Hai Rivermarker, such as Sanggan and Hutuo rivers. The largest natural lake in Shanxi is Xiechi Lake, a salt lake near Yunchengmarker in southwestern Shanxi.

Shanxi has a continental monsoon climate, and is rather arid. Average January temperatures are below 0 °C, while average July temperatures are around 21 - 26 °C. Winters are long, dry, and cold, while summer is warm and humid. Spring is extremely dry and prone to dust storms. Shanxi is one of the sunniest parts of China; early summer heat waves are common. Annual precipitation averages around 350–700 mm, with 60% of it concentrated between June and August. [12309]

Major cities:

Administrative divisions

Shanxi is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions, all of them prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Type
1 Taiyuanmarker 太原市 Tàiyuán Shì Prefecture-level city
2 Changzhimarker 长治市 Chángzhì Shì Prefecture-level city
3 Datongmarker 大同市 Dàtóng Shì Prefecture-level city
4 Jinchengmarker 晋城市 Jìnchéng Shì Prefecture-level city
5 Jinzhongmarker 晋中市 Jìnzhōng Shì Prefecture-level city
6 Linfenmarker 临汾市 Línfén Shì Prefecture-level city
7 Lüliangmarker 吕梁市 Lǚliáng Shì Prefecture-level city
8 Shuozhoumarker 朔州市 Shuòzhōu Shì Prefecture-level city
9 Xinzhou 忻州市 Xīnzhōu Shì Prefecture-level city
10 Yangquanmarker 阳泉市 Yángquán Shì Prefecture-level city
11 Yunchengmarker 运城市 Yùnchéng Shì Prefecture-level city


The 11 prefecture-level divisions of Shanxi are subdivided into 119 county-level divisions (23 district, 11 county-level cities, and 85 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1388 township-level divisions (561 town, 634 township, and 193 subdistricts).

See List of administrative divisions of Shanxi for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Politics

The Politics of Shanxi Province is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China (citation needed)!.

The Governor of Shanxi (山西省省长) is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Shanxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Shanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (山西省委书记), colloquially termed the "Shanxi CPC Party Chief".

The province went through significant political instability since 2004, due largely to the amount of scandals that have hit the province, mostly on labour safety. Yu Youjun and Meng Xuenong were top officials appointed by the central government to resolve sensitive issues as the province's party boss. But the situation has, by and large, deteriorated during their tenures in office. As a result both Yu and Meng were forced to relocate themselves to relatively insignificant positions elsewhere in the country. In 2008 Shanxi's regional political problems were complicated by the death of Political Consultative Conference Chair Jin Yinhuan due to a car accident.

Economy

The GDP per capita of Shanxi is below national average. Compared to the provinces in East China, Shanxi is less developed for many reasons. The geographic location is a key factor since it constrains Shanxi's participation in international trade, which involves mostly eastern coastal provinces. Important crops in Shanxi include wheat, maize, millet, legumes, and potatoes. Agriculture in Shanxi is greatly limited by Shanxi's arid climate and dwindling water resources.

Shanxi contains 260 billion metric tons of known coal deposits, about one third of China's total. As a result, Shanxi is a leading producer of coal in China, with annual production exceeding 300 million metric tonnes. The Datong (大同), Ningwu (宁武), Xishan (西山), Hedong (河东), Qinshui (沁水), and Huoxi (霍西) coalfields are some of the most important in Shanxi. Shanxi also contains about 500 million tonnes of bauxite deposits, about one third of total Chinese bauxite reserves.

Industry in Shanxi is centered around heavy industries such as coal and chemical production, power generation, and metal refining. There are countless military-related industries in Shanxi Province due to its geographic location and history when it is used to be the base of Chinese Communist Party and People's Liberation Army. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre, one of the three satellite launch centers of China, is located in the middle of Shanxi Province with the largest stockpile Nuclear Missiles of People's Republic of China.

Many private corporations joint with the state-owned mining corporations have invested billions of dollars in the Mining Industry of Shanxi Province. Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing has made one of his largest investment ever in China on exploiting coal gas in Shanxi. Foreign investors include mining companies from British Columbia (CA), Alberta (CA), Colorado (US), Texas (US), Japan, Britain, Germany and Italy.

The mining related companies include Daqin Railway Co. Ltd., which runs one of the busiest and most technologically advanced railway in China connecting Datongmarker and Qinhuangdaomarker and exclusively for coal shipping. The revenue of Daqin Railway Co. Ltd. is among the highest in Shanxi Province's companies due to its exporting of coal to Japan, Korea, and South-East Asia.

Shanxi's nominal GDP in 2008 was 693.87 billion yuan (US$100 billion), ranked eighteenth in China. Its per-capita GDP was 16,835 yuan (US$2,900).

Shanxi is infamous for bad working conditions in coal mining and other heavy industries. Thousands of workers have died every year in those industries. Cases of child labour abuse were discovered recently.

In contrast with the poverty, Shanxi is known for its wealthy mine owners in China. Consortiums of mine owners from Shanxi have influences in Beijing's real estate market because of their speculation. The only other wealth group in China having the same influence is the entrepreneurs from Wenzhoumarker, Zhejiangmarker Province which is the centre of light industry of China and the world.

Transportation

The transport infrastructure in Shaanxi is very developed. There are many important national highways and railways that connect the province with neighboring provinces.

