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Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a American animated feature based on the Brothers Grimm fairy tale Snow White. It was the first full-length cel-animated feature in motion picture history, as well as the first animated feature film produced in America, the first produced in full color, the first to be produced by Walt Disney, and the first in the Walt Disney Animated Classic canon.

Walt Disney's Snow White premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater on December 21, 1937, and the film was released to theaters by RKO Radio Pictures on February 4, 1938. The story was adapted by storyboard artists Dorothy Ann Blank, Richard Creedon, Merrill De Maris, Otto Englander, Earl Hurd, Dick Rickard, Ted Sears and Webb Smith from the German fairy tale Snow White by the Brothers Grimm. David Hand was the supervising director, while William Cottrell, Wilfred Jackson, Larry Morey, Perce Pearce, and Ben Sharpsteen directed the film's individual sequences.

Snow White was one of only two animated films to rank in the American Film Institute's list of the 100 greatest American films of all time in 1997 (the other being Disney's Fantasia), ranking number 49. It achieved a higher ranking (#34) in the list's 2007 update, this time being the only traditionally animated film on the list. The following year AFI would name the film as the greatest animated film of all time.

In 1989, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was added to the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."

Plot

Through a textual prologue the audience is told that Snow White is a princess living with her vain and wicked stepmother, known only as the Queen. Fearing Snow White's beauty, the Queen forced her to work as a scullery maid and would daily ask her Magic Mirror "who is the fairest one of all." The mirror would always answer that the Queen was, pleasing her.

At the film's opening, the Magic Mirror informs the Queen that Snow White is now the fairest in the land. The jealous Queen orders her huntsman to take Snow White into the woods and kill her, demanding that he bring her the dead girl's heart in a jeweled box as proof of the deed. The huntsman, unwilling to harm Snow White, instead spares her life, and urges her to flee into the woods and never come back, bringing back a pig's heart instead.

Lost and frightened, the princess is befriended by woodland creatures who lead her to a cottage deep in the woods. Finding seven small chairs in the cottage's dining room, Snow White assumes the cottage is the untidy home of seven children. It soon becomes apparent that the cottage belongs instead to seven adult dwarfs, Doc, Grumpy, Happy, Sleepy, Bashful, Sneezy, and Dopey, who work in a nearby mine. Returning home, they are alarmed to find their cottage clean and surmise that an intruder has invaded their home. The dwarfs find Snow White upstairs, asleep across three of their beds. The princess awakens, introduces herself, and all of the dwarfs except Grumpy (but who eventually warms up to her) welcome her as a house guest after they learn she can cook. Snow White begins a new life cooking and keeping house for the dwarfs.

The Queen eventually discovers that Snow White is still alive when the mirror again answers that Snow White is the fairest in the land. Using magic to disguise herself as an old hag, the Queen goes to the cottage while the dwarfs are away and tricks Snow White into biting into a poisoned (magic wishing) apple that sends her into a deep sleep, which can only be broken by love's first kiss. The dwarfs, alerted by the woodland animals who recognized the Queen, chase the Queen up a cliff and trap her. She tries to roll a boulder over them but lightning strikes the cliff she is standing on and she falls to her death.

The dwarfs return to their cottage and find Snow White seemingly dead. Unwilling to bury her body out of sight in the ground, they instead place her in a glass coffin trimmed with gold in a clearing in the forest. Together with the woodland creatures, they keep watch over her body through the seasons.

After several seasons pass, a Prince who had previously met and fallen in love with Snow White, learns of her plight and visits her coffin. Captivated by her beauty, he kisses her, which breaks the spell and awakens her. The dwarfs and animals all rejoice as Snow White and the prince ride off to the Prince's castle.

Differences from fairytale

Though Disney's Snow White is similar to the fairy tale version, there are several differences. In the fairy tale, Snow White's mother wishes for a child with "lips as red as blood, hair as dark as the window frame, and skin as white as snow." This does not occur in the film, as Disney's Snow White is shown with only her stepmother, the Queen, and there is no scene of her biological mother.

In the fairy tale, Snow White accepts three gifts from the witch (a girdle, a poisoned comb, and the apple), but is rescued from the first two gifts by the dwarfs. When she is offered the apple, she is unwilling to eat it and only accepts after the witch takes a bit of the apple that is not poisoned. However, in the film, Snow White only accepts one gift (the apple) from the witch after she helps the witch inside the dwarfs' house (some of the woodland birds attacked the witch as a warning, which was misinterpreted by Snow White). She bites the apple after being told that the apple is magical and that one bite will make all of her dreams come true (namely marrying the Prince).

