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Sikandar Lodi (born Nizam Khan, died November 21, 1517) was the second ruler of the Afghan Lodi Dynasty.

Biography

He became Sultan upon the death of his father, Bahlul Khan Lodi, on July 17, 1489. His rise to power was troublesome, with his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also staking a claim to the throne despite their father's nomination of Sikandar. However, he was able to claim the throne through delegation and was able to avoid massive bloodshed. In fact, he allowed his brother to keep governing Jaunpur, while also settling differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of usurping the throne.

Sikandar proved to be a capable ruler who was kind to his Muslim subjects, but was extremely harsh to his Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwaliormarker and Biharmarker. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengalmarker. He was able to bring his native Afghan nobles under his control, and encouraged trade across his holdings. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agramarker.

Much has been written about his religious intolerance. Bodhan - a Hindu renunciate (sadhu), was burnt alive for saying the following:Islam and Hindu Dharma are both equally acceptable to God if followed with sincerity.

The History of the Delhi sultanate by M.M. Syed says the following about him:he frequently razed temples to the ground and erected mosques in their place, as evidenced by his behaviour at Mandrail, Utgir, and Narwar. At Mathura he prevented Hindus from bathing in their sacred ghats or having themselves shaved. The stones of broken Hindu idols were given away to butchers to be used as weights.

Among the reforms Sikandar Lodi carried out was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India. 1974. Mat̲nawī-yi mihr u māh (905H.). Publication of the Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies, serial no.

Sikandar Lodi tried to conquer the Gwalior fort, and he attacked 5 times,but was failed all the five times by the king of Gwalior Maharaja Mansingh. He developed Agra as his second capital (after Delhi), as it took a lot of time to travel from Delhi to Gwalior. Finally he attacked a small region, near Gwalior named Narwar, and he had to wait 11 months at the gates of the Narwar fort, after 11 months when the people found that nothing had left to eat, they surrendered to Sikandar lodi. Once again he attacked on Gwalior, and was defeated by Maharaja Mansingh and his wife Mrignayani.

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardensmarker, Delhimarker.

References

  • http://sify.com/itihaas/fullstory.php?id=13233620
  • http://www.indhistory.com/lodi-dynasty.html
  • http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/delhisultanate/delhi%20sultanate4.htm


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