Road

Shanxi's road hub is in the capital, Taiyuan. The major highways in province form a road network connecting all the counties. Examples of major highways are:
  • Dayun Highway(大運公路)
  • Datong-Yuncheng Highway (大同-運城)
  • Taiyuan-Jiuguan Expressway (太原-舊關高速公路)
  • Beijing-Shijiazhuang expressway (北京-石家庄高速公路)
  • Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu expressway (京津唐高速公路)
  • Beijing-Shenzhen expressway


Rail

Shanxi has extensive rail infrastructure to neighboring provinces. The rail network connects to major cities Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang, Beijing , Yuanping, Baotou, Datong, Menyuan and Jiaozuo. The province also have extensive rail network to coastal cities such as Qinghuandao, Qingdao, Yantai and Lianyungang.

The province has a rail network called the Shuozhou-Huanghua Railway. It will service Shenchi county in Shanxi with Huanghua port in Hebei. It will become the second largest railway for coal transport from west to east in China.

Aviation

Shanxi's main aviation transport is Taiyuan Airport. The airport has routes connecting Shanxi to 28 domestic cities including Beijing, Xi'an, Chengdu and Chongqing. There are international routes from Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan and Russia. There is also another airport at Datong City which has domestic routes to other mainland cities.

Demographics

The population is mostly Han Chinese with minorities of Mongol, Manchu, and Hui.

Ethnic groups in Shanxi, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese 32,368,083 99.68%
Hui 61,690 0.19%
Manchu 13,665 0.042%
Mongol 9,446 0.029%
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.

Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)

In 2004, the birth rate was 12.36 births/1000 population, while the death rate was 6.11 deaths/1000 population. The sex ratio was 105.5 males/100 females. [12310]

Culture

People in most regions of Shanxi speak dialects of Jin, a subdivision of spoken Chinese. However, dialects in the southwest, near the border with Henan and Shaanxi, are classified as part of the Zhongyuan Mandarin subdivision of the Mandarin group rather than Jin. In terms of characteristics, Jin dialects are generally distinguished by their retention of the entering tone from Middle Chinese. In this respect they are unique in all of northern China, as most of the surrounding Mandarin dialects (spoken over the remainder of northern China) have lost it. (In central and southern China, it is much more common for the entering tone to be kept.) Jin is also noted for extremely complex tone sandhi systems.

Shanxi cuisine is most well known for its extensive use of vinegar as a condiment and for its noodles. A dish originating from Taiyuanmarker, the provincial capital, is the Taiyuan Tounao (太原头脑, literally "Taiyuan Head"). It is a soup brewed using mutton, shanyao (山药, Chinese wild yam), lotus roots, astragalus membranaceus (黄芪, membranous milk vetch), tuber onions, as well as cooking liquor for additional aroma. It can be enjoyed by dipping pieces of unleavened cake into the soup, and is reputed to have medicinal properties.

Shanxi Opera (晋剧 Jinju) is a popular form of Chinese opera in Shanxi. It was popularized during the late Qing Dynasty, with the help of the then-ubiquitous Shanxi merchants who were active across parts of China. Also called Zhonglu Bangzi (中路梆子), it is a type of bangzi opera (梆子), a group of operas generally distinguished by their use of wooden clappers for rhythm and by a more energetic singing style; Shanxi opera is also complemented by quzi (曲子), a blanket term for more melodic styles from further south. Puzhou Opera (蒲剧 Puju), from southern Shanxi, is a more ancient type of bangzi that makes use of very wide linear interval.

Shanxi merchants (晋商 Jinshang) constituted a historical phenomenon that lasted for centuries from the Song to the Qing Dynasty. Shanxi merchants ranged far and wide from Central Asia to the coast of eastern China; by the Qing Dynasty they were conducting trade across both sides of the Great Wall. During the late Qing Dynasty, a new development occurred: the creation of piaohao (票号), which were essentially banks that provided services like money transfers and transactions, deposits, and loans. After the establishment of the first piaohao in Pingyaomarker, the bankers in Shanxi dominated China's financial market for centuries until the collapse of Qing Dynasty and the coming of British banks.

Tourism



  • Jinci in Taiyuan, famous for its temples and Song Dynasty paitings and architectures.


  • Zuoquan County, famous for its China Communist Party battlefield sites.








  • Mount Hengshanmarker (Heng Shan), in Hunyuan County, is one of the "Five Great Peaks" of China, and is also a major Taoist site. Not far from Heng Shan, the Hanging Templemarker is located on the side of a cliff and has survived for 1400 years despite earthquakes in the area.


  • Pagoda of Fugong Temple, in Ying County, is a pagoda built in 1056 during the Liao Dynasty. It is octagonal with nine levels (five are visible from outside), and at 67 m (220 ft) in height, it is currently the tallest wooden pagoda in the world. It is also the oldest fully-wooden pagoda in China, although many no-longer-existing wooden pagodas have preceded it, and many existing stone and brick pagodas predate it by centuries.






  • The Cloud Ridge Caves are shallow caves near Datongmarker. There are over 50,000 carved images and statues of Buddhas and Boddhisatvas within these grottoes, ranging from 4 centimeters to 7 meters tall.


Education

Major Post-Secondary institutes in Shanxi include:

Major Secondary Schools in Shanxi include:

References



External links




Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message