The Full Wiki

Shearwater: Map

Advertisements
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds. There are more than 30 species of shearwaters, a few larger ones in the genus Calonectris and many smaller species in the genus Puffinus. The Procellaria petrels and Bulweria were believed to belong to this group, but are only distantly related based on more recent studies, while the Pseudobulweria and Lugensa "petrels" are more closely related (Bretagnolle et al., 1998; Nunn & Stanley, 1998). The genus Puffinus can be divided into a group of small species close to Calonectris and a few larger ones more distantly related to both (Austin, 1996). One thing that can be agreed upon about taxonomy of Procellariidae is that it is in a state of flux.

These birds are most common in temperate and cold waters. They are pelagic outside the breeding season.

These tubenose birds fly with stiff wings and use a “shearing” flight technique to move across wave fronts with the minimum of active flight. Some small species, like Manx Shearwater are cruciform in flight, with their long wings held directly out from their bodies.

Many are long-distance migrants, perhaps most spectacularly Sooty Shearwaters, which cover distances in excess of from their breeding colony on the Falkland Islandsmarker (52°S 60°W) north to 65°-70°N in the North Atlantic Oceanmarker off north Norwaymarker. Short-tailed Shearwaters perform an even longer "figure of 8" loop migration in the Pacific Oceanmarker from Tasmaniamarker to as far north as the Arctic Oceanmarker off northwest Alaskamarker.

They are also extraordinarily long-lived. A Manx Shearwater breeding on Copeland Islandmarker, Northern Irelandmarker, is currently (2003/2004) the oldest known wild bird in the world: ringed as an adult (at least 5 years old) in July 1953, it was retrapped in July 2003, at least 55 years old. Manx Shearwaters migrate over to South America in winter, using waters off southern Brazilmarker and Argentinamarker, so this bird has covered a minimum of on migration alone.

Shearwaters come to islands and coastal cliffs only to breed. They are nocturnal at the colonial breeding sites, preferring moonless nights to minimize predation. They nest in burrows and often give eerie contact calls on their night-time visits. They lay a single white egg.

They feed on fish, squid, and similar oceanic food. Some will follow fishing boats to take scraps, notably Sooty Shearwater; these species also commonly follow whales to feed on fish disturbed by them. Their primary technique for feeding is diving and some species diving as much as under water.

Shearwaters are part of the family Procellariidae, which also includes fulmarine petrels, prion, and gadfly petrels.

List of species













Footnotes



References

  • Austin, Jeremy J. (1996): Molecular Phylogenetics of Puffinus Shearwaters: Preliminary Evidence from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 6(1): 77–88 (HTML abstract)


  • Bretagnolle, V., Attié, C., Pasquet, E., (1998) "Cytochrome-B evidence for validity and phylogenetic relationships of Pseudobulweria and Bulweria (Procellariidae)" Auk 115(1):188-195 PDf fulltext


  • Nunn, Gary B. & Stanley, Scott E. (1998): Body Size Effects and Rates of Cytochrome b Evolution in Tube-Nosed Seabirds. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15: 1360-1371. PDF fulltext Corrigendum


External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message