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Slavic Neopaganism (also known as  Slavianism  or Rodnovery; from Russian Родноверие "native faith", a compound word of rodno "native" and vera "faith") is a modern polytheistic, reconstructionistic, and Neopagan religion; its adherents call themselves Rodnovers, and consider themselves to be the legitimate continuation of pre-Christian Slavic religion.


Rebirth of Slavic spirituality

The pre-Christian religions of the Slavic peoples probably died out slowly in the countryside after the official adoption of Christianity (Moravia in 863, Poland in 966, Kyiv Rus' in 988). Those Pagan religious practices that were not adopted into Christian folk practice were probably stamped out by the 15th century; however, some modern Rodnovers make use of 19th century folk practices that may be altered survivals of the earlier religion.

In the 19th century, many Slavic nations experienced a Romantic fascination with an idealised Slavic Arcadia that was believed to exist before Christianity arrived, which combined such notions as the noble savage and Johann Gottfried Herder’s national spirit. In the absence of extensive written or archaeological evidence for the destroyed Slavic religion, these artistic visions were important in rebuilding interest in the lost Slavic heritage after the unmitigated condemnation of medieval Chrisitian writers. Zorian Dołęga-Chodakowski’s 1818 pamphlet “O Sławiańszczyżnie przed chrześcijaństwem” (About the Slavs before Christianity) would later prove to be an influential proto-Neopagan manifesto with its depiction of “two cultures” in the Slavic lands; one was the original pure Slavic culture of the peasants, the other was the imported foreign culture of the nobility. Unlike earlier authors, Dołęga-Chodakowski identified Christianity as a negative influence on national character.

In addition to new artistic representations, the 19th century was a period which rediscovered many authentic fragments of Slavic religion, such as the publication of the Tale of Igor’s Campaign (1800) and the excavation of the Zbruch idol (1848). It was also rife with fakes, such as the Prillwitz idols (1795) and the Mikorzyn stones (1855).

As in other European countries, many Slavic nations developed autochthonic Rodnover traditions in the first half of the 20th century (Poland by 1921; Ukraine by 1934; compare with neighbours Germany by 1925; and Latvia by 1926). The German and Polish groups were often already referred to as Neopagan in press articles before World War II.

Common themes

Most, but not all, Rodnovers place a heavy emphasis on some form of nationalism as part of their ideology. In some cases, this may be limited to a commitment to preserve national tradition and folklore; in other cases, it may include chauvinism directed against other ethnic groups. As Dr. Victor Shnirelman, a cultural anthropologist at the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology in Moscow, has written, ethnic nationalism, xenophobia, racism, and antisemitism are core values of many Russian Rodnover groups. He has also pointed out recent translations into Russian of "racist and antisemitic teachings" by the Italian fascist Julius Evola and the antisemitic Theosophist Alice Bailey which are evidence of this tendency. The right-wing associations of certain groups may have caused some distortion of the popular image of Rodnovery.

Ecology and respect for nature is another shared theme. Piotr Wiench, who has done the most extensive cross-border study of Rodnovery so far, has claimed that nationalism is less important than ecology to most groups. Many groups use extensive symbolism drawn from the natural world (trees, lightning, Sun, and Moon) and many hold their religious ceremonies outdoors in sparsely populated areas.

Most Rodnovers draw their material from some combination of written medieval chronicles, archaeological evidence, 19th century folklore, artistic invention and direct divine revelation. In Russia and Ukraine, many Rodnovers use the controversial Book of Veles as a sacred text meanwhile this work, often considered by scholars to be a 20th century forgery, does not enjoy widespread popularity in Rodnover groups in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It must also be pointed out, that Black metal music has played an important role in fueling interest of Slavic youth in Rodnovery.

By country

Czech Republic

Rodnover groups in the Czech Republic include Společenství Rodná Víra (the Association of Native Faith) based in Prague.

