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This article is for the famous American bridge; for other uses of the term see the Disambiguation page Silver Bridge.

The Silver Bridge upon completion in 1928
Silver Bridge was an eyebar-chain, suspension bridge built in 1928 and named for the color of its aluminum paint. The bridge connected Point Pleasantmarker, West Virginiamarker and Kanauga, Ohio, over the Ohio River.

On December 15, 1967, the Silver Bridge collapsed while it was full of rush-hour traffic, resulting in the deaths of 46 people. Two of the victims were never found. Investigation of the wreckage pointed to the cause of the collapse being the failure of a single eyebar in a suspension chain, due to a small defect 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) deep. Analysis showed that the bridge was carrying much heavier loads than it had originally been designed for and was poorly maintained.

The collapsed Silver Bridge, as seen from the Ohio side


History of eyebar-chain bridge construction

At the time of the Silver Bridge construction, eyebar bridges had been built for about one hundred years. Such bridges had usually been constructed from redundant bar links, using rows of four to six bars, sometimes using several such chains in parallel.

An example can be seen in the Clifton Suspension Bridgemarker, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The chain eyebars are redundant in two dimensions. This is an early suspension bridge still in service. Other bridges of similar design include the earlier road bridge over the Menai Straitmarker built by Thomas Telford in 1826; the Széchenyi Chain Bridgemarker in Budapestmarker, built in 1839-1849, destroyed in the closing days of World War II by retreating Germans in 1945, and rebuilt identically by 1949, with redundant chains and hangers; and the Three Sisters, suspension bridges of similar design in Pittsburghmarker.

Silver Bridge structure

Low redundancy, high strength

The eyebars in the Silver Bridge were not redundant, as links were composed of only two bars each, of high-strength steel (more than twice as strong as common strong steel), rather than a thick stack of thinner bars of modest material strength "combed" together, as is usual for redundancy. With only two bars, the failure of one could impose excessive loading on the second, causing total failure — which would be unlikely if more bars were used. While a low-redundancy chain can be engineered to the design requirements, the safety is completely dependent upon correct, high-quality manufacturing and assembly.

In comparison, the Brooklyn Bridgemarker, with wire-cable suspension, was designed with an excess strength factor of six, which proved fortunate, owing to a contractor's substitution of wire weaker than that specified. This was discovered before completion and additional strands were placed in the bundles. Wire-cables have extremely high levels of redundancy, with the failure of a single wire almost unnoticeable.

Rocker towers

The towers were "rocker" towers. These allow the bridge to respond to various live loads by a slight tipping of the supporting towers, which were parted at the deck level, rather than passing the suspension chain over a lubricated or tipping saddle, or by stressing the towers in bending. The towers required the chain on both sides for their support; failure of any one link on either side, in any of the three chain spans, would result in the complete failure of the entire bridge.

Design loads

At the time of the bridge construction, a typical family automobile was the Ford Model T, with a weight of about 1,500 lb (680 kg). The maximum permitted truck gross weight was about 20,000 lb (9,072 kg).

By contrast, at the time of the collapse, a typical family automobile weighed about 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) and the large truck limit was 60,000 lb (27,216 kg) or more. Bumper-to-bumper traffic jams on the bridge were also much more common, occurring several times a day, five days each week, thus causing more stress to the bridge elements.

Wreckage analysis

The bridge failure was due to a defect in a single link, eyebar 330, on the north of the Ohio subsidiary chain, the first link below the top of the Ohio tower. A small crack was formed through fretting wear at the bearing, and grew through internal corrosion, a problem known as stress corrosion cracking. The crack was only about 0.1 inch deep when it went critical, and it broke in a brittle fashion. Growth of the crack was probably exacerbated by residual stress in the eyebar created during manufacture.

When the lower side of the eyebar failed, all the load was transferred to the other side of the eyebar, which then failed by ductile overload. The joint was then held together only by three eyebars, and another slipped off the pin at the center of the bearing, so the chain was completely severed. Collapse of the entire structure was inevitable since all parts of a suspension bridge are in equilibrium with one another. Witnesses afterward estimated that it took only about a minute for the whole bridge to fall.

Inspection difficulties

"Inspection prior to construction would not have been able to notice the miniature crack. ... the only way to detect the fracture would have been to disassemble the eye-bar. The technology used for inspection at the time was not capable of detecting such cracks."

Aftermath

The collapse focused much needed attention on the condition of older bridges, leading to intensified inspection protocols and numerous eventual replacements. There were only two bridges built to a similar design, one upstream at St. Marys, West Virginiamarker and a longer bridgemarker at Florianópolismarker, Brazilmarker. The St. Marys bridge was immediately closed to traffic, and the state demolished it in 1971. Explosive charges were placed on the main chains and fired to remove the structure, although a small truss bridge was kept to allow access to an island in the river.

The bridge at Florianópolis still stands and was finally closed down in 1991. It was built to a higher safety factor than the one in West Virginia. Modern non-destructive testing methods allow some of the older bridges to remain in service where they are located on lightly traveled roads. Most heavily used bridges of this type have been replaced with modern bridges of various types.

The new bridge to replace the Silver Bridge was named the Silver Memorial Bridgemarker.

A scale model of the original Silver Bridge can be seen at the Point Pleasant River Museum. An archive of literature about the bridge is kept there for public inspection. On the lower ground floor, the museum displays an eyebar assembly from the original bridge.

The collapse inspired legislation to ensure that older bridges were regularly inspected and maintained. Aging infrastructure is still a problem in the United States. In 1983 the Mianus River Bridge collapsed, causing the deaths of three drivers. In 2007 a bridge in Minneapolismarker collapsed, causing 13 deaths and 145 casualties. In early September 2009 the failure of an eyebar in the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridgemarker was discovered during a scheduled closure, resulting in an emergency repair to reinforce the failed member.

In popular culture

  • Ohio Universitymarker English professor Jack Matthews wrote a novella, Beyond the Bridge, written as the diary of an imaginary survivor of the disaster starting a new life as a dishwasher in a tiny West Virginia town.
  • In The Mothman Prophecies, the collapse of the Silver Bridge is predicted by the antagonist, the Mothman.


Urban legends

Odd events were purported to have occurred in the area for several months before the collapse, including appearances of a "Mothman". Originally, the story of Mothman was connected to the disturbance of the grave of Chief Cornstalk when the county courthouse was expanded.

Later, John A. Keel connected the Mothman to aliens in his 1975 sci-fi book The Mothman Prophecies. The 2002 "based on a true story" movie of the same name was set in the present day rather than the 1960s.

Point Pleasant has a Mothman Museum and holds an annual Mothman Festival.

External links



References

  1. "Silver Bridge disaster", West Virginia Culture
  • Mothman and Other Curious Encounters by Loren Coleman (Paraview Press, 2002, ISBN 1-931044-34-1)



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