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The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexicomarker, spanning 1000 km from Coahuilamarker south through Nuevo Leónmarker, southwest Tamaulipasmarker, San Luis Potosímarker, Querétaromarker, and Hidalgomarker to northern Pueblamarker, where it joins with the east-west running Eje Volcánico Transversal of central Mexico.

The highest point is Cerro San Rafael, at 3700 meters above sea level, is the highest point of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the state of Coahuilamarker and the second in Mexico in isolation.

Mexico's Gulf Coastal Plain lies to the east of the range, between it and the Gulf of Mexicomarker. The Mexican Plateau, which averages 1,100 metres in elevation, lies between the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental further west.

Highest major summits

The Highest Major Mountain Peaks of Sierra Madre Oriental
Rank Mountain Peak State Mountain Range Elevation Prominence Isolation
1 Cerro San RafaelThe summit of Cerro San Rafael is the highest point of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the state of Coahuilamarker. PB Sierra Madre Oriental 3700 m

12,139 feet
1855 m

6,086 feet
628 km

390 miles
2 Sierra de la Marta PB

Sierra Madre Oriental 3700 m

12,139 feet
NA 607 km

377 miles
3 Cerro el Potosímarker PB Sierra Madre Oriental 3700 m

12,139 feet
1380 m

4,528 feet
570 km

354 miles


Ecology

The range is noted for its high biodiversity and large number of endemic species. The higher elevations of the range are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. To the east, the Tamaulipan matorral occupies the ranges lower slopes in Nuevo Leon and northern Tamaulipas, while the Veracruz moist forests cover the lower slopes of the central range, and the eastern slopes at the southern end of the range are home to the Veracruz montane forests.

West of the range, the Mexican Plateau is home to deserts and xeric shrublands, including the Chihuahuan Desert to the north, the Meseta Central matorral on the central part of the plateau, and the Central Mexican matorral on the southern plateau.

Although separated from the main part of the Sierra Madre Oriental by the Rio Grandemarker, the Chisos Mountainsmarker in Big Bend National Parkmarker, southwest Texasmarker are floristically part of the Sierra Madre Oriental, harboring sky islands of pine-oak forest.

See also



References

  1. http://www.peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=7981
  2. http://www.peakbagger.com/range.aspx?rid=172
  3. The summit of Sierra de la Marta on the border with Coahuila is the highest point of the state of Nuevo León.


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