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Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (outrun)


Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (inrun)


Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down an "inrun" with a take-off ramp (the jump), attempting to fly as far as possible. In addition to the length that skiers jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long ( ). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces (porcelain or frost rail track on the inrun, plastic on the landing hill). The most notable ski jumpers today are Gregor Schlierenzauer, Wolfgang Loitzl, Simon Ammann, Adam Małysz and Janne Ahonen .

History

Ski jumping originates from Morgedalmarker, Norwaymarker. Olaf Rye, a Norwegian lieutenant, was the first known ski jumper. In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 metres in the air in front of an audience of other soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were tackling much larger jumps and traveling longer. Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters over a rock without the benefit of poles. His record stood for three decades. The first proper competition was held in Trysilmarker in 1862. The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslomarker during 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 meters. The annual event was moved to Holmenkollenmarker from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues.

Competition

Today, World Cup ski jumping competitions are held on three types of hills:

Normal hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately . Distances of up to and over can be reached.
Large hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately . Distances of over can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
Ski-flying competitions
for which the calculation line is found at . The Ski Flying World Record of is held by Bjørn Einar Romøren, and was set in Planicamarker, Slovenia in March 2005.


Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills.

Individual Olympic competition consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who have two jumps each.

Ski jumping is one of the 2 elements in the Nordic combined sport.



Summer Jumping

Ski jumping can also be performed on the summer on a porcelain track and plast grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer. The World Cup (Summer Grand Prix) often includes those hills:



Skijumping Fis-Cup and Continental Cup also have summer competitions and even more than the World Cup.

Olympic Competition

According to the International Olympic Committee's site:

Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix Mont-Blanc in 1924.
The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.


The existence of a men's competition without a women's competition has become a major bone of contention as the field of elite female competitors has grown.

Women's ski jumping

Currently, women ski jump internationally in the Continental cup. On 26 May 2006, the International Ski Federation decided to allow women to ski jump at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships in Liberecmarker, Czech Republicmarker and then to have a team event for women at the 2011 world championships. FIS also decided to submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committeemarker (IOC) to allow women to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouvermarker.

On 28 November 2006, the proposal for a women's ski jumping event was rejected by the Executive Board of the IOC. The reason for the rejection cited the low number of athletes as well as few participating countries in the sport. The Executive Board noted that women's ski jumping has yet to be fully established internationally. Jacques Rogge, president of the International Olympic Committee stated that women's ski jumping will not be an Olympic event because "we do not want the medals to be diluted and watered down," referring to the relatively small number of potential competitors in women's ski jumping.

Some critics have pointed out that the number of athletes should not be a reason, citing the numbers of competing athletes in women's ski jumping. At present, the number of women ski jumpers exceeds the number of women competing in ski cross, which has been included as an Olympic sport for the 2010 games. It has, however been noted that while the number of women in ski jumping is not insignificant, the field has a much wider spread in terms of talent, in that the top men are all of a similar level of strength competitively, while the women are more varied, even in the top tiers.

A group of 15 competitive female ski jumpers filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) claiming that conducting a men's ski jumping event without a women's event in the Vancouver Winter Olympics in 2010 would be in direct violation of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The arguments associated with this suit were argued 20 to 24 April 2009 and a judgment came down on June 10, 2009 against the ski jumpers with the judge ruling that though the women were being discriminated against, the issue is a International Olympic Committee responsibility, and thus is not governed by the Charter, and finally, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not apply to VANOC.Three British Columbia judges unanimously denied an appeal on November 13, 2009.

Scoring

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance and style.

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point) which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at and respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers not landing on the K Line receive or lose 1.8 points for every metre (3 ft) they miss the mark by, depending on if they surpass it or fall short, respectively.

In addition, five judges are based in a tower that lies to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points for style based on: keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position and landing.

The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the middle three scores added to the distance score. In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.

Technique

The ski jump is divided into four separate sections; 1) In-run, 2) Take-off (jump), 3) Flight and 4) Landing.In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximise the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.Using the modern V-technique, pioneered by Jan Boklöv of Sweden in 1985, world-class skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, developed in Kongsbergmarker, Norway by two ski jumpers, Jacob Tullin Thams and Sigmund Ruud following World War I. This technique had the upper body bent at the hip, a wide forward lean, and arms extended to the front with the skis parallel to each other. It would lead to jumping length going from 45 meters to over 100 meters. In the 1950s Andreas Daescher of Switzerland and Erich Windisch of Germany modified the Kongsberger technique by placing his arms backward toward his hips for a closer lean. The Daescher technique and Windisch technique were the standard for ski jumping from the 1950s.Until the mid 1970s, the Ski jumper would come down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new and 'revolutionary' in-run technique of directing the arms bacwards in a more aero-dynamic position.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation will lead to the deduction of style marks (points).

