The Full Wiki

Shiraz: Map

  
  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Shiraz ( [ʃiːˈrɔːz]) is the sixth most populous city in Iranmarker and the capital of Fars Provincemarker. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iranmarker on the Rudkhaneye Khoshk seasonal river. Shiraz has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for more than a thousand years.

The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. Shiraz was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1781, as well as briefly during the Saffarid period.

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, wine and flowers. It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes. In Shiraz industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate. Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries: 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz. Shiraz is home to Iran's first Solar Power Plant.

Etymology

The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC, found in June 1970, while digging to make a kiln for a brick factory in the south western corner of the city. The tablets written in ancient Elamite name a city called Tiraziš. Phonetically, this is interpreted as /tiračis/ or /ćiračis/. This name became Old Persian /širājiš/; through regular sound change comes the modern Persian name Shirāz. The name Shiraz also appears on clay sealings found at a 2nd century AD Sassanid ruin, east of the city. By some of the native writers, the name Shiraz has derived from a son of Tahmuras, the third Shāh (King) of the world according to Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma.

History

Pre-Islamic

Shiraz is most likely more than 4,000 years old. The name Shiraz is mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions from around 2000 BC found in south western corner of the Shiraz city. According to some Iranian mythological traditions, it was originally erected by Tahmuras Diveband, and afterward fell to ruin. The oldest sample of wine in the world, dating to approximately 7,000 years ago, was discovered on clay jars recovered outside of Shiraz..

In Achaemenian era, Shiraz was on the way from Susamarker to Persepolismarker and Pasargadaemarker. In Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma it has been said that Artabanus V, the Parthian Emperor of Iran, expanded his control over Shiraz. Ghasre Abu-Nasr (meaning "the palace of AbuNasr") which is originally from Parthian era is situated in this area. During the Sassanid era, Shiraz was in between the way which was connecting Bishapurmarker and Gur to Istakhrmarker. Shiraz was an important regional center under the Sassanians.

Islamic period

The city became a provincial capital in 693, after the Arab invaders conquered Istakhrmarker, the nearby Sassanian capital. As Istakhr fell into decline, Shiraz grew in importance under the Arabs and several local dynasties. The Buwayhid empire (945 — 1055) made it their capital, building mosques, palaces, a library and an extended city wall. It was also ruled by Seljuk and Khwarezmid before the Mongol conquest.

The city was spared destruction by the invading Mongols, when its local ruler offered tributes and submission to Genghis Khan. Shiraz was again spared by Tamerlane, when in 1382 the local monarch, Shah Shoja agreed to submit to the invader. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. For this reason the city was named by classical geographers Dar al-‘Elm, the House of Knowledge. Among the important Iranian poets, mystics and philosophers born in Shiraz were the poets Sa'di and Hafez, the mystic Roozbehan, and the philosopher Mulla Sadra.
Bazar of Shiraz as seen by Jane Dieulafoy in 1881
As early as the 11th century, several hundred thousand people inhabited Shiraz. In the 14th century Shiraz had sixty thousand inhabitants. During the 16th century it had a population of 200,000 people, which by the mid-18th century had decreased to only 50,000.

In 1504 Shiraz was captured by the forces of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. Throughout the Safavid empire (1501–1722) Shiraz remained a provincial capital and Emam Qoli Khan, the governor of Fars under Shah Abbas I, constructed many palaces and ornate buildings in the same style as those built in the same period in Isfahanmarker, the capital of the Empire. After the fall of the Safavids, Shiraz suffered a period of decline, worsened by the raids of the Afghans and the rebellion of its governor against Nader Shah; the latter sent troops to suppress the revolt. The city was besieged for many months and eventually sacked. At the time of Nader Shah's murder in 1747 most of the historical buildings of the city were damaged or ruined, and its population fell to 50,000, a quarter of that of the 16th century.

Shiraz soon returned to prosperity under the enlightened rule of Karim Khan Zand, who made it his capital in 1762. Employing more than 12,000 workers, he constructed a royal district with a fortress, many administrative buildings, a mosque and one of the finest covered bazaars in Iran. He had a moat built around the city, constructed an irrigation and drainage system, and rebuilt the city walls. However, Karim Khan's heirs failed to secure his gains. When Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, eventually came to power, he wreaked his revenge on Shiraz by destroying the city fortification and moving the national capital to Tehranmarker. Although lowered to the rank of a provincial capital, Shiraz maintained a level of prosperity as a result of the continuing importance of the trade route to the Persian Gulf. Its governorship was a royal prerogative throughout the Qajar dynasty. Many of the famous gardens, buildings and residences built during the nineteenth century, contribute to the actual outlook of the city.