In the fairy tale, Snow White is not awakened by the prince's kiss. Instead, the prince buys the coffin and Snow White's body from the dwarfs and has it carried with him towards his castle. During the journey, a piece of apple in Snow White's throat becomes dislodged and she awakens.

Lastly, in the fairy tale, Snow White faces her stepmother one final time after eating the poisoned apple. The stepmother attends the wedding of Snow White and the prince, but she is stopped from causing further harm by being forced to wear hot iron shoes to her death. In the film, the stepmother (as the witch) is chased up to the top of a mountain by the dwarfs after giving Snow White the poisoned apple: when she tries to dislodge a boulder onto the dwarfs to kill them, lightning strikes the edge she is standing on and she falls to her death, along with the boulder falling and presumably crushing her.

Production

Development on Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs began in early 1934, and in June 1934, Walt Disney announced the production of his first feature to the New York Times. Before Snow White, the Disney studio had been primarily involved in the production of animated short subjects in the Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies series. Disney hoped to expand his studio's prestige and revenues by moving into features, and estimated that Snow White could be produced for a budget of $250,000 - ten times the budget of an average Silly Symphony.

Walt Disney had to fight to get the film produced. Both his brother and business partner Roy Disney and his wife Lillian attempted to talk him out of it, and the Hollywood movie industry referred to the film as "Disney's Folly" while it was in production. He even had to mortgage his house to help finance the film's production, which eventually ran up a total cost of $1,488,422.74, a massive sum for a feature film in 1937.

Story development

Early ideas

On 9 August 1934, twenty-one pages of notes - entitled "Snowwhite suggestions" - were compiled by staff writer Richard Creedon, suggesting the principal characters, as well as situations and 'gags' for the story. As Disney had stated at the very beginning of the project, the main attraction of the story for him was the Seven Dwarfs, and their possibilities for 'screwiness' and 'gags'; the three story meetings held in October and attended by Disney, Creedon, Larry Morey, Albert Hurter, Ted Sears and Pinto Colvig were dominated by such subjects. At this point, Disney felt that the story should begin with Snow White's discovery of the Cottage of the Seven Dwarfs. Walt Disney had suggested from the beginning that each of the dwarfs, whose names and personalities are not stated in the original fairy tale, could have individual personalities. The dwarfs names were chosen from a from a pool of about fifty potentials, including Jumpy, Deafy, Dizzey, Hickey, Wheezy, Baldy, Gabby, Nifty, Sniffy, Swift, Lazy, Puffy, Stuffy, Tubby, Shorty and Burpy. The seven finalists were chosen through a process of elimination. . The leader of the dwarfs, required to be pompous, self important and bumbling, was named Doc; others were named for their distinguishing character traits. At the end of the October story meetings, however, only Doc, Grumpy, Bashful, Sleepy and Happy of the final seven were named; at this point, Sneezy and Dopey were replaced by 'Jumpy' and an unnamed seventh dwarf. Along with a focus on the characterisations and comedic possibilities of the dwarfs, Creedon’s eighteen-page outline of the story written from the October meetings, featured a continuous flow of gags as well as the Queen's attempt to kill Snow White with a poisoned comb, an element taken from the Grimms’ original story. After persuading Snow White to use the comb, the disguised Queen would have escaped alive, but the dwarfs would have arrived in time to remove it. After the failure of the comb, the Queen was to have the Prince captured and taken to her dungeon, where she would have come to him (story sketches show this event both with the Queen and the Witch) and used magic to bring the dungeon's skeletons to life, making them dance for him and identifying one skeleton as 'Prince Oswald' (an example of the more humourous atmosphere of this original story treatment). It is written in story notes that the Queen has such magical power only in her own domain, the castle. With the Prince refusing to marry her, the Queen leaves him to his death (one sketch shows the Prince trapped in a subterranean chamber filling with water) as she makes her way to the dwarfs' cottage with the poisoned apple. The forest animals were to help the Prince escape the Queen's minions and find his horse. The Prince was to ride to the cottage to save Snow White, but took the wrong road (despite warnings from the forest animals and his horse, whom he, unlike Snow White, could not understand). He therefore would not have arrived in time to save her from the Queen, but would have been able to save her with love's first kiss. This plot would not be used in the final film, though many sketches of the scene in the dungeon were made by Ferdinand Hovarth. Other examples of the more comical nature of the story at this point include suggestions for gags with the Witch’s warts and a ‘fat, batty, cartoon type, self-satisfied’ Queen. The Prince was also more of a clown, and was to serenade Snow White in a more comical fashion. Walt Disney encouraged all staff at the studio to contribute to the story, offering five dollars for every 'gag'; such gags included the dwarfs' noses popping over the foot of the bed when they first meet Snow White..

