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Grad Solin
County Split-Dalmatia Countymarker
Coordinates
Area 18 km²
Population 19.011 (2001.)
Postal code 21 210
Area code +385 (0)21
Licence plate code ST
Mayor Blaženko Boban (HDZ)
Official website www.solin.hr


Solin (Latin and Italian: Salona) is a town in Dalmatia, Croatiamarker. It is situated 8 km northeast of Splitmarker, on the Adriatic Seamarker and the Jadro Rivermarker.

Solin developed on the location of ancient town of Salona which was the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia and the birthplace of Emperor Diocletian. After the arrival of Avars and Slavs in the 7th century town was destroyed, and its refugees moved to settlement in and around Diocletian's palace, "Spalatum" (Splitmarker), turning it into a fortified town. In the Early Middle Ages Solin was part of the Croatian territory and played an important role in Medieval Croatian state, being one of capital cities.

In the 20th century intensive industrialisation process of the Split basin made Solin no more than a suburb of Split. Today, with its independent municipal status, Solin is part of the Splitmarker conurbation, well connected with other towns. Besides industry, a tourism is being developed lately based on numerous archaeological sites and Solin's distinctive image that comes from many urban parks along the Jadro Rivermarker.

Geography

View of the Split conurbation (with Solin in the foreground) from Klis.
Solin is situated north of the Splitmarker peninsula, in a basin surrounded by mountains Kozjak (779 m) to the north and Mosor (1339 m) to the east. The ancient city of Salona developed near the estuary of Jadro Rivermarker, and the later medieval settlement was formed on one of the several islands formed by the Jadro Rivermarker, which is where today's center is also situated.

The city covers an area of 18 km², situated in the central part of the Splitmarker conurbation, 8 km north of Split, 6 km east of Kaštelamarker, 22 km east of Trogirmarker and 4 km south of Klismarker. Residential and business parts of the city are located in the middle part of the river's flow, and on the gentle slopes that make the Solin basin. Industrial areas occupy a small valley of the upper basin of the Jadromarker, as well as large areas to the west of the center, on the easternmost tip of the bay of Kaštela where industrial and service port is situated. The ruins of the ancient Salona are located in the middle, to the west of today center.

Solin is divided into eight neighbourhoods: Centar, Priko vode, Srednja strana, Sveti Kajo, Rupotina, Vranjic, Mravince and Kučine.

The climate is Mediterranean, with mild winters and hot summers. During the winter, a strong north-eastern wind Bura occurs frequently.

History

In the late ancient times, Salona's importance was great both politically and religiously. Salona was an early Roman settlement, which became overshadowed when Emperor Diocletian constructed the nearby Diocletian's Palace in about the year 300 AD. Surviving local residents of Salona, after the Avars retreated from those regions, to a settlement "Spalatum", today's (Splitmarker), at the location of Diocletian's Palace (probably around the middle 7th century AD). Christianity in Salona probably originated during the time of the apostles. The Apostle Paul mentions that his pupil Apostle Titus traveled to Dalmatia so the assumption that he worked in Dalmatia's capital city of Salona, at least for a short time, is probable. That city, located on the Adriaticmarker coast, with excellent sea connections with Italymarker and the Middle East, attracted Christian messengers of faith.

Salona had a well-organized Christian community with a bishop as leader ever since the middle of the 3rd century (bishop martyr Venantius lived at that time). Since the fourth century, Salona praised in its large basillicas its glorious martyrs from the times of Diocletian's persecution: St. Domnius (Latin: Domnius; Croatian: Duje; Italian: Domnio), craftsman Anastasius the Fuller, deacon Septimia, priest Asteria and others. In the fifth Century, Salona's bishops started exercising more metropolitan duties (archbishop Hezihius), and in the sixth century they carried the archbishop title as well (arhiepiscopus), and fulfilled the duties associated with the title. (archbishops Stephen, Honorius and others). That means that at that time they held primary positions in western Illyria. Siscia's bishop from the region Pannonia joined the Dalmatian bishops on the synods held in Salona in the years 530 and 533 as a member with full rights. At the time of Diocletian, Salona had a population of 60,000.

In 639 Salona was destroyed by the Slavs. After the fall of Salona and the whole region under the Avarian rule (first quarter of 7th century), worship of Salona's martyrs was moved to Rome. Namely, Pope John IV ordered transportation of parts of their relics, which he placed in a dedicated chapel close to the Lateran baptistry. The images of those saints, which had been created in mosaic by the Pope's wish, can be found today in the apside of the chapel.

Search for relics for Rome was probably the incentive for Salona residents who inhabited the new town of Split, located only a few kilometers from the abandoned Salona. At the very least, they wanted to bring to Split the bones of their most important protectors: St. Domnius and St. Anastasius. They placed them in what was once Diocletian's mausoleum, which was subsequently converted into a cathedral.

Church of St. Stephen

The church of St. Stephen was built by Queen Jelena of Zadar in the 10th century, but was destroyed by the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century. A number of Croatian kings were buried in the Church of St. Stephen (with Mihajlo Krešimir II and his wife Jelena, the benefactress, buried in the Church of St. Mary nearby) along with other nobility.



Transport

Solin is situated on the D8 (E65) Adriatic road ("Jadranska magistrala"), that becomes a 4-lane "Split bypass road" here and continues south towards Split and further down the Adriatic coast. A big roundabout south of the city centre is a major intersection with a D1 (E59) road that connects the area of Splitmarker conurbation with the A1 Zagreb-Split highway.

Zagreb - Split railway passes through the city territory. Although there is a train station in Solin (2 km to the west of the city centre), only regional trains stop here. Regional rail transport is to be intensified because of the Split Suburban Railway project.

Split Airportmarker (SPU) in Kaštela is situated 15 km to the west of Solin, well connected by roads and local transport.

Public transport is organized by several bus lines operated by Promet Split company that provides public transport for the Splitmarker conurbation. These routes are:
  • #1 Starine (Solin) - HNK (Splitmarker)
  • #2 Sućurac - Trajektna luka (Splitmarker)
  • #10 Japirko (Solin) - Trajektna luka (Splitmarker)
  • #16 Rupotine (Solin) - HNK (Splitmarker)
Local bus lines from Splitmarker to Kaštelamarker, Trogirmarker, Klismarker and Sinj also stop in Solin centre.

References

  1. C. Michael Hogan, "Diocletian's Palace", the Megalithic Portal, A. Burnham ed., Oct. 6, 2007
  2. The Holy Bible: 2 Timothy 4, 10)
  3. Spalato-Macarsca (Salona), Catholic Encyclopedia
  4. [http://www.solin.hr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50&Itemid=192 Gospin Otok, Grad Solin


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