Shiraz is the birthplace of the co-founder of the Bahá'í Faith, the Báb (Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, 1819–1850). In this city, on the evening of 22 May 1844, he first declared his mission as the bearer of a new divine revelation and for this reason Shiraz is a holy city for Bahá’ís and a place of pilgrimage.

In 1910 a pogrom of the Jewish quarter started after false rumours that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. In the course of the pogrom, 12 Jews were killed and about 50 were injured, and 6,000 Jews of Shiraz were robbed of all their possessions.

The city's role in trade greatly diminished with the opening of the trans-Iranian railway in the 1930s, as trade routes shifted to the ports in Khuzestan. Much of the architectural inheritance of Shiraz, and especially the royal district of the Zands, was either neglected or destroyed as a result of irresponsible town planning under the Pahlavi dynasty. Lacking any great industrial, religious or strategic importance, Shiraz became an administrative centre, although its population has grown considerably since the 1979 revolution.

Islamic Republic

The municipality of Shiraz and the related cultural institutions have promoted and carried out many important restoration and reconstruction projects throughout the city. Among the most recent ones are the complete restoration of the Arg of Karim Khanmarker and of the Vakil Bath as well as a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the old city quarters. Other noteworthy initiatives of the municipality include the total renovation of the Qur'an Gate and the mausoleum of the poet Khwaju Kermani, both located in the Allahu Akbar Gorge, as well as the grand project of expansion of the mausoleum of the world famous poet Hafez.

Geography

Shiraz is located in the south of Iranmarker and the northwest of Fars Provincemarker. It is built in a green plain at the foot of the Zagros Mountainsmarker 1500 metres (5200 ft) above sea level. Shiraz is 919 kilometres (571 miles) south of Tehranmarker.A seasonal river, Rudkhaneye Khoshk, flows through the northern part of the city and on into Maharloo Lake.

Climate

Shiraz has a moderate climate with regular seasons.

Shiraz contains a considerable number of gardens. Due to population growth in the city, many of these gardens may be lost to build apartments. The rainfall in recent years, during which atmospheric conditions have changed perceptibly, has been comparatively sufficient, and has reached 23 inches in a year, but the average rainfall is between 14 and 18 inches.

Economy

Shiraz is the economic center of southern Iran. The second half of the 19th century witnessed certain economic developments that greatly changed the economy of Shiraz. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed the extensive import into southern Iran of inexpensive European factory-made goods, either directly from Europe or via India. Farmers in unprecedented numbers began planting cash crops such as opium poppy, tobacco, and cotton. Many of these export crops passed through Shiraz on their way to the Persian Gulf. Iranian long-distance merchants from Fars developed marketing networks for these commodities, establishing trading houses in Bombay, Calcutta, Port Said, Istanbul and even Hong Kong.

Shiraz's economic base is in its provincial products, which include grapes, citrus fruits, cotton and rice. Industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate. Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries. 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.

Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy in and around Shiraz. This is partially due to a relative abundance of water compared to the surrounding deserts. Shirāz is famous for its carpet production and flowers as well. Viticulture has a long history in the region, and Shirazi wine used to be produced here. Shiraz is also the most important city in Iran for IT, communication and electronic industry.

The Shiraz Special Economic Zone or the SEEZ was established in 2000.

Eram Street Winter 2006


Demography

As of 2006 Shiraz has a population of 1,227,331. Most of the population of Shiraz are persian Shia Muslims. Shiraz also is home to a 6,000 strong [[Iranian Jews|Jewish community Although most emigrated to the United States and Israel in the last half of the 20th century. Along with Tehranmarker and Esfahanmarker, Shiraz is one of the handful of Iranian cities with a sizable Jewish population, and more than one active synagogue.