Reworking

However, Disney was concerned that such a comical approach would lessen the plausibility of the characters and, sensing that more time was needed for the development of the Queen, advised in an outline circulated on 6 November that attention be paid exclusively to “scenes in which only Snow White, the Dwarfs, and their bird and animal friends appear.” The names and personalities of the dwarfs, however, were still “open to change.” A meeting of 16 November resulted in another outline entitled ‘Dwarfs Discover Snowwhite’, which introduced the character of Dopey, who would ultimately prove to be the most successful and popular of the dwarf characterisations. For the rest of 1934 Disney further developed the story by himself, finding a dilemma in the characterisation of the Queen, who he felt could no longer be ‘fat’ and ‘batty’, but a ‘stately beautiful type’ (a possibility already brought up in previous story meetings). Disney did not focus on the project again until the autumn of 1935; it is thought that he may have doubted his, and his studio’s, ability, and that his trip to Europe that summer restored his confidence. At this point Disney and his writers focused on the scenes in which Snow White and the dwarfs are introduced to the audience and each other. He laid out the likely assignments for everyone working on the film in a memorandum of 25 November 1935, and had decided on the personalities of the individual dwarfs.

Though it had first been thought that the dwarfs would be the main focus of the story, and many sequences were written for the seven characters; however, at a certain point, it was decided that the main thrust of the story was provided by the relationship between the Queen and Snow White. For this reason, several sequences featuring the dwarfs were cut from the film. The first, which was animated in its entirety before being cut, showed Doc and Grumpy arguing about whether Snow White should stay with them. Another, also completely animated, would have shown the dwarfs eating soup noisily and messily; Snow White (unsuccessfully) attempts to teach them how to eat 'like gentlemen'. A partially animated sequence involved the dwarfs holding a 'lodge meeting' in which they try to think of a gift for Snow White; this was to be followed by the elaborate 'bed building sequence', in which the dwarfs and the forest animals construct and carve a bed for the princess, but was cut, as it was thought to slow down the movement of the story. The soup-eating and bed-building sequences were animated by Ward Kimball, who was sufficiently discouraged by their removal to consider leaving the studio, though he ultimately decided to remain.

Design

Concept artists

The primary authority on the design of the film was concept artist Albert Hurter. All designs used in the film, from character's appearances to the look of the rocks in the background, had to meet Hurter's approval before being finalised. Two other concept artists contributed to the visual style of Snow White: Ferdinand Hovarth (whose designs were often thought not to be as easily translated into animation as Hurter's, but who produced a number of dark concepts for the film) and Gustaf Tenggren, whose style borrowed from the likes of Arthur Rackham and John Bauer, and thus possessed the European illustration quality that Walt Disney was interested in. Tenggren was used primarily as a color stylist and to determine the staging and atmosphere of many of the scenes in the film. He also designed the poster for the film and illustrated the press book. However, only Hurter receives a credit for the film, as a character designer. Other artists to work on the film included Joe Grant, whose most significant contribution was the design for the Queen's Witch form.

Design and animation of human characters

Art Babbit, an animator who joined the Disney studio in 1932, invited seven of his colleagues (who worked in the same room as him) to come with him to an art class that he himself had set up at his home in the Hollywood Hills. Though there was no teacher, Babbit had recruited a model to pose for him and his fellow animators as they drew. These ‘classes’ were held weekly; each week, more animators would come. After three weeks, Walt Disney called Babbit to his office and offered to provide the supplies, working space and models required if the sessions were moved to the studio. Babbit ran the sessions for a month until animator Hardie Gramatky suggested that they recruit Don Graham; the art teacher from the Chouinard Institute taught his first class at the studio on 15 November 1932, and was joined by Phil Dike a few weeks later. These classes were principally concerned with human anatomy and movement, though instruction later included action analysis, animal anatomy and acting.

