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Sir Andrew Buchanan, 1st Baronet GCB, PC (7 May 1807 – 12 November 1882) was a British diplomat and baronet.

Buchanan was the only son of James Buchanan of Blairvadoch, Ardinconnal, Dumbartonshiremarker, and Janet, eldest daughter of James Sinclair, 12th Earl of Caithness. He entered the diplomatic service 10 October 1825, and was attached to the embassy at Constantinoplemarker.

On 13 November 1830 he was named paid attaché at Rio de Janeiromarker, but he did not remain long in South America, as he served temporarily with Sir Stratford Canning's special embassy to Constantinoplemarker from 31 October 1831 till 18 September 1832, after which he became paid attaché at Washingtonmarker on 9 November He was with Sir Charles Vaughan's special mission to Constantinople from March 1837 to September 1838, and then proceeded to St. Petersburgmarker as paid attaché 6 October of the same year.

Few men seem to have gone through a greater number of changes in the diplomatic service; he was secretary of legation at Florencemarker 24 August 1841, and chargé d'affaires from July 1842 to October 1843, and from March to May 1844. At St. Petersburgmarker he was secretary of legation 1844, and between that time and 1851 several times acted as chargé d'affaires. From 1852, he was for one year Minister Plenipotentiary to the Swiss Confederation.

In 1853, he was named envoy extraordinary to the king of Denmark, and he acted as her majesty's representative at the conference of Copenhagenmarker in November 1855 for the definite arrangement of the Sound dues question. He was transferred to Madridmarker 31 March 1858, and then to The Haguemarker 11 December 1860. He became ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the king of Prussia 28 October 1862, ambassador extraordinary to Russiamarker 15 September 1864, and ambassador to Austriamarker from 16 October 1871 to 16 February 1878, when he retired on a pension.

Previously to this he had been made C.B. 23 May 1857, K.C.B. 25 February 1860, G.C.B. 6 July 1866, and a privy councillor 3 February 1863. He was created a baronet on 14 December 1878, and died at Craigend Castlemarker, Milngaviemarker, near Glasgowmarker.

He married first, 4 April 1839, Frances Katharine, daughter of the Very Rev. Edward Mellish, dean of Hereford (she died 4 December 1854); and secondly, 27 May 1857, Georgiana Eliza, third daughter of Robert Walter Stuart, 11th Lord Blantyre.

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