Poland

The most influential Polish Rodnover ideologue, Jan Stachniuk (1905-1963) founded the magazine "Zadruga" (named after the Balkan tribal unit) in 1937. The magazine and its associated group embraced members of a wide variety of viewpoints, ranging from secularly humanistic to religiously Rodnover stances. Continuing on from Dołęga-Chodakowski, Stachniuk’s own work concentrated on the destructive role of Roman Catholicism on Polish society, adding elements borrowed from Max Weber and Georges Sorel. It is possible that Stachniuk was influenced by Mussolini’s brand of fascism and Jakub Wilhelm Hauer’s 1933 “Deutsche Glaubensbewegung” (German Faith Movement) which Zadruga somewhat resembled. However, there is no evidence for the later communist propaganda that Stachniuk was sympathetic to Hitler or Nazism. Stachniuk fought against the Nazi occupation during the Warsaw Uprising but after the war, following a brief period of toleration, he was jailed by the Communist authorities, ending the first period of Zadruga activity.

The continuing legacy of Zadruga in Poland may be seen in the Wrocławmarker-based publishing house "Toporzel" (which has reissued Stachniuk’s works and those of his disciple Antoni Wacyk). Zadruga has also inspired the registered religious organisation Zrzeszenie Rodzimej Wiary (ZRW, the "Association of Indigenous Faith") whose founder Dr. Stanisław Potrzebowski wrote an influential book on pre-war Zadruga. Another active group which owes a heavy ideological debt to Stachniuk is the periodical “Trygław” (first published in 1997) and its associated study group “Niklot” (founded in 1998).

A smaller number of Polish Rodnover groups, such as the Rodzimy Kościół Polski (the Native Polish Church) represent a tradition that goes back to Władysław Kołodziej’s 1921 Święte Koło Czcicieli Światowida (Holy Circle of Worshipper of Światowid). The Native Polish Church, along with a third Rodnover organisation, Polski Kościół Słowiański (the Polish Slavic Church) were registered with the Polish authorities in 1995. Most Rodnover groups in Poland, however, are small and informal and do not belong to one of the officially-registered religious organisations.

An "Association for Tradition and Culture 'Niklot'" (Stowarzyszenie na rzecz Tradycji i Kultury Niklot) was founded in Warsaw in 1997, led by far right politician Tomasz Szczepanski. Niklot promotes an ideology of ethnic nationalism inspired by Jan Stachniuk and Friedrich Nietzsche.

Russia



Rodnover groups in the Russian Federation include the Slavic Communities Union based in Kalugamarker. The largest cult is that of the great god Rod. Lesser deities include Perun and Dazhbog. Russian centers of Rodnovery are situated also in Dolgoprudnymarker, Pskovmarker and other cities. Moscowmarker has several pagan temples.

Slovakia

The largest pagan group in Slovakiamarker is Krug Peruna (http://www.krugperuna.org); it actively organizes different ceremonies throughout the country. Moreover, it has members not only in Bratislavamarker (its headquarters) but also in other cities such as Martinmarker and Košicemarker.

Another smaller group is Paromova Dúbrava, which draws together pagans from Bratislava and nearby vicinities. The most recent group is Rodolesie from Veľký Krtíšmarker.

The new Rodnover page is Geryon, situated in Bratislava (http://geryon.org). The Geryon communicate with the other Rodnover sites or groups. The centrum of this guild is in Bratislava, but the members are over both the Slovak and Czech Republics.

Miroslav Švický (also known as ŽiariSlav) published on the subject what was quite well recognized by Slovak etnologic academia, most notably the book Návrat Slovenov,1998 ISBN 80-967714-5-0. He with group of people around him named Rodný kruh (http://www.ved.sk/) fosters unorthodox approach to neopaganism under Slovak name vedomectvo. They focus on comprehending underlying wisdom of pagan traditions that survived in Slovakia to this day, instead of exactly reproducing rituals as they are described in historical literature (often fragmentary and written by foreigners). The aim is finding way how to restore harmony with nature by preserving old rituals,crafts and music as well as creating new ones in the same spirit, named novodrevo, novodrevná hudba. Švický is frontman of musical group Bytosti (http://bytosti.sk), that plays such music.