There are currently two functioning churches in Shiraz, one Armenian the other Anglican

Culture

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, gardens, wine, nightingales and flowers. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; carpet-weaving, and the making of the rugs called gilim (Shiraz Kilim or Sheraz Kalim)and "jajim" in the villages and among the tribes.The garden is an important part of Iranian culture. There are many old gardens in Shiraz such as the Eram garden and the Afif abad garden. According to some people, Shiraz "disputes with Xeres [or Jerez] in Spain the honour of being the birthplace of sherry."

Shiraz is proud of being mother land of Hafez-e-Shirazi, Shiraz is an important centre for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets. Saadi, a 12th and 13th century poet was born in Shiraz. He left his native town at a young age for Baghdadmarker to study Arabic literature and Islamic sciences at Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdadmarker. When he reappeared in his native Shiraz he was an elderly man. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr Sa'd ibn Zangy (12311260) was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but he was highly respected by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province. He seems to have spent the rest of his life in Shiraz. Hafez, another famous poet and mystic was also born in Shiraz. A number of scientists also originate from Shiraz. Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, a 13th century astronomer, mathematician, physician, physicist and scientist was from Shiraz. In his The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens, he also discussed the possibility of heliocentrism.

Attractions of Shiraz

The more popular attractions of Shirāz include first and foremost the tombs ofHafezmarker, Saadi, and Khaju e Kermani (whose tomb is inside a mountain above the city's old Qur'an Gate). Other lesser known tombs are that of Shah Shoja' (the Mozafarid emir of Persia, and patron of Hafez), and the Haft Tanan mausoleum, where 7 Sufi mystics are buried. The Tomb of Baba Kuhi sits atop a mountain overlooking the city, and the tomb of Karim Khan Zand is at the Pars Museum of Shiraz. One of the most historical buildings is the Kian. This building was constructed around the time of Cyrus the Great, and has been a popular tourist attraction ever since.

Among the mosques, the oldest is Atigh Jame' Mosque, which is one of the older mosques of Iran, followed by Vakil Mosque and Nasir al-Mulk mosque with their unique architecture. There are several shrines as well, the most famous one is known as Shah Chiraghmarker ("The King of Lights").

The citadel of Arg of Karim Khanmarker sits adjacent to the Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Bath at the city's central district. The most famous of houses are Zinat-ol-Molook House and Gahavam's House, both in the old quarters of the city. Afifabad Garden and The Museum of Weapons, Eram garden, and Delgosha Garden are some of the popular remaining Persian gardens from eras gone by.

Within a relatively short driving distance from Shiraz are the spectacular ruins of Persepolismarker, Bishapurmarker, Pasargadaemarker, and Firouzabadmarker. At Naqsh-e Rustammarker can be found the tombs of the Achaemenid kings as well as the Ka'ba-ye Zartoshtmarker, which has been thought to be either a Zoroastrian fire temple or possibly even the true tomb of Cyrus the Great. Maharloo Lake is a popular breeding ground for various bird species.

These are some of over 200 sites of historical significance around Shiraz, according to Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization.

Naqsh-e Rostam, Shiraz: Located about 3-4 kilometers northwest of Persepolis in Iran's Fars province, the site contains funerary related works belonging to the Elamite (second millennium BCE), Achaemenid (550-330 BCE) and Sassanid (226-651 CE) eras. Naqsh-e Rostam is a site believed by archaeologists to have been a cemetery for Persepolis, where Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid royalty were laid to rest. Located about 3-4 kilometers northwest of Persepolis in Iran's Fars province, the site contains funerary relat

The Qur'an Gate is the entrance to Shiraz, the capital of Fars province in southern Iran and is one of the most beautiful and historical monuments in the country. It is located near the gorge of Allah-o-Akbar and is flanked by the Baba Kuhi and Chehel Maqam mountains. The gateway is where two copies of the holy Qurans known

Hafeziemarker (Tomb of Hafezmarker), one of the most popular attractions of Shiraz, is situated in a garden on the banks of Rukn-Abad river. The original structure, built in 1773 A.D during the reign of Karim Khan Zand, consisted of four stone columns at the centre, the north and south sides of which were open .On each of the other two sides a room had been built. Hafezie (Tomb of Hafez), one of the most popular attractions of Shiraz, is situated in a garden on the banks of Rukn-Abad river.The original str