Though the classes were originally described as a ‘brutal battle’, with neither instructor nor students well learned in the other’s craft, the enthusiasm and energy of both parties made the classes stimulating and beneficial for all involved. Graham would often screen Disney shorts and, along with the animators, pick out both strengths and weaknesses. For example, Graham criticised Babbit’s animation of Abner the mouse in The Country Cousin as “taking a few of the obvious actions of a drunk without coordinating the rest of the body”, while praising it for maintaining its humour without getting “dirty or mean or vulgar. The country mouse is always having a good time.”

Very few of the animators at the Disney studio had had artistic training (most had been newspaper cartoonists); among these few was Grim Natwick, who had trained in Europe. The animator’s success in designing and animating Betty Boop for Fleischer Studios showed an understanding of human female anatomy, and when Walt Disney hired Natwick he was given female characters to animate almost exclusively. Attempts to animate Persephone, the female lead of The Goddess of Spring, had proved largely unsuccessful; Natwick’s animation of the heroine in Cookie Carnival showed greater promise, and the animator was eventually given the task of animating Snow White herself. Though live action footage of Snow White, the Prince and the Queen was shot as reference for the animators, the artists animators disapproved of rotoscoping, considering it to hinder the production of effective caricature. None of Babbit’s animation of the Queen was rotoscoped; despite Graham and Natwick’s objections, however, some scenes of Snow White and the Prince were directly traced from the live-action footage.

Music

The songs in Snow White were composed by Frank Churchill and Larry Morey. Paul J. Smith and Leigh Harline composed the incidental music score. Well-known songs from Snow White include "Heigh-Ho," "Some Day My Prince Will Come," and "Whistle While You Work." Because Disney did not have its own music publishing company at this time, the publishing rights for the music and songs were administered through the Bourne Co., which continues to hold these rights. In later years, the Studio was able to acquire back the rights to the music from many of the other films, but not this one. Snow White became the first American film to have a soundtrack album released in conjunction with the feature film. Prior to Snow White, a movie soundtrack recording was unheard of and of little value to a movie studio.

Cinematic influences

At this time, Disney also encouraged his staff to see a variety of films. These ranged from the mainstream, such as MGM's Romeo and Juliet (to which Disney made direct reference in a story meeting pertaining to the scene in which Snow White lies in her glass coffin), to the more obscure, including European silent cinema. The influence of German expressionism (examples of which exist in Nosferatu and The Cabinet of Dr. Calligari, both of which were recommended by Disney to his staff) can be found in Snow White (as well as the two films to follow it), particularly in the scenes of Snow White fleeing through the forest and the Queen's transformation into the Witch. The latter was also inspired by 1931's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, to which Disney made specific reference in story meetings.

Cast and Crew

Voice cast and characters

  • Adriana Caselotti as Snow White: Snow White is a young princess and the protagonist of the film. She is the daughter of a great king whose wife died when the daughter was very young. Her wicked stepmother has forced her to work as a scullery maid in the castle. Despite this, she retains a cheerful but naïve demeanor.
  • Lucille La Verne as the Queen: The Queen is the stepmother of Snow White and the main antagonist of the film. Once her magic mirror tells her that Snow White is fairer than she is, she immediately enlists Humbert the huntsman to kill her in the woods. After she discovers that Snow White did not die, she disguises herself as an old hag and uses a poisoned apple in order to remove Snow White from her path without killing her.
  • Roy Atwell as Doc: The leader of the seven dwarfs, Doc wears glasses and often mixes up his words.
  • Pinto Colvig as Grumpy: Grumpy initially disapproves of Snow White's presence in the dwarfs' home, but later warns her of the threat posed by the Queen and rushes to her aid upon realizing that she is in danger, leading the charge himself. He has the biggest nose of the dwarfs, and is frequently seen with one eye shut.
  • Otis Harlan as Happy: Happy is the joyous dwarf and is usually portrayed laughing.
  • Pinto Colvig as Sleepy: Sleepy is always tired and appears laconic in most situations. Sterling Holloway was also considered for the role.
  • Scotty Mattraw as Bashful: Bashful is the shyest of the dwarfs, and is often embarrassed by the presence of any attention directed at him.
  • Billy Gilbert as Sneezy: Sneezy's name is earned by his extraordinarily powerful sneezes (caused by hay fever), which are seen blowing even the heaviest of objects across a room.
  • Eddie Collins as Dopey: Dopey is the only dwarf that does not have a beard. He is clumsy and mute, with Happy explaining that he has simply "never tried to speak". Mel Blanc was briefly considered for the role.
  • Moroni Olsen as The Magic Mirror: The Slave of the Magic Mirror appears as a green mask in clouds of smoke. The Queen regularly asks him who is the fairest in the land.
  • Stuart Buchanan as Humbert the Huntsman: Despite his status as the Queen's assassin, the Huntsman cannot bear to kill Snow White, even when the Queen orders him to take the princess's heart.
  • Harry Stockwell as The Prince: The unnamed Prince first sees Snow White singing at her wishing well. He immediately falls in love with her and her voice. He later reappears to revive her.


