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A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house ("enshrine") one or more Shinto kami, and is usually characterized by the presence of a (also called ) or sanctuary, where the kami are enshrined. The honden may however be completely absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, or when there are nearby himorogi or other yorishiro that can serve as a more direct bond to a kami. There may be a , and other structures (see below).

The number of Shinto shrines in Japan is estimated to be around 100,000.

Interpreting shrine names

The term "Shinto shrine" is used in opposition to "Buddhist temple" to mirror in English the distinction made in Japanese between Shinto and Buddhist religious structures. This single English word however translates several non equivalent Japanese words, including as in Yasukuni Jinjamarker, as in Tsubaki Ōkami Yashiromarker, as in Watarai no Miya, as in Iwashimizu Hachiman-gūmarker, as in Meiji Jingūmarker, as in Izumo Taishamarker, , and .

Shrine names are descriptive, and a difficult problem in dealing with them is understanding exactly what they mean. Although there is a lot of variation in their composition, it is usually possible to identify in them two parts. The first is the shrine's name proper, or , the second is the so-called , or "title".

The meishō

The most common meishō is the location where the shrine stands, as for example in the case of Ise Jingūmarker, the most sacred of shrines, which is located in the city of Ise, Mie prefecture.

Very often the meishō will be the name of the kami enshrined. An Inari Shrine for example is a shrine dedicated to kami Inari. Analogously, a Kumano Shrine is a shrine that enshrines the three Kumano mountains. A Hachiman Shrine enshrines kami Hachiman. Tokyo's Meiji Shrinemarker enshrines the Meiji Emperor. The name can also have other origins, often unknown or unclear.

The shōgō

The second part of the name defines the status of the shrine.
  • is the most general name for shrine. Any place that owns a is a jinja. These two characters used to be read either "kamu-tsu-yashiro" or "mori", both meaning "kami grove". Both readings can be found for example in the Man'yōshū.
  • is a generic term for shinto shrine like jinja.
  • A is a place where a kami is present. It can therefore be a shrine and, in fact, the characters 神社, 社 and 杜 can all be read "mori" ("grove"). This reading reflects the fact the first shrines were simply sacred groves or forests where kami were present.
  • The suffix , as in Shinmeisha or Tenjinja, indicates a minor shrine that has received through the kanjō process a kami from a more important one.
  • is an extremely small shrine of the kind one finds for example along country roads.
  • is a shrine of particularly high status that has a deep relationship with the Imperial household or enshrines an Emperor, as for example in the case of the Ise Jingū and the Meiji Jingū. The name Jingū alone, however, can refer only to the Ise Jingū, whose official name is just "Jingū".
  • indicates a shrine enshrining a special kami or a member of the Imperial household like the Empress, but there are many examples in which it's used simply as a tradition.
  • indicates a shrine enshrining an imperial prince, but there are many examples in which it's used simply as a tradition.
  • A (the characters are also read ōyashiro) is literally a "great shrine" that was classified as such under the ancient system of shrine ranking, the , abolished in 1946. Many shrines carrying that shōgō adopted it only after the war.
  • During the Japanese Middle Ages, shrines started being called with the name gongen. For example, in Eastern Japan there are still many Hakusan shrines where the shrine itself is called gongen. Because it represents the application of Buddhist terminology to Shinto kami, the use of the term was legally abolished by the Meiji government with the , and shrines began to be called jinja.


Birth and evolution of Shinto shrines

In the Yayoi period the Japanese did not have the notion of anthropomorphic deities, and felt the presence of spirits in nature and its phenomena. Mountains, forests, rain, wind, lightning and sometimes animals were thought to be charged with spiritual power, a power whose material manifestations were worshipped as kami, entities closer in their essence to Polynesian mana than to a Western God. Yayoi village councils sought the advice of kami and developed instruments to evoke them called , a word that literally means approach substitute. Yorishiro were conceived to attract the kami and give them a physical space to occupy, thus making them accessible to human beings.

Village council sessions were held in a quiet spot in the mountains or in a forest near a great tree or other natural object that served as a yorishiro. These sacred places and their yorishiro gradually evolved into the shrines of a religion that did not have yet a name for itself. The origin of shrines can be still seen in the Japanese words for "mountain" and "forest", which can also mean "shrine".

The very first buildings at shrines were surely huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term , literally meaning "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora (also written with the character 神庫), one of the first words for shrine. (The term "hokora" today defines an extremely small shrine, of the type one sees on the side of many Japanese roads.) Many shrines have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro: a big tree, surrounded by a sacred rope called ; once a yorishiro, it is now itself an object of worship. Analogously, many other sacred objects we find today in shrines (mirrors, swords, comma-shaped jewels called magatama) were originally yorishiro, and only later became kami themselves by association. Some time in their evolution, the word meaning "palace" came into use, indicating that shrines had by then become the imposing structures of today.

Today's Shinto shrines, with their main hall ( and prominent religious images, came into being under the strong influence of Buddhism, but hints of what the first shrines were like can still be found. Ōmiwa Shrinemarker in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands. For the same reason, it has a worship hall (a ), but no place to house the deity ( ).

