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For the 1914 convention see Simla Accord

The Simla Agreement was signed between Indiamarker and Pakistanmarker at 12:40am on July 3, 1972. It followed from the war between the two nations in the previous year that had led to the independence of East Pakistan as Bangladeshmarker. The agreement laid down the principles that should govern their future relations. It also conceived steps to be taken for further normalization of mutual relations. Most importantly, it bound the two countries "to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations". The Kashmir dispute again came to the core-issue when India and Pakistan signed the controversial Simla Accord in June, 1972 in the wake of the Indo-Pak war on 1971. The accord converted the 1949 UN Ceasefire line into new boundary undefined (LAC) between Islamabadmarker and New Delhimarker which however did not affect the status of the disputed territory, since 1972. "In Jammu and Kashmirmarker, the Line of Control resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognised position of either side and is not a final agreement pending a final agreement will be further negotiated, Kashmiris also should be included in the Peace process between the two now nuclear rival Nation-states. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from threat or the use of force in violation of this Line." The agreement also paved the way for diplomatic recognition of Bangladeshmarker by Pakistanmarker. As a gesture of goodwill India decided not to try 90,368 Pakistani prisoners of war for war crimes and released them.

The agreement has been the basis of all subsequent bilateral talks between India and Pakistan, though it has not prevented the relationship between the two countries from deteriorating to the point of armed conflict, most recently in the Kargil War. The treaty was signed in Simlamarker, Indiamarker, by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the Prime Minister of Pakistan, and Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India.

Text of the Agreement

Simlamarker Agreement on Bilateral Relations between India and Pakistan signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and Prime Minister of Pakistan, Z. A. Bhutto, in Simla on July 2, 1972.


The Simla Agreement was meant to ensure a long-lasting end of hostilities and the restoration of friendly terms between Indiamarker and Pakistanmarker. However, the agreement never clearly defined the line in the Siachen Glaciermarker-Saltoro Ridge area, and India moved its troops there in April 1984[citation needed]. Pakistan immediately moved its troops to the region as well, and this became the highest battleground between organized armies in history until a cease-fire in 2005. The borderline in this area remains unresolved despite ongoing negotiations.


  1. Divided Kashmir by Mushtaqur Rahman
  2. Simla Agreement

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