The idyllic Eram Garden (Bagh-e Eram) in Shiraz is a striking location for visitors with a variety of plants as well as a historic mansion. The idyllic Eram Garden (Bagh-e Eram) in Shiraz is a striking location for visitors with a variety of plants as well as a historic mansion. Although the exact date of the construction of the garden is not clear, historical evidence suggests it was constructed during the Seljuk Dynasty on the orders of the celebrated Seljuk monarch Sanjar as many other ga

The mosque is the essence of Iranian art and architecture. This mosque is unique for its tile work and architecture. The construction work of mosque began in 1293 AH. Nasirol Molk who was one of the elite of Shiraz, is the founder of this mosque. Outstanding for its architectural technique, tileworks, and columniation, this is an imitation of Vakil Mosque. The mosque is the essence of Iranian art and architecture. The construction work of mosque began in 1293 AH. and was finally termina

Vakil Mosque is situated west of the famous Vakil Bazaar. It was built in 1187 (AH) during Zand Dynasty. It covers an area of 8,660 square meters. Vakil Mosque is situated west of the famous Vakil Bazaar. It was built in 1187 (AH) during Zand Dynasty. It covers an area of 8,660 square meters. On the two sides of the entrance gate there are magnificent tile-works and arches. The left and right corridors of the entrance gate are connected to the main room. Alongside the altar there is a 14-ste

The surviving ruins of Persepolis today are a mere shadow of Persepolis' former glory. It was founded by Darius I in 518 BC and was added to by the subsequent kings over a period of about 150 years. The importance and quality of the monumental ruins make it a unique archaeological site. The surviving ruins of Persepolis today are a mere shadow of Persepolis' former glory. It was founded by Darius I in 518 BC and was added to by the subsequent kings over a period of about 150 years. In its heyda

The tallest tower in shiraz is Eram Tower with 150 meters.In 2013 a Shiraz Tv Tower be opening with 200 meters.

Image:Shiraz_Nature_March_4%2C_2006_-1.jpg|A creek crossing a property in ShirazImage:Shiraz_Nature_March_4%2C_2006_-4.jpg|A creekImage:Nasir_Molk_Shiraz_04.jpg|Nasir_Molk mosque in ShirazImage:Persepolis_2005.JPG|Persepolis - Shiraz.Image:Naqsh-e_rostam.JPG|Naqsh-e RustammarkerImage:Zendan karim khan1.JPG|Karim Khane Zand's citadel (18th century monument)Image:Baghe Eram Shiraz edit.jpg|Eram GardenImage:Rostam deev zendan karimkhan.JPG|Rostam overcoming the Demon. The 19th century mosaic mural at Arg of Karim Khanmarker.
North part of Shiraz at night.


Sports

Bargh Shiraz (Established in 1946) is Shiraz's top team and currently plays in Iran's Premier Football League. Its biggest honour was winning the 1997 Hazfi Cup. Fajr Sepasi (Established in 1988) also plays in Iran's Premier Football League, and have also won the Hazfi Cup in 2001. Shiraz has two Football stadiums; the Hafezieh stadium with 40,000 Capacity built in 1945 and the Mianrood stadium with 70,000 capacity built in 2005. Another stadium, Shiraz Stadium, is due to be finished in 2009 and will have 50,000 capacity.

Shiraz also has a female rugby team./english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E4107D6E-2825-419E-BA27-BA32348A49D3.htm retrieved 28 February 2008

Higher education

Shiraz University main building
is home to a vibrant academic community. The Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was the first University in Shiraz and was founded in 1946. Much older is the august Madrasa-e-Khan, or Khan Theological School, with about 600 students; its tile-covered buildings date from 1627.

Today Shiraz University is the largest university in the province, and one of Iran's best academic centers. Other major universities in or nearby Shirāz are the Islamic Azad University of Shirāz, Shiraz University of Technology, and Shiraz University of Applied Science and Technology.

The Shiraz Regional Library of Science and Technology is the largest provincial library serving the public.

Transportation

Airports

Shiraz International Airportmarker serves as the largest airport in the southern region of Iranmarker. After undergoing renovation and redevelopment work in 2005, Shiraz Airport was identified as the second most reliable and modern airport in Iran (after Imam Khomeini International Airportmarker of Tehranmarker) in terms of flight safety including electronic and navigation control systems of its flight tower. In addition to domestic flights to most major Iranian cities, several daily flights to Persian Gulfmarker States including UAEmarker and Bahrainmarker are performed.