Archeology confirms that indeed during the Yayoi period the most common (a yorishiro housing the enshrined kami) in the earliest shrines was indeed a nearby mountain peak supplying with its streams water, and therefore life, to the plains below, where people lived. Besides the already mentioned Ōmiwa Shrine, another important example is Mount Nantaimarker, a phallus-shaped mountain in Nikko which constitutes Futarasan Shrinemarker's go-shintai. Significantly, the name itself means "man's body". The mountain not only provides water to the rice paddies below, but has the shape of the phallic stone rods found in pre-agricultural Jōmon sites.

Structure of a Shinto shrine

250 px!


The following is a diagram illustrating the most important parts of a Shinto shrine.

  • 1 Torii - Shinto gate
  • 2 Stone stairs
  • 3 Sandō - the approach to the shrine
  • 4 Temizuya - fountain to cleanse hands and face
  • 5 Tōrō - stone lanterns
  • 6 Kagura-den - building dedicated to Noh or the sacred kagura dance
  • 7 Shamusho - the shrine's administrative office
  • 8 Ema - wooden plaques bearing prayers or wishes
  • 9 Sessha/Massha - small auxiliary shrines
  • 10 Komainu - the so-called "lion dogs", guardians of the shrine
  • 11 Haiden - oratory
  • 12 Tamagaki - fence surrounding the main hall
  • 13 Honden - main hall, enshrining the kami


On the roof of the haiden and honden are visible chigi (forked roof finials) and katsuogi (short horizontal logs), both common shrine ornamentations.

The general blueprint of a Shinto shrine is Buddhist in origin. The presence of verandas, stone lanterns, and elaborate gates is an example of this influence. The composition of a Shinto shrine is extremely variable, and none of its possible features are necessarily present. As we have seen, even the honden can be missing.

However, since its grounds are sacred, they usually are surrounded by a fence made of stone or wood called , while access is made possible by an approach called sandō. The entrances themselves are straddled by the iconic gates called torii, which are therefore the simplest way to identify a Shinto shrine.

A shrine may include within its grounds several structures, each destined to a different purpose. Among them are the or sanctuary, where the kami are enshrined, the or hall of offerings, where offers and prayers are presented, and the haiden ( ) or hall of worship, where there may be seats for worshipers. The honden is the building that contains the shintai ( ), literally, "the sacred body of the kami". The goshintai is actually a temporary repository of the enshrined kami. Of these, only the haiden is open to the laity. The honden is located behind the haiden and is much smaller and unadorned. Other notable shrine features are the torii, or sacred gates, that delimit the sacred grounds and have become the symbol of Japan, the temizuya ( ), the fountain where visitors cleanse their hands and mouth, and the shamusho ( ), the office that administrates the shrine. Buildings are often adorned by chigi and katsuogi, variously oriented poles which protrude from their roof (see photo).

It was not uncommon for a Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine, or viceversa for a shrine to include Buddhist subtemples. If a shrine housed a Buddhist temple, it was called a jinguji ( ). Analogously, temples in the entire country adopted tutelary kami ( and built temple shrines to house them. After the forcible separation of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines (shinbutsu bunri) ordered by the new government in the Meiji period, the connection between the two religions was officially severed, but continued nonetheless in practice.

Massha at Katsuragi Shrine in Nara
structures that may be present within the grounds of a shrine are:
  • The kaguraden ( ), a stage for Noh or kagura ritual dance
  • The komainu ( ), or lion-dog statues at its entrance
  • The maiden/maidono ( ), where dances and music are performed
  • The rōmon ( ), a two-storied gate
  • The sessha ( ), auxiliary shrines dedicated to a deity closely related to that of the main shrine
  • The massha ( ), subordinate shrines below a sessha
  • The tamagaki ( ), a fence surrounding the shrine
  • The tōrō ( ), decorative stone lanterns


Shrine architectural styles

The Kannushi

The or is a priest responsible for the shrine's maintenance and for officiating ceremonies. He generally does not proselitize.

Originally the kannushi was an intermediary between kami and could transmit his will to common humans. A kannushi was a man capable of miracles or a holy man who, because of the practice of purificatory rites, was capable to work as a medium for a kami, but later the term evolved to being synonymous with shinshoku, that is, a man who works at a shrine and holds religious ceremonies there.

Traditionally, most shrines did not have a kannushi and were maintained by a committee of parishioners called Ujiko ( ). In a jinguji, a Buddhist monk had of course to maintain both his shrine and his temple.

Popular kami

A kami worshiped at a shrine is generally a Shinto kami, but sometimes Buddhist or Taoist deities can be worshiped, as well as other kami not generally considered to belong to Shinto. Some shrines are established to worship living people or figures from myth and legends. A famous example are the numerous Tōshō-gū erected to enshrine Tokugawa Ieyasu, or the many shrines dedicated to Sugawara no Michizane like Kitano Tenman-gūmarker.

In recent centuries, especially significant kami have come to be enshrined throughout Japan. Some kami and shrines that have widespread geographic distribution are:



Shrines with structures designated as National Treasures

Shrines that are part of a World Heritage Site are set in bold.

See also



Notes

References



External links




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