Unvoiced characters include Snow White's animal friends, the Queen's raven, and the vultures who follow the Witch.

Crew



Music



Songs written for the film but not used include two songs for the dwarfs: "Music in Your Soup" (the accompanying sequence was completed up to the pencil test stage before being deleted from the film), and "You're Never Too Old to Be Young" (which was replaced by "The Silly Song").

On Classic Disney: 60 Years of Musical Magic, this includes "Some Day My Prince Will Come" on the red disc, "Heigh-Ho'" on the blue disc, "The Silly Song " on the green disc, and "I'm Wishing" and "One Song" on the purple disc.On Disney's Greatest Hits, this also includes "Heigh-Ho" on another blue disc and "Some Day My Prince Will Come" on the green disc.

Reception

Disney's wife, Lillian, told him: "No one's ever gonna pay a dime to see a dwarf picture." Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater on December 21, 1937 to a wildly receptive audience, many of whom were the same naysayers who dubbed the film "Disney's Folly." The film received a standing ovation at its completion from a star-studded audience that included such celebrities as Charlie Chaplin and Paulette Goddard, Shirley Temple, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Judy Garland, Ginger Rogers, Jack Benny, Fred MacMurray, Clark Gable and Carole Lombard, Burns and Allen, Ed Sullivan, Milton Berle, John Barrymore, and Marlene Dietrich. Six days later, Walt Disney and the seven dwarfs appeared on the cover of Time magazine. The New York Times said "Thank you very much, Mr. Disney."

RKO Radio Pictures put the film into general release on February 4, 1938, and it went on to become a major box-office success, making four times more money than any other motion picture released in 1938. In its original release, Snow White grossed $3.5 million in the United States and Canada, and by May 1939 its total international gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful film of all time, displacing Al Jolson's The Singing Fool (1928) (Snow White would later itself be displaced from this position by Gone with the Wind in 1941). By the end of its original run, Snow White had earned over $8 million in international box office receipts, and has had a lifetime gross of $184,925,486 across its original release and several reissues. Adjusted for inflation, and incorporating subsequent releases, the film still registers one of the top ten American film moneymakers of all time.

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first full-length animated feature film to be made in Technicolor.

It won an honorary Academy Award for Walt Disney "as a significant screen innovation which has charmed millions and pioneered a great new entertainment field." Disney received a full-size Oscar statuette and seven miniature ones, presented to him by 10-year-old child actress Shirley Temple. The film was also nominated for Best Musical Score. "Some Day My Prince Will Come" has become a jazz standard that has been performed by numerous artists, including Buddy Rich, Lee Wiley, Oscar Peterson, and Miles Davis.

Noted filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein and Charlie Chaplin praised Snow White as a notable achievement in cinema; Eisenstein went so far as to call it the greatest film ever made. The film inspired Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to produce its own fantasy film, The Wizard of Oz in 1939. The 1941 parody Ball of Fire featured a nightclub singer disrupting the lives of seven scholars (and Gary Cooper) while hiding from the police. The 1943 Merrie Melodies short Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs, directed by Bob Clampett, parodies Snow White by presenting the story with an all-black cast singing a jazz score.

Snow White's success led to Disney moving ahead with more feature-film productions. Walt Disney used much of the profits from Snow White to finance a new $4.5 million studio in Burbankmarker - the location on which The Walt Disney Studiosmarker is located to this day. Within two years, the studio would complete Pinocchio and Fantasia, and had begun production on features such as Dumbo, Bambi, Alice in Wonderland, and Peter Pan.