A metro system is being built in Shiraz by the Shiraz Urban Railway Organization. which will contains three lines. The length of the first Line will be 22.4 km, the length of the second line will be 8.5 km The length of the third line will be 16 km.21 stations will be built in route one. The three lines when completed, will have 32 stations below ground and six above and one special station which will be connected to a railroad link under construction linking Shiraz with Isfahanmarker.However it is estimated that by the end of 2009 all three lines will be finished and authorities have said that by the beginning of 2010 they hope to put all three major underground lines in operation.

Metro

Shiraz metro is the subway system of Shirazmarker, the capital city of Fars Provincemarker and the largest city in southern Iranmarker with a population of over 1.2 million in the city and over 1.7 million in the metropolitan area. Construction of Shiraz Metro began in 2001 because of traffic problems and high population density.

Bus

Shiraz has 7 bus lines with 50,000 buses.Iran's third Bus Rapid Transit was opening in Shiraz in 2009 with 2 lines.2 other lines be opening in 2010.

Train

Shiraz has train lines with Isfahanmarker and Bandar Abbasmarker. Shiraz's first train station was build in 1962.A new train station was opening in 1999 by Mohammad Khatami Iran's last President.

Famous people

  • Hafez, one of the most celebrated Persian lyric poets, 14th CE.
  • Saadi, another major Persian poet of the medieval period, 13th CE.
  • Báb, was the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith, 19th CE.
  • Karim Khan, was the ruler and de facto Shah of Iran from 1760 until 1779, with Shiraz his capital.
  • Mulla Sadra, a Persian Islamic philosopher, theologian and ‘Ālim who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century.
  • Valerie Jarrett, Senior Adviser to US President Barrack Obama.




Sister cities

Cities



See also

References

  1. After Tehran, Mashhad, Esfahan, Tabriz and Karaj; in 2006 Shiraz had a total population of 1,204,882
  2. Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948:115.
  3. (Iran Chamber Society) "Shiraz" (php file); "Shiraz"
  4. "the physical features of Shiraz"
  5. Looklex Encyclopaedia
  6. ARSH Co. site
  7. http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=186558
  8. Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948, pp. 115.
  9. , p. 339
  10. , p. 269
  11. , p. 339
  12. "World's Earliest Wine". Archeology, vol. 49 (1996), Retrieved 24 February 2004.
  13. (pdf file)
  14. "Shiraz, Iran"
  15. (Google book search)
  16. Littman (1979), p. 14
  17. Littman (1979), p. 12
  18. Shiraz History - Shiraz Travel Guide - Lonely Planet
  19. Shiraz
  20. The Characteristics of Shiraz
  21. Religious Dissidence and Urban Leadership: Baha'is in Qajar Shiraz and Tehran
  22. Shiraz
  23. Arsh K S Co. - Projects - Shiraz Special Electronic Economic Zone
  24. World Free Trade Zones
  25. Iran - City Population - Cities, Towns & Provinces - Statistics & Map
  26. Jews accused of spying are pawns in Iran power struggle - Middle East, World - Independent.co.uk
  27. Bearing the cross | World news | guardian.co.uk
  28. Iranian Monuments: Historical Churches in Iran
  29. Iranian Cities: Shiraz
  30. Shiraz
  31. Maclean, Fitzroy. Eastern Approaches. (1949). Reprint: The Reprint Society Ltd., London, 1951, p. 215
  32. A. Baker and L. Chapter (2002), "Part 4: The Sciences". In M. M. Sharif, "A History of Muslim Philosophy", Philosophia Islamica.
  33. Iranian women tackle rugby in Islamic republic | Haaba
  34. Khan Mosque and Madrasa
  35. Shiraz Metro routes
  36. [1]
  37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chongqing


External links

Note: This photo set contains some very rare photographs of Shiraz taken during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar and Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar, including those of the old cemetery of Shiraz ([6630], [6631], [6632]cf. [6633]), later renamed the Mosallah Gardens of Shiraz, also known as Hafezieh. The set contains also the photograph of Bagh-e Takht ([6634], [6635] — built some 900 years ago), of which no trace survives in today's Shiraz, as well as Rabindranath Tagore's photograph ([6636]) taken in Shiraz in the spring of 1932 (1311 AH).






Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message