Ukraine

One of the most influential Ukrainianmarker Rodnover ideologues was Volodymyr Shaian (1908-1974). In 1934, Shaian, a specialist in Sanskrit at Lviv University, claimed to have a religious experience while observing a folk ritual in the Carpathian mountains. His brand of Rodnovery emphasised the shared roots of Indo-European culture. He was involved in a short-lived Rodnover movement in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, before emigrating to London at the end of the Second World War. After the war, he was an outspoken supporter of the authenticity of the Book of Veles, and his own 900-page magnum opus on Slavic religion, Vira Predkiv Nashih (The Faith of Our Ancestors), was published posthumously by his supporters in Hamilton, Ontariomarker, Canadamarker in 1987.

The largest group that currently continues Shaian’s legacy is the Obiednannia Ridnoviriv Ukrayiny ( "Native Faith Association of Ukraine"), founded in 1998 by Halyna Lozko, a University lecturer in Kiev. This group is a federation of previously existing smaller groups, including Lozko’s own Pravoslavia, founded in 1993. (The name Pravoslavia is a sort of pun which means both “speaks the truth” and Orthodoxy in the Ukrainian language.) The federation has chapters in Kievmarker, Kharkivmarker, Odessamarker, Boryspilmarker, Chernihivmarker, Mykolaivmarker, Lvivmarker and Yuzhnoukrainsk. "Pravoslavia" publishes a glossy magazine named "Svaroh” after the Slavic deity.

Lev Sylenko (1921- ) was a disciple of Shayan’s before breaking with him in the 1960s and developing an alternative reconstruction of Ukrainian pre-Christian religion. Sylenko’s vision is a monotheism that worships the god Dazhboh. Sylenko founded his RUNVira group in 1966 in Chicagomarker, USAmarker, and only opened their first temple in the mother country of Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The current headquarters of RUNVira is in Spring Glen, New York, USA. His 1,400-page Maha Vira was published in 1979. Smaller groups have broken off from RUNVira and mix Sylenko’s teachings with other sources.

Other Slavic Countries

Much smaller groups also exist in other Slavic countries, such as Croatian bands Slavogorje or Kult Perunov, or in Republic of Macedoniamarker (where folk-pagan metal band are becoming increasingly popular in the underground music scene 1 2). However, this scene is still overshadowed by the more popular Scandinavian viking folk metal scene, pioneered by such acts as Korpiklaani, Ensiferum, and Tyr.

See also



Notes



References

  • Hauer, Wilhelm Jakob, Heim, K. & Adam, K. (1937). Germany’s New Religion. New York NY: Abingdon Press
  • Ivakhiv, Adrian (2005). “In Search of Deeper Identities Neopaganism and ‘Native Faith’ in Contemporary Ukraine”, Nova Religio, March 2005
  • Okraska, Remigiusz (2001). W kręgu Odyna i Trygława. (In the Circle of Odin and Trygław) Biała Podlaska: Rekonkwista
  • Potrzebowski, Stanisław (1982) Zadruga. Eine völkische Bewegung in Polen, Bonn: Institut für Angewandte Sozialgeschichte
  • Shnirelman, Victor (2002). “‘Christians Go Home!’: A Revival of Neo-Paganism Between the Baltic Sea and Transcaucasia (An Overview)” in Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol. 17, No.2
  • Shnirelman, Victor (1998). “Russian Neo-pagan Myths and Antisemitism“ Acta no. 13, Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism; The Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism; Hebrew University of Jerusalem. [197514]
  • Simpson, Scott (2000). Native Faith: Polish Neo-Paganism At the Brink of the 21st Century, ISBN 83-88508-07-5
  • Wiench, Piotr (1997). “Neo-Paganism in Central Eastern European Countries” in New Religious Phenomena in Central and Eastern Europe, ISBN 83-85527-56-7


External links



В России:
* Московская славянская община родноверов «Путь Велеса» ССО СРВ
* Языческий портал — Дом Сварога (община «Круг Бера»)
* Содружество Природной Веры — община «Славия»
* Языческая община «Коляда Вятичей»
За рубежом:
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