American Film Institute recognition

Theatrical re-issues and home media releases

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was first re-released in 1944, in order to raise revenue for the Disney studio during the World War II period. This re-release set a tradition of re-releasing Disney animated features every seven to ten years, and Snow White was re-released to theaters in 1952, 1958, 1967, 1975, 1983, 1987, and 1993. Coinciding with the fiftieth anniversary release in 1987, Disney released an authorized novelization of the story, written by children’s author Suzanne Weyn.

In 1993, Snow White became the first film to be entirely scanned to digital files, manipulated, and recorded back to film. The restoration project was done entirely at 4K resolution and 10-bit color depth using the Cineon system to digitally remove dirt and scratches and restore faded colors.

On October 28, 1994, it was released as the first video in the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection. It was the last of the early Disney animated films to be released on home video. Snow White was later released on DVD on October 9, 2001, the first in Disney's Platinum Series line of releases, and featured, across two discs, the digitally restored film, a making-of documentary narrated by Angela Lansbury, an audio commentary by John Canemaker and (via archived audio clips) Walt Disney, and many more special features.

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released on Blu-Ray Disc on October 6, 2009 and a new DVD Edition will be released on November 24, 2009. The Blu-Ray includes a high-definition version of the movie sourced from a new restoration by Lowry Digital, a DVD copy of the film, and several bonus features not included on the 2001 DVD. This release also marks the introduction of a "Diamond Collection" series of movies.

Media

Theme parks

Snow White's Scary Adventures is a popular theme park ride at Disneylandmarker (an opening day attraction dating from 1955), Walt Disney Worldmarker's Magic Kingdommarker, Tokyo Disneylandmarker , and Disneyland Parismarker. Snow White, her Prince, The Queen (The "Snow Queen" in the theme parks) and the Seven Dwarfs are also featured in parades and character appearances throughout the parks.

Video games

The first attempt at a Snow White video game was for the Atari 2600 as part of Atari's line of children's games. It was never officially released, although a "homebrew" version was made available on a limited basis. A Snow White video game was released for the Game Boy Color system. Snow White also makes an appearance in the popular PlayStation 2 game Kingdom Hearts as one of the seven fabled Princesses of Heart.. A world based on the movie, Dwarf Woodland, is slated to feature in the upcoming Kingdom Hearts Birth by Sleep for the PSP, and so far, the confirmed characters from the film who will appear are Snow White, the Dwarfs, the Magic Mirror, and the Evil Queen in both her forms. Snow White, the Seven Dwarfs, the Forest Animals and the Witch also appear at the beginning of the first Kingdom Hearts in the Awakening world.

Comics

A comic book version was also published around the release of the film. It was more loyal to the original script, where the prince had a bigger role, while parts of Snow White's dress were green. The film's characters, especially the witch, also appeared in later Disney comics and stories not related to the movie.

See also



References

  1. Smith, Dave. Disney A to Z, Third Edition, (2006), page 33.
  2. Bob Thomas, Disney's Art of Animation: From Mickey Mouse to Beauty and the Beast (Hyperion, New York, 1991) ISBN 1-56282-899-1
  3. John Canemaker, "Before the Animation Begins: The Life and Times of Disney inspirational Sketch Artists" (Hyperion, New York, 1999) ISBN 0-7868-6152-5
  4. Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston, The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation (Disney Editions, Italy, 1981) ISBN 078686070-7
  5. John Canemaker, "Walt Disney's Nine Old Men and the Art of Animation" (Disney Editions, United States, 2001) ISBN 078686496-6
  6. Bruno Girveau (editor), Once Upon a Time - Walt Disney: The Sources of inspiration for the Disney Studios (Prestel, London, 2006) ISBN 978-3-7913-3770-8
  7. Robin Allan, Walt Disney and Europe (Indiana University Press, Indiana, 1999) ISBN 0-253-21353-3
  8. . See also .
  9. . Alice and Peter Pan were put on hold during World War II, and not completed until the 1950s.
  10. Aldred, John (Winter 1997). " Disney's Snow White: The Story Behind the Picture". The Association of Motion Picture Sound. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
  11. Disneyland’s Snow White’s Scary Adventures Page
  12. Disney World’s Snow White’s Scary Adventures Page
  13. Tokyo Disney’s Snow White’s Adventures Page
  14. Disneyland Paris’ Blanche-Neige et les Sept Nains Page
  15. AtariAge.com page on the Snow White video game
  16. AtariAge.com page on homebrew release
  17. Official Kingdom Hearts Page


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