Popularity

Ski jumping is popular among spectators and TV audiences in Scandinavia and Central Europe. Almost all world-class ski jumpers come from those regions or from Japan. Traditionally, the strongest countries (with consistently strong teams) are Finland, Norway, Germany (as well as the former East and West Germany), Austria, Poland, Slovenia, and Japan. However, there have always been successful ski jumpers from other countries as well (see list below). The Four Hills Tournament, held annually at four sites in Bavariamarker, Germany and Austria around New Year, is very popular and draws huge crowds.

There have been attempts to spread the popularity of the sport by finding ways by which the construction and upkeep of practicing and competition venues can be made easier. These include plastic fake snow to provide a slippery surface even during the summer time and in locations where snow is a rare occurrence.

Notable ski jumpers

Currently active
Country Flag Name
Austria Martin Koch
Andreas Kofler
Wolfgang Loitzl
Thomas Morgenstern
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Czech Republic Jakub Janda
Roman Koudelka
Finland Janne Happonen
Matti Hautamäki
Arttu Lappi
Ville Larinto
Veli-Matti Lindström
Harri Olli
Germany Michael Neumayer
Martin Schmitt
Georg Späth
Michael Uhrmann
Andreas Wank
Japan Noriaki Kasai
Takanobu Okabe
Kazuyoshi Funaki
Norway Lars Bystøl
Tom Hilde
Anders Jacobsen
Roar Ljøkelsøy
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Sigurd Pettersen
Anders Bardal
Poland Adam Małysz
Kamil Stoch
Marcin Bachleda
Maciej Kot
Slovenia Robert Kranjec
Jernej Damjan
Primož Peterka
Rok Urbanc
Switzerland Andreas Küttel
Simon Ammann
Walter Steiner
Russia Denis Kornilov
Dimitry Vassiliev


Notable unsuccessful ski jumpers



Notable female ski jumpers



Important venues

Ski jumping World Cup

DDR stamp - Memorial for the Skijumper

Four Hills Tournament



Nordic Tournament



Ski flying

Ski flying is an extreme version of ski jumping. The events take place in big hills with a K-spot of at least . There are five ski flying hills in the world today. Vikersundbakkenmarker in Vikersundmarker, Norway; Oberstdorfmarker, Germany; Kulm, Austria; Letalnicamarker, Planicamarker, Slovenia; and Harrachovmarker, Czech Republic. A sixth hill, Copper Peakmarker in the western Upper Peninsula of Michiganmarker, is currently disused, although there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards. There are plans for more ski flying hills, even for an indoor ski flying hill in Ylitorniomarker, Finlandmarker. The biggest hill is in Planica, where all the longest ski jumps have taken place. It's possible to fly more than in all the ski flying hills, and the current World Record is , set by Norwegian Bjørn Einar Romøren at Planica in 2005. This record was surpassed by Janne Ahonen of Finland at the same competition, but his jump was not recognised as Ahonen fell when he landed.

The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and have been held on a mainly biennial basis (although there have been several occasions where events were held annually). The 2010 FIS World Championships in skiflying will be organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships will take place in Vikersund, Norway.

National records

Rank Nation Record holder Length
1. Bjørn Einar Romøren
2. Matti Hautamäki
3. Gregor Schlierenzauer
4. Robert Kranjec
5. Dimitri Vassiliev
6. Michael Neumayer
7. Adam Małysz
8. Daiki Ito
9. Andreas Küttel
10. Alan Alborn
11. Antonin Hajek
12. Emmanuel Chedal
13. Roberto Cecon
14. Isak Grimholm
15. Petr Chaadaev
16. Radik Zhaparov
17. Martin Mesik
18. Jens Salumäe
19. Stefan Read
20. Heung Chul Choi
21. Vitaliy Shumbarets
22. Petar Fartunov
23. Christoph Kreuzer
24. Gabor Geller
25. Baris Demirci
26. Dmitry Chvykov
27. Florin Spulber
28. Zhandong Tian
29. Glynn Pedersen
30. Kakhaber Tsakadze
31. Filipciuc Ivan
32. Mark Wayne Evans


Water ski jumping

The ski jump is performed on two long skis similar to those a beginner uses, with a specialized tailfin that is somewhat shorter and much wider (so it will support the weight of the skier when he is on the jump ramp). Skiers towed behind a boat at fixed speed, maneuver to achieve the maximum speed when hitting a ramp floating in the water, launching themselves into the air with the goal of traveling as far as possible before touching the water. Professional ski jumpers can travel up to . The skier must successfully land and retain control of the ski rope to be awarded the distance.

An extreme version of this sport named Ski Flying was promoted by Scot Ellis and Jim Cara, in which boat speeds and ramp heights are boosted because physics have proved that the standard line and traditional boat speed is outrun by the skier and the pro skier was ahead of the boat, being held back by the line.

See also



References

  1. Oslo – Huseby (Ski Jumping Hill Archive)
  2. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/11/28/sports/ME_SPT_OLY_IOC_Meetings.php IOC approves skicross; rejects women's ski